1883 VICTORIA. CENSUS OF VICTORIA, 1881.

PARTS I. TO VIII.

WITH A GENERAL REPORT BY THE GOVERNMENT STATIST.

POPULATION ENUMERATED ON THE 3RD APRIL, 1881.

BY AUTHORITY.

JOHN FERRIES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, MELBOURNE.

CONTENTS.

ERRATA.

GENERAL REPORT.

PART I.—INHABITANTS AND HOUSES.

PART II.—BIRTHPLACES OF THE PEOPLE.

PART III.—RELIGIONS OF THE PEOPLE.

PART IV.—AGES OF THE PEOPLE.

PART V.—EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE.

PART VI.—CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE.

PART VIII.—OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE.

PART VIII.—SICKNESS AND INFIRMITY.

ERRATA

GENERAL REPORT.

Page 40, Table following 213, heading to figure-columns,fornumbers in every 1,000readnumbers in every 10,000 males living. Page 58, Table following paragraph, 323, first line, third column,for27,757read27,730 ; fourth column,for34.49read34.46. Same table, fourth line, third column,for25,673read25,763 ; fourth column ;for30.26read30.37. Table following 324, second line, third column,for1,236read1,263 ; fourth column,for3,583read3,665 ; fifth column,for5.04read5.16. Same Table, third line, fourth column,for4,567read4,551 ; fifth column,for4.50read4.49.

PART II.—BIRTHPLACES.

Page 50, Table VII.—The population of the Borough of Walhalla having been inadvertently omitted,addthat population from page 32 to columns headed "Total of Mining Districts" and "Gippsland."

PART III.—RELIGIONS.

Table I.—Page 5, first line, from fourth figure-column onwards,for434,467read435,443 ;for213,624read214,185 ;for220,843read221,258 ;for420,061read421,025 ;for233,047read233,659 ;for187,014read187,366 ;for7,818read5,878 ;for5,412read4,239 ; andfor2,406read1,639. Page 7, last line but one, from fourth figure-column onwards,for2,112read3,088 ;for1,077read1,638 ;for1,035read1,450 ;for2,327read3,291 ;for1,543read2,155 ;for784read1,136 ;for2,018read78 ;for1,228read55 ; andfor790read23.

PART V.—EDUCATION.

Table II.—Pages 6 and 7, Education in Counties, General Summary : Column " All ages," first line,for336,476read336,479 ; third line,for21,357read21,356 ; fifth line,for86,131read86,129. Column " 15 to 20," first line,for47,906read47,910 ; ninth line,for49,192read49,196. Column " 65 to 70," first line,for4,952read4,951 ; ninth line,for6,123read6,122. Column " 75 to 80," third line,for132read131 ; ninth line,for1,773read1,772 ; Column " Unspecified adults, &c.," fifth line,for124read122 ; ninth line,for1870read1868.

PART VI.—CONJUGAL CONDITION.

Table II.—Page 10, Evelyn, column " All ages," line married males,for1,105read1,104 ; line unspecified males,for25read26 ; column " 75 to 80," line married males,for9read10 ; line unspecified males,for1read... ; column " Unspecified," line unmarried males,for3read1 ; line unspecified males,for3read5. Page 15, Normanby, column, " All ages," line unmarried males,for4,104read4,105 ; line unspecified males,for24read23. Page 18, Wonnangatta, column " Unspecified," line unmarried males,for2read4 ; line unspecified males,for4read2. Same page, Migratory, column " All ages, " line unspecified males,for1,180read772 ; line unspecified females,for771read481.

CENSUS OF VICTORIA, 1881.

GENERAL REPORT,

WITH

SUMMARY TABLES, DIAGRAMS, AND MAP.

By the Government Statist.

PRESENTED TO BOTH HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT PURSUANT TO ACT 44 VICT. NO. 667, SEC. 12.

By Authority:

JOHN FERRES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, MELBOURNE.

APPROXIMATE COST OF REPORT.
£s.d.
Preparation—Not given.
Printing (1,210 copies)36000
Lithographing9000
£45000

CONTENTS.

GENERAL REPORT—

Index to the Report

Preliminary Remarks

Taking of the Census

Office Staff

Compilation of the Census

Numbers and Distribution of the People

Electoral Representation of the People

Proportions of the Sexes

Density, Areality, and Proximity of the People

Domiciliation of the People

Birthplaces of the People

Religions of the People

Ages of the People

Education of the People

School Attendance

Conjugal Condition of the People

Occupations of the People

Sickness and Infirmity

Remarks and Suggestions

Statistics of Victoria, 1871 and 1881

Conclusion

Letter from C. P. Hodges, respecting Belief of the Chinese in God

SUMMARY TABLES—

I.—Population, 1836-1881

II.—Dwellings, 1841-1881

III.—Proportions of the Sexes, Density of Population, Dwellings and Rooms

IV.—Inhabitants and Dwellings—Numbers

V.—Inhabitants and Dwellings—Proportions

VI.—Increase of Population, 1838-1881

VII.—Population, Summary, 1851-1881

VIII.—Numerical Increase of Population in each County, 1851-1881

IX.—Centesimal Increase of Population in each County, 1851-1881

X.—Dwellings, Summary, 1857-1881

XI.—Proportions of the Sexes, 1854-1881

XII.—Density of Population, 1854-1881

XIII.—Density of Dwellings, 1857-1881

XIV.—Persons to a Dwelling, 1857-1881

XV.—Population and Dwellings—Numbers, 1857-1881

XVI.—Population and Dwellings—Proportions per Cent., 1857-1881

XVII.—Population and Dwellings—Numbers, 1861-1881

XVIII.—Population and Dwellings—Proportions per Cent., 1861-1881

XIX.—Population and Dwellings—Summary by Counties

XX.—Population and Dwellings—in Cities, Towns, and Boroughs

XXI.—Population and Dwellings—in Cities, Towns, and Boroughs

XXII.—Population and Dwellings—in Shires

XXIII.—Population and Dwellings—on the Goldfields

XXIV.—Population and Dwellings—in Melbourne and Suburbs (Greater Melbourne)

XXV.—Population and Dwellings—in Cities, Towns, Boroughs, Townships, &c.

XXVI.—Population, Representatives, and Electors in Electoral Provinces

XXVII.—Population, Representatives, and Electors in Electoral Districts

XXVIII.—Birthplaces—Numbers and Proportions, 1846-1881

XXIX.—Birthplaces—Numbers and Proportions, 1854-1881

XXX.—Birthplaces—Proportions of the Sexes

XXXI.—Birthplaces—Numbers and Proportions, with Details

XXXII.—Birthplaces—of the Urban, Rural, and Goldfields Population

XXXIII.—Birthplaces—of the Population of Melbourne and Suburbs (Greater Melbourne)

XXXIV.—Religions—Numbers and Proportions, 1841-1881

XXXV.—Religions—Numbers and Proportions, 1854-1881

XXXVI.—Religions—Proportions of the Sexes

XXXVII.—Religions—of the Population, Chinese and Aborigines

XXXVIII.—Religions—Numbers and Proportions, with Details

XXXIX.—Religions—of the Urban, Rural, and Goldfields Population

XL.—Religions—in Melbourne and Suburbs (Greater Melbourne)

XLI.—Ages, 1841-1881—Numbers, with Increase or Decrease

XLII.—Ages, 1841-1881—Proportions per Cent.

XLIII.—Ages, 1841-1881—Proportions of the Sexes

XLIV.—Ages, 1854-1881—Proportions per Cent.

XLV.—Ages, 1854-1881—Proportions of the Sexes

SUMMARY TABLES—continued.

XLVI.—Ages, 1861-1881, Inclusive and Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines

XLVII.—Ages, 1861-1881, Numbers, with Increase and Decrease

XLVIII.—Ages, 1881, Inclusive and Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines

XLIX.—Ages, in Melbourne and Suburbs (Greater Melbourne)

L.—Education, 1846-1881

LI.—Education, 1854-1881

LII.—Education, 1871-1881

LIII.—Education, Inclusive and Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines

LIV.—Education, of Children by Religious Denominations, 1861-1881

LV.—Education, of Children by Religious Denominations, 1881

LVI.—Education, of the Urban, Rural, and Goldfields Population

LVII.—Education, University Graduates

LVIII.—Conjugal Condition—Married and Single

LIX.—Conjugal Condition—Unmarried, Married, and Widowed

LX.—Conjugal Condition—Unmarried, Married, and Widowed at each Age—Numbers

LXI.—Conjugal Condition—Unmarried, Married, and Widowed at each Age—Proportions

LXII.—Conjugal Condition—Husbands and Wives at each Age

LXIII.—Conjugal Condition—Marriageable Men and Women at each Age

LXIV.—Conjugal Condition—Inclusive and Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines

LXV.—Conjugal Condition—Marriageable Men and Women, 1881

LXVI.—Conjugal Condition—Husbands and Wives, together and apart

LXVII.—Occupations, 1846-1881

LXVIII.—Occupations, 1854-1881—Numbers

LXIX.—Occupations, 1854-1881—Proportions per Cent.

LXX.—Occupations, Classes

LXXI.—Occupations, Orders

LXXII.—Occupations, Sub-orders

LXXIII.—Occupations, Distinct Callings

LXXIV.—Occupations, of Chinese—Males

LXXV.—Occupations, of Chinese—Females

LXXVI.—Occupations, of Aborigines

LXXVII.—Occupations, (past) of Gold-miners

LXXVIII.—Occupations, (ordinary) of Inmates of Charitable and Penal Institutions

LXXIX.—Occupations, (ordinary) of the Unemployed—Males

LXXX.—Occupations, (ordinary) of the Unemployed—Females

LXXXI.—Employers and Hands Employed

LXXXII.—Employers of Labour

LXXXIII.—Hands Employed

LXXXIV.—Sickness and Infirmity—1861-1881

LXXXV.—Sickness and Infirmity—Numbers

LXXXVI.—Sickness and Infirmity—Proportions to Population

LXXXVII.—Sickness and Infirmity—Amongst Urban, Rural, and Goldfields Population

DIAGGRAMS—

Number 1.—Population of Victoria at the end of each Year

Number 2.—Birthplaces of the People

Number 3.—Ages of the People

Number 4.—Education of the People

Number 5.—Religions of the People

Number 6.—Conjugal Condition of the People

Number 7.—Occupations Condition of the People

Map of Victoria.

Errata

GENERAL REPORT.

INDEX TO THE REPORT.

A

Aborigines, ages of, 223
Aborigines, at school, 272
Aborigines, birthplaces of, 160
Aborigines, conjugal condition of 316
Aborigines, domiciliation of 142
Aborigines, education of 225 and 256
Aborigines, enumeration of 21
Aborigines, in Australasian colonies 71 and 72
Aborigines, in Melbourne 92
Aborigines, in municipalities 85
Aborigines, infirmity amongst
Aborigines, number of 71 and 72
Aborigines, occupations of 451
Aborigines, on goldfields 89
Aborigines, proportions of the sexes of 110
Aborigines, religions of 189
Adult education 244 to 251
Advertisements of the census published 29
Advertisements respecting census omissions 33
Age at which population halves itself 201
Ages, births, and deaths, 1871 to 1881, 195 to 198
Ages, of Aborigines 223
Ages, of Chinese 222
Ages, of deaf mutes 492
Ages, of epileptic subjects 526
Ages, of the blind 500
Ages, of idiots 516
Ages, of the people 193 to 223
Ages, of the sick and injured 477 to 478
Ages, under and over twenty-one years 202
Agricultural and pastoral class of occupations 385 to 392
Agricultural census 8
Alphabetical list of occupations 469
Appointment of sub-enumerators 18 and 19
Appointment of enumerators 13 and 14
Attempts to secure uniformity in Australasian colonies 46
Australasian colonies, Aborigines in 71 and 72
Australasian colonies, adult education in 247 and 248
Australasian colonies, ages of the people in 220 and 221
Australasian colonies, birthplaces of the people of 162 to 166
Australasian colonies, blindness in 499
Australasian colonies, Chinese in 70 and 166
Australasian colonies, compilation of census in 46
Australasian colonies, concubinage and illegitimacy in 324 and 325
Australasian colonies, deafmuteism in 491
Australasian colonies, density of population in 117 to 119
Australasian colonies, domiciliation in 143 and 144
Australasian colonies, education of children in 240 and 241
Australasian colonies, fecundity of women in 323
Australasian colonies, husbands and wives in 289 to 292
Australasian colonies, idiocy in 515
Australasian colonies, idiots and lunatics in 521
Australasian colonies, lunacy in 508 and 509
Australasian colonies, marriageable men and women in 317 to 319
Australasian colonies, marriages in proportion to population of 320 to 322
Australasian colonies, men at the soldier's age in 218 and 219
Australasian colonies, occupations in 462 to 466
Australasian colonies, population of 68
Australasian colonies, prescribed school age in Footnote to 240
Australasian colonies, proportions of the sexes in 108
Australasian colonies, religions in 190 to 192
Australasian colonies, sickness and accidents in 473 and 474
Australasian colonies, relative strength of populations of 211 to 214
Australasian colonies, uniformity of census compilation desirable in 544
Australasian colonies, Victorians living in 161, 165, and 543
Australasian colonies, women at the reproductive age in 215
Australasians in Victoria 146 to 148
Australian colonies, deficiency or surplus of population in 60 to 67
Average age of the population 206

B

Bachelors and spinsters 304 to 313
Birthplaces of the people 145 to 166
Blindness 496 to 504
British subjects in Victoria 145 to 151

C

Card system of compilation 49 to 53 and 545
Catholics, Roman and Greek 181
Census act 5
Census act, date of 37
Census districts, formation of 9 to 12
Census forms, number and weight of 26 to 28
Census office staff 43 to 45, and 541
Census results, arrangements for publishing speedily 39
Census sub-districts, formation of 15 to 17
Census vote 542
Censuses, cost of taking 41 and 42
Charitable institutions, occupations of inmates of 457
Children's education 232 to 243
Chinese, ages of 222
Chinese, at school 271
Chinese, birthplaces of 159
Chinese, conjugal condition of 315
Chinese, domiciliation of 140 and 141
Chinese, education of 225 and 255
Chinese, enumeration of 20 and 29
Chinese, in Australasian colonies 70 and 166
Chinese, in Melbourne 92
Chinese, in municipalities 84
Chinese, infirmity amongst 532
Chinese, number of 69 and 70
Chinese, occupations of 448 to 450
Chinese, on goldfields 88
Chinese, proportions of the sexes of 109
Chinese, religions of 188
Church of England, members of 177
Commercial class of occupations 373 to 384
Compilation of the census 46 to 54
Conclusion 572 and 573
Concubinage in Australasian colonies 324 and 325
Conjugal condition of the people 273 to 325
Cost of taking censuses, 1857 to 1881 41 and 42
Crippled, mutilated, deformed persons 530 and 531

D

Date of census 37
Date of first publication of census results 39
Deafmuteism 488 to 495
Deficiency of population as compared with estimate 59 to 67
Denominational schools, proportion of teachers to scholars in 261 and 262
Density, areality, and proximity of houses 128 to 130
Density, areality, and proximity of the people 111 to 119
Departures, unrecorded, 1871 to 1881 65 and 66
Displacement of population by excursion trains 30
Distribution of census forms 26 to 28
Distribution of the people 56 to 93
Disturbance by international exhibition 31
Divorced persons 314
Domestic class of occupations 362 to 372
Domiciliation of the people 120 to 144
Dwelling, average number of persons to a 135 to 137
Dwellings, density, areality, and proximity of 128 to 130
Dwellings, materials and rooms 120 to 126

E

Education of the people 224 to 256
Educational census 7
Effective strength of the population 207 to 210, 211 to 214, and 216
Electoral districts, representation of 98 to 101
Electoral provinces, representation of 95 to 97
Electoral representation of the people 94 to 101
Emigration returns inaccurate 63 and 67
Employers, and hands employed 459 and 460
Enumeration of Aborigines 21
Enumeration of Chinese 20 and 29
Enumeration of out-door population 22
Enumerations, 1857 to 1881, cost of 41 and 42
Enumerators, appointment of 13 and 14
Enumerators, payments to 24
England and Wales, blindness in 498
England and Wales, deafmuteism in 490
England and Wales, effectiveness of the population of 216
England and Wales, idiocy in 514
England and Wales, idiots and lunatics in 520
England and Wales, lunacy in 507
England and Wales, women at the reproductive age in 217
Epilepsy 523 to 529
Excursion trains, displacement of population by 30
Exorbitant claims of sub-enumerators 40
Extra-municipal population 77
Extra-urban population 86

F

Fecundity of women in Australasian colonies 323
Females at the reproductive age 210, 215, and 217
Females in excess of males in certain towns 104
Foreigners in Victoria145 and 152
Friendly societies in reference to returns of disablement 479 and 480

G

Goldfields population 87 to 89
Goldminers, previous occupations of 452
Graduates of universities 252 to 254
Greater Melbourne, population of 90 to 92

H

Habitations (see "Dwellings").
"Health" column in householder's schedule, suggestion respecting 540
Householder's schedule 6
Householder's schedule suggestions respecting 539 and 540
Householders' schedules, account of 38
Houses (see "Dwellings").
Husband or wife absent 277 and 278
Husbands and wives 275 to 292

I

Idiocy 512 to 522
Idiocy and lunacy 519 to 522
Illegitimacy in Australasian colonies 324
Increase or diminution of population of towns 80 to 83
Increase of population 73 to 76
Indefinite and non-productive class of occupations 430 to 441
Industrial census 8
Industrial class of occupations 393 to 429
Infants, children, men and women, &c., 203
International exhibition, disturbance by 31

J

Jews 176

L

Legislative assembly, representation for 98 to 101
Legislative council, representation for 95 to 97
Loss by physical disablement 475 and 476
Lunacy, 505 to 511 and 519 to 522
Lunacy and idiocy 519 to 522

M

Marriageable age, persons at 205
Marriageable men and women 306 to 311, and 317 to 322
Marriages, proportion of, to population and to single men and women 310, 311, and 320 to 322
Materials of houses 121 to 124
Mechanical appliances used in compiling census 54
Melbourne and suburbs, population of 90 to 92
Methodists 179
Mining machinery census 8
Municipal population 78 to 85

N

Naturalized British subjects 153
New Zealand, epilepsy in 525
No religion, numbers professing 184
No denomination, numbers professing 183
Notices of the census posted 29
Numbers and distribution of the people 56 to 93

O

Objecting to state their religion 186
Occupations, class i., professional 338 to 361
Occupations, class ii., domestic 362 to 372
Occupations, class iii., commercial 373 to 384
Occupations, class iv., agricultural and pastoral 385 to 392
Occupations, class v., industrial 393 to 429
Occupations, class vi., indefinite and non-productive 430 to 441
Occupations, alphabetical list of 469
Occupations, at successive censuses 446 and 447
Occupations, of deafmutes 495
Occupations, of epileptic persons 529
Occupations, of lunatics and idiots 522
Occupations, of sufferers from sickness and accident 485 and 486
Occupations, of the blind 504
Occupations, of the people 326 to 469
Occupations, of university graduates 253 and 254
Occupations, proportion of, to population, 1871 and 1881 442 to 445
Octogenarians, nonagenarians, and centenarians 204
Old bachelors and old maids 312
Omissions, cases of 33 and 34
Omissions, in Queensland, practice respecting 35

P

Paralysis, sufferers from 484
Partially blind 503
Payments to enumerators and sub-enumerators 24 and 25
Persons to a dwelling and a room 135 to 139
Population, 1881 56
Population, 1871 and 1881 57 and 58
Population, and dwellings 131 to 139
Population, density, areality, and proximity of the 111 to 119
Population, domiciliation of the 120 to 144
Population, electoral representation of the 94 to 101
Population, enumerated, short of estimate 59 to 67
Population, increase of 73 to 76
Population, numbers and distribution of 56 to 93
Population, of Australasian colonies 1881 68
Population, of country districts 86
Population, of goldfields 87 to 89
Population, of Melbourne 90 to 92
Population, of municipalities 78 to 85
Population, of towns, townships, villages, &c. 93
Population, of towns, increase or diminution of 80 to 83
Population, outside municipalities 77
Preliminary remarks 2 to 4
Presbyterians 178
Prisoners, occupations of 458
Professional class of occupations 338 to 361
Proportions of the sexes 102 to 110
Proportions of the sexes of different religions 187
Proportions of the sexes of different birthplaces 156 to 158
Proportions of the sexes suffering from sickness and accidents 481
Protestant sects 172 to 180
Protestants and Roman catholics 169 to 171
Proximity of population, mode of computing, Footnote to 114
Publication of first census results, arrangements for 39

Q

Queensland practice respecting omissions 35

R

Refusals to supply information 36
Religions of the people 167 to 192
Religious denominations, education of children of different 236 to 239
Remarks and suggestions 534 to 547
Representation for legislative assembly 98 to 101
Representation for legislative council 95 to 97
Reproductive age, females at 210, 215, and 217
Rewards for reporting census omissions 33
Roman catholics and protestants 169 to 171
Room, average number of persons to a 138 and 139
Rooms, number of 122 and 126

S

Scholars, proportions of, to children living 264, and 268 to 270
School age, education of children at 232 to 237
School age, prescribed in each Australasian colony Footnote to 240
School attendance 257 to 272
School attendance in week ended 1st and on 4th April, 1881 266 and 267
School census 8
Schools, teachers, and scholars 257 to 262
Sexes of epileptic subjects 527
Sexes of the blind 501
Sexes of the deaf and dumb 493
Sexes of the idiots 517
Sexes of the lunatics 511
Sexes of the sick and injured 481
Sexes proportions of the 102 to 110
Ships, persons living in 134
Sickness and accidents 472 to 486
Sickness and infirmity 470 to 533
Simultaneous census of British dominions 4
Soldier's age, men at, in Australasian colonies 218 and 219
Staff of census office 43 to 45
Statistics of Victoria, 1871 to 1881 548 to 571
Strength, effective, of the population 207 to 210, 211 to 214, and 216
Sub-enumerators, appointment of 18 and 19
Sub-enumerators, exorbitant claims of 40
Sub-enumerators, number of 23
Sub-enumerators, payments to 25
Sub-enumerators, time occupied by 23
Suggestions for future censuses 534 to 547

T

Teachers, proportions of, to scholars 258 to 262
Telegrams on census Sunday 32
Tents, number of 132
Towns, townships, villages, &c. 93
Towns, in which females exceeded males 104

U

Unemployed in Victoria and New South Wales 467 and 468
Unemployed occupations of 453 to 456
Uninhabited houses 127
University graduates 252 to 254
Unorthodox beliefs 185
Unrecorded departures, 1871 to 1881 65 and 66

V

Victoria, natives of 146, 147, 161, 164, and 165

W

Widowers and widows 293 to 30
Wives and husbands 275 to 292

CENSUS OF VICTORIA, 1881. GENERAL REPORT.

To the Honorable the Chief Secretary.

Office of the Government Statist,

Melbourne, 19th February, 1883.

SIR,

The Census returns having now been compiled, and the greater portion of them published, I do myself the honor to submit the following Report thereon :—

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

2.

In consequence of the pressure of more urgent business, some delay has taken place in the issue of this Report ; but this has not been without its advantages. Thereby time has been given to the other colonies of the group to complete the compilation of their returns, and thus I am enabled to make comparisons between the results disclosed by the Victorian Census and those brought to light by the Census returns of each of the other Australasian colonies. [Preliminary remarks.]

3.

Meanwhile the public has been kept fully informed respecting the results of the Census of this colony. Not only were summaries of each of the Parts published in theGovernment Gazetteas soon as they could be got ready, and afterwards largely distributed, but several of the completed Parts have been laid before Parliament, and a short digest of the returns under each of the principal heads of inquiry, except the "Occupations" (the compilation of which had not then been finished), was embodied in the last issue of theVictorian Year-Book.

4.

Unusual interest is attached to the Census of 1881, as it was an undertaking in which almost every portion of Her Majesty's dominions took part. As soon as the day for taking the Census of the United Kingdom was fixed, a circular was sent from the Colonial Office to each of the colonies of the Empire, recommending that its Census should also be taken on the same day. This course was agreed to by every one of the Australasian colonies, and it thus happens that for the first time

On the occasion of the previous Census of the United Kingdom (2nd April 1871), the Censuses of Victoria, New South Wales, and South Australia were also taken. Queensland did not take her Census until the 1st September 1871, or five months later, whilst Western Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand had already taken their Censuses, the first on the 31st March 1870, the second on the 7th February 1870, and the third on the 27th February 1871.

the populations of all the colonies of this group and of Great Britain and Ireland have been enumerated simultaneously. [Simultaneous Census of British dominions.]

TAKING OF THE CENSUS.

5.

The Census of Victoria was taken under a Statute (44 Vict. No. 667) specially passed for the purpose of giving legality to the undertaking. This Statute fixed the day on which the enumeration was to be made, gave the Governor in Council power to appoint the requisite officers, roughly defined the process to be pursued, and made the Government Statist the officer responsible for carrying out the work. [Census Act.]

6.

The householder's schedule attached to the Census Act contained the usual inquiries respecting the name, sex, relation to the head of the family, conjugal condition, age, occupation, birthplace, religion, and education of each member of every household ; also whether any of such members were unable to follow their usual occupations in consequence of illness or accident, or were deaf and dumb, blind, lunatic, imbecile, epileptic, or leprous ; what were the materials of the house and what number of rooms it contained, and what number of each description of live stock was kept.

Any person refusing to fill up the householder's schedule, or to supply particulars for entry therein, rendered himself liable to a penalty not exceeding Twenty pounds, except in the case of the inquiry as to religion, which persons might, if they pleased, decline to answer, the word "object" being in such cases entered in the "religion" column. Any officer, enumerator, sub-enumerator, or clerk divulging any of the contents of a householder's schedule rendered himself liable to a penalty of Twenty pounds.

7.

Appended to the Census Act there was a second schedule, called the Educational Schedule. This was specially devised for the purpose of ascertaining what number of children in the colony were receiving education and in what instances this was being imparted at a State or at a private school (the name and address or number of the school being in each case given), or by a tutor, governess, relative, or other person. The information in this schedule was obtained for the purpose of assisting the Education Department in its endeavors to compel every child in the community to comply with the provisions of the law, which requires it to be instructed up to a certain standard. It was therefore, for obvious reasons, not considered confidential, as was the case in respect to all the other information obtained at the Census. Persons refusing the information for this schedule were liable to a penalty not exceeding Ten pounds. [Educational census.]

8.

The Census Act also gave the Governor in Council power to make regulations for the collection of agricultural, educational, and industrial statistics, and accordingly regulations were framed by the Government Statist, and duly submitted and gazetted, to which the following schedules were appended :—(1.) The agricultural schedule, containing provision for obtaining returns of the extent and tenure of land in occupation, the area under and produce of each description of crop, the number and value of the agricultural implements used and the value of improvements made. (2.) The school schedule, containing provision for returning the name and address of every school, the religious denomination, if any, with which it was connected, the number of teachers attached to it, the number, ages, and sexes of the scholars who attended on the day following the Census day, and the average number of those who attended during the previous week. (3.) The manufactory and quarry schedule, containing provision for ascertaining particulars respecting the number of persons and nature and amount of power employed in every establishment in which goods of the total value of £100 or upwards were manufactured annually, all works at which steam, gas, or water power were employed, and all stone quarries ; also the approximate value in all such establishments of the materials used, of the articles produced, and of the machinery and plant, lands, and buildings ; together with some other particulars respecting the goods produced in several descriptions of establishments specially named. (4.) The mining machinery schedule, containing provisions for obtaining particulars, including the value, respecting the steam engines employed in mining, the stamp-heads used, and the puddling machines in operation. Any one refusing to supply the information for these returns rendered himself liable to a penalty not exceeding Five pounds, and any one revealing their contents to a penalty not exceeding Twenty pounds. [Agricultural, school, industrial, and mining census.]

9.

The method of taking the Census was similar to that adopted on previous occasions. In the first place the colony was mapped out by the Government Statist into districts, each of which was placed under the charge of an officer called an enumerator, who in turn divided his district into sub-districts, each to be assigned to an officer called a sub-enumerator, charged with the duty of distributing and collecting the Census papers, but acting in this respect, as in all others, under the direction of the enumerator. [Formation of Census districts.]

10.

On former occasions the enumerators' districts were based upon the electoral districts, but the boundaries of these having been changed since the Census of 1871, underThe Electoral Act Amendment Act1876 (40 Vict. No. 548), it became necessary to entirely redivide the colony for Census purposes. In doing this I determined to make the Census districts fit in as far as possible with the counties, which, being permanent divisions, appeared to be better suited to form the basis of such districts than the electoral districts, the boundaries of which are liable to be changed from time to time.

11.

In forming the enumerators' districts, the chief objects kept in view were—first, that each district should be of such an extent, having regard to its area and the amount of work to be done, as to be readily under the control of the enumerator ;

and secondly, that the boundaries should be well defined and easily discoverable upon the ground. In thickly peopled parts of the colony, a county was necessarily divided : thus, Bourke was partitioned into 23 districts, and Grant and Talbot each into 6 districts. In more scattered parts, as in the case of the counties of Evelyn and Anglesey, one county was taken as a district ; and in very thinly peopled localities, such as Gippsland and the Wimmera, a district was made to consist of several entire counties. The boundaries of counties were followed wherever possible, and when it became necessary to subdivide a county this was done in almost every instance at the boundary of a shire or riding.

12.

The districts into which the colony was divided for Census purposes numbered 76 ; the shipping in places under the jurisdiction of the Melbourne Harbor Trust and that in other ports and places, together with some of the lighthouses, formed two others, so that the total number of Census districts was 78.

13.

For some districts the applications for the office of enumerator were very numerous ; for others there were not many applications ; and for a few none whatever were received. In the last-named cases the municipal authorities were requested to name a competent person to fill the office. The merits of the various applicants were very carefully considered by the Government, and the appointments given to those who appeared most suitable. As a rule the selection turned out to be a judicious one, most of the enumerators having proved themselves eminently fitted for the service. There were a few exceptions, which there probably would have been under whatever system the enumerators might have been chosen. [Appointment enumerators]

14.

The Harbor Master of the port of Melbourne was made enumerator for the shipping in all places under the jurisdiction of the Melbourne Harbor Trust, and the Secretary for Harbors and Navigation for the shipping outside that jurisdiction, as well as for such lighthouses as could not readily be approached by land. [Formation of Census sub-districts.]

15.

Each enumerator, on being appointed, was supplied with specific instructions as to the nature of his duties, also with two maps of his district, on which were delineated not only its boundaries, but any county, electoral, or municipal boundaries which in any direction crossed it. He was told to divide his district into sub-districts, each of a suitable size to be assigned to a sub-enumerator, to mark such subdivisions clearly upon those maps, to make an estimate of the number of houses in each sub-district, and state the number of days he proposed to allow the sub-enumerator for completing it, which particulars he was to enter upon a form supplied him for the purpose, entitled "Enumerator's Schedule A." He was further instructed that, when this was done, one map and one copy of Schedule A were to be returned to this office, so that a judgment might be formed of the propriety of his arrangements, the other map and a second copy of Schedule A being retained for his own guidance.

16.

In dividing his district the enumerator was instructed that he should, if possible, make his sub-districts of such a size as to admit of their being enumerated in three days—viz, one day for depositing and two days for collecting the schedules—to effect which he should, in towns, where the houses lie close together, allow a sub-district to contain from 150 to 200 inhabited houses ; in suburban districts, villages, and goldfields, where the dwellings are not so near to one another as in a closely built town, he should allow from 100 to 150 such houses ; in the more settled agricultural districts, where not more than half-a-mile intervenes between a dwelling and the next nearest, he should allow from 50 to 100, and in more scattered agricultural districts, where intervals of two miles or upwards sometimes occur between two dwellings, he should allow less than 50. In laying out pastoral and other widely scattered districts, he was enjoined to use his own judgment, both as regards the number of habitations in a sub-district and the time to be allowed for their enumeration.

17.

As the maps and schedules showing the plan of subdivision were received from the enumerators, they were carefully examined by the Government Statist and his subordinates. Only a few of the schemes could be approved of in the first instance, and the majority had to be returned for amendment. The tendency in most cases was to make the sub-districts too large, which would have caused the collection to extend over a longer period than was desirable. On this subject a large amount of correspondence took place between the department and the enumerators, and to some of the latter it was found necessary to return their map and schedule of subdivision two and even three times. As a matter of fact only a small proportion even of the town districts were eventually enumerated in three days, and in country districts the

time occupied was generally much longer. Indeed, where so much information, embodied in so many schedules as were used on this occasion, is sought to be obtained, it is questionable whether it is practicable to adhere rigidly to the three days' rule in a country like Victoria.

18.

As soon as any enumerator's plan of subdivision was approved, he was told to appoint his sub-enumerators, and to submit a list of them on "Enumerator's Schedule B" for the approval of the Governor in Council. In making the appointments he was instructed to inform each sub-enumerator of the number of days it was proposed to allow him for the enumeration of his sub-district, and at the same time to tell him he could only obtain payment for that number unless some unforeseen circumstance should occur which might justify an additional allowance. [Appointment of sub-enumerators.]

19.

The sub-enumerators, on their appointment, were supplied with all the requisite forms, and with printed instructions, in which their course of procedure was clearly laid down. In these instructions it was pointed out that the present Census embraced inquiries not only respecting the population and live stock to be embodied in the householder's schedule, but respecting educational, agricultural, and industrial matters to be embodied in schedules specially devoted to those subjects, and that, whilst giving due attention to all the heads of inquiry, they were to bear in mind that the most important were those to be recorded in the householder's schedule, and to secure these correctly should be their first consideration.

20.

Wherever any number of Chinese were congregated, persons versed in the Chinese language were engaged as sub-enumerators, for the purpose of securing correct particulars respecting the members of this race. In a few of the town districts the services of European interpreters were obtained, but in most instances the work was performed by English-speaking Chinamen. When these were not able to write English, which was generally the case, they merely accompanied the European sub-enumerator and interpreted to him. They were, however, paid and treated in all other respects as sub-enumerators. [Enumeration of Chinese.]

21.

To secure an accurate enumeration of the Aboriginal population, the co-operation of the Central Board for the Protection of the Aborigines was invited. This was readily granted, and circulars were sent accordingly by the Board to the persons in charge of Aboriginal stations and their other correspondents throughout the colony, requesting that every assistance might be afforded in filling the schedules relating to the Aborigines in their respective districts. [Enumeration of Aborigines.]

22.

Besides causing the sub-enumerators to visit every house, the enumerators were instructed to make provision for taking account of persons who, on the night of the Census, might be camping out, fishing, or taking night duty at mines or elsewhere, and who consequently would not be enumerated in dwellings ; and persons were specially appointed in Melbourne and other principal towns to visit the reserves, river banks, wharves, &c., with the view of discovering any who might be passing the night in such places. As in certain localities supposed to be infested with thieves and vagrants, it was judged that this night service might not be unattended with danger, the co-operation of the Chief Commissioner of Police was requested, and by his direction the force under his control afforded efficient protection to the Census officers wherever this was deemed necessary. [Enumeration of out-door population.]

23.

In towns, rushes at the goldfields, and other densely peopled localities, the sub-enumerators acted on foot, and in more scattered districts on horseback. The total number of the former employed was 684, and of the latter 1,185. The shortest time for which any sub-enumerator received payment was 1 day, and the longest 28 days, and the average time to each sub-enumerator was 6.286 days. [Number of and time occupied by sub-enumerators.]

24.

The payments of the enumerators were fixed by the Government according to the size and presumed population of the different districts, the original amounts varying from £12 to £35. After the Census was over, however, many of the enumerators applied for an extra allowance in virtue of the amount of work, and especially of traveling, they had had to perform, and the difficulties they had had to encounter. This was generally conceded, the result being that the highest amount paid to any enumerator was £65, and the average to each one was about £28. The enumerators for the shipping performed their duties without remuneration. [Payments to enumerators and sub-enumerators.]

25.

The rate of payment sanctioned to sub-enumerators was Ten shillings per diem to those acting on foot and £1 per diem to those who were mounted. The average amount earned by each of the former was £2 6s. 9d., and by each of the latter £7 4s. 5d.

26.

The forms for taking the Census were distributed to the enumerators and sub-enumerators throughout the colony in accordance with estimates of the population, houses, &c., in each district, carefully made beforehand in the office of the Government Statist, but it will be readily understood that it was necessary to have many more forms printed than were actually filled. To avoid risk of falling short, in consequence of possible miscalculations, or of forms being lost or damaged, each of the sub-enumerators had to be furnished with a larger number than it was expected he would require for use ; then each enumerator was obliged to keep a stock in hand to enable him to meet the demands of any sub-enumerator who, notwithstanding the precautions taken, might actually, or might imagine himself likely to fall short, and it was also necessary to keep a large reserve at the central office to satisfy applications from any part of the colony. The following is a statement of the number of forms received by the Government Statist, and of those in which entries were actually made :— [Distribution of Census forms.]

CENSUS FORMS RECEIVED AND USED.
Description of Forms.Number of Forms.
Received by the Government Statist.Actually Used.
Householders' Schedules280,000196,000
Educational280,000195,000
Agricultural120,00055,000
Manufactory15,0003,000
School5,0002,600
Mining Machinery1,000750
Sub-enumerators' Books2,5001,900

27.

The fact that a very much larger number of forms were printed than were used might, at first sight, lead to the conclusion that a waste occurred which might have been avoided by more careful calculation on the part of the Government Statist ; but this is not the case. The forms originally sent to the enumerators, in the majority of instances, turned out to be about the number which would allow only a fair margin over and above what were actually wanted for use ; but constant requisitions were sent in by many of the enumerators for further supplies, and these, in view of the urgency of the occasion, and the supposed better information the enumerators living in the locality were in a position to obtain, the Government Statist felt himself powerless to refuse. It, however, generally turned out that the documents supplied upon these requisitions were not required, and when the unused forms were returned to the head office, after the Census had been taken, it was found that from most, but not all the districts, about the same number came back as had been specially asked for in the manner stated.

28.

To give a better idea than is conveyed by the figures in the table of the vast quantity of stationery used, it may be mentioned that the forms received by the Government Statist, almost all of which were sent out to the enumerators, amounted in weight to no less than six tons seven hundredweight ; this being entirely independent of the large number of additional forms employed for compiling the Census, which probably weighed fully another ton.

29.

In order to prepare the public mind for the event of the Census, printed notices, ten thousand in number, issued under the signature of the Chief Secretary, were posted by the police at all police stations, railway stations, post offices, and other prominent places throughout the colony, and were thrice inserted as an advertisement in theGovernment Gazetteand all the newspapers. The same notice was translated into the Chinese language by Mr. C. P. Hodges, the well-known Chinese interpreter, and by means of a transfer prepared by him twelve hundred copies were lithographed, a thousand of which were posted in the Chinese quarters of the towns and goldfields, and the remainder distributed by hand amongst the leading persons belonging to the Chinese race. [Notice given of Census.]

30.

Some displacement of population was apprehended in consequence of the Railway Department having, about the time the Census was taken, decided to dispatch several excursion trains at cheap fares to enable country residents to view the Melbourne International Exhibition. As soon as the intention to do this was known, the Government Statist suggested to the Government that the starting of these [Displacement of persons by excursion trains.]

trains should be postponed until a few days after the day of the Census. The Chief Secretary (Mr. Berry) approved of this recommendation, and so informed the Railway authorities, but it seems matters had gone so far that the latter found they could not put off the trains without committing such a breach of faith with the public as they were unwilling to accept the responsibility of, and consequently the trains were duly started. The effect of this was that two or three thousand residents, chiefly of the north-eastern portion of the colony, were away from their homes on the Census night, whereby the population of that portion was by so much diminished, and the population of the other parts, especially the metropolis, by so much increased. But this would not at all effect the accuracy of the enumeration of the population of the colony taken as a whole.

31.

Fears were entertained that the returns of the population would be to a certain extent in excess of what they would be under ordinary circumstances, in consequence of the presence of the strangers who had come to Victoria for the purpose of visiting the Melbourne International Exhibition. There is, however, reason to believe that the numbers were not much affected by these. When the Census was taken the Exhibition had been open for a period of six months, and many visitors had left, which is proved by the fact that, according to the returns of the Immigration Department, the departures by sea recorded in the first quarter of 1881, which was that immediately preceding the Census day, nearly equalled the arrivals recorded during the same period. There is also no doubt that a large number went to the adjacent colonies overland, as this is known to be always the case when the departures thither by sea are numerous. Amongst those who left the colony about this period, it is probable there were many Victorians who had to put off their engagements, whether connected with business or pleasure, until the time for closing the Exhibition was drawing nigh ; it may be expected that these almost, if not entirely, counterbalanced the strangers who still remained in Melbourne. [Disturbance by International Exhibition.]

32.

At the suggestion of the Government Statist the Government gave directions that on the Sunday of the Census all telegraph offices should be kept open until the hour of 11 a.m., to permit of messages on the subject of the Census being transmitted to or from the Government Statist, who with a portion of his staff attended at his office on that day, and dealt with numerous communications which came from various parts of the colony. [Telegrams delivered on Census Sunday.]

33.

On the day preceding that of the Census, and on alternate days in the week following it, advertisements were inserted in the journals throughout the colony requesting that any cases of neglect on the part of the Census collectors should be reported without delay to the Government Statist. This had the effect of eliciting a number of complaints of omission, which were immediately referred to the enumerators for investigation. Many of these complaints were found to be premature, and others groundless ; some, however, were really cases of neglect, and these were immediately rectified. Instead of reporting to the department, in compliance with the advertisement, some persons wrote to the newspapers stating that they or others they knew of had been missed, and imputing great negligence to the collectors. A large portion of the complaints made in this manner were so indefinite that no action could be taken in respect to them, even the editors of the newspapers in which they appeared being unable to give any clue to the writers or the localities they referred to. Whenever the information supplied was sufficiently explicit, the matter was inquired into, and in the majority of instances found to be without foundation. As, however, it was feared that the public might attach more importance to these complaints than they really merited, it was thought advisable to offer a small reward to any who could substantiate cases of omission. Ten shillings was the amount fixed upon, and accordingly an advertisement was inserted in all the newspapers offering that amount to any head of a household who would prove personally or otherwise that his household had been overlooked. This was perhaps as severe a mode as could be devised of testing the completeness of the returns, and the fact of only a few omissions being proved affords satisfactory evidence that the sub-enumerators had done their work efficiently. A number of applications were made in pursuance of this advertisement, but upon the cases being inquired into it was found that many of them were entirely groundless, and evidently had only been submitted for the purpose of obtaining the reward. In every case where it appeared a house had really been overlooked, the Ten shillings was at once paid, but the whole number of rewards amounted only to 81, so that at [Reward for reporting emissions.]

the expense of £40 10s. the Government and the country were placed in possession of the strongest presumptive evidence that the Census had been properly taken. It is doubtful whether in any country except Victoria the completeness of the Census-taking had ever been subjected to so conclusive a test. It had once previously been tried here—viz., in 1871—when, upon the same reward being offered, the substantiated claims for reporting omissions amounted to exactly 100, or 19 more than on this occasion. The persons who reported they had been overlooked were frequently isolated individuals, living alone in out-of-the-way places ; but, supposing each to represent a dwelling containing three persons, the total would amount to 300 individuals in 1871, and 243 in 1881, or 1 person in every 2,438 of the population at the former, and 1 person in every 3,549 at the latter period, both of which proportions must be considered extremely small.

34.

The omissions reported both before and after the reward was offered may be reduced to two classes, the first and most numerous being in town, where places appearing to be out-houses, situated in the back-yards of dwellings and in lanes and rights-of-way were not recognized by the sub-enumerators as independent habitations, and consequently were not visited ; and the second in the country, where dwellings situated about the line of division between two enumerators' districts—the line perhaps running on top of a dividing range, or being otherwise badly defined—were supposed by the sub-enumerator on each side to be in the other's district, and consequently were returned by neither. In very few cases indeed could the omissions be said to arise from neglect or carelessness on the part of the sub-enumerators. It is impossible, under any system of census-taking to guard against some omissions taking place ; it is believed, however, that, owing to the precautions described, the persons eventually overlooked have been so few as not to be worth mentioning.

35.

In the colony of Queensland it is customary to add 2½ per cent.

By Mr. Jordan's Census Report, issued since my correspondence with him, I find that, on the present occasion, he proposes to add only 1½ per cent. to the enumerated population of Queensland.

to the enumerated population to allow for omissions. It is difficult to conceive, however, that under any well devised system of census-collection so large a proportion of the population could really be overlooked. Mr. H. Jordan, the Registrar-General of that colony, informs me it is considered necessary to make this allowance in consequence of persons being liable to be missed, owing to their being scattered over so wide an extent of territory as is embraced within the limits of Queensland. Without at all questioning the propriety of the arrangements it is deemed desirable to make in another colony, I may mention that the reason given is altogether opposed to my own experience, which tends to show that, in thinly peopled localities, the existence of small parties of splitters or prospectors, or even of single individuals, is always well known for miles round in every direction, and that, as a sub-enumerator visiting the district would be sure to be informed of them, it is not in such places that omissions are apt to occur. I have made inquiries respecting the other colonies of the group, and cannot find that the Queensland practice is followed in any of them. I need scarcely say that in Victoria no persons are every included in the returns who have not been actually enumerated, or of whose existence direct evidence has not been obtained. [Practice respecting omissions in Queensland.]

36.

By the Census Act, as I have already stated,

See paragraphs 6 to 8 ante.

persons refusing to fill up or to supply information for filling up the schedules rendered themselves liable to pecuniary penalties. It was not, however, found necessary to enforce these in a single case. A few instances of refusal occurred, generally in the case of the returns of live stock or of the operations of manufactories, but the individuals refusing invariably yielded when informed by the enumerator or the department of what the consequences of persistent resistance would be, and on its being made plain to them that the information would be treated as strictly confidential, and would be made use of only for statistical purposes, and in combination with other returns of a similar nature in such a form as not to afford a clue to the operations of any establishment or individual. Indeed it was found that the difficulty generally arose from defective tact or want of proper explanation on the part of the sub-enumerators, rather than from any wish to refuse compliance with the law. [Refusal to supply information.]

37.

The night fixed for the Census was that of Sunday the 3rd April 1881. By the Census Act the schedules were to be deposited within the ten days immediately preceding that date and to be recovered as soon as possible afterwards. [Date of Census.]

38.

To guard against the possibility of sub-enumerators depositing schedules at houses, and failing to recover them, each sub-enumerator was obliged to keep a strict account, in accordance with a form supplied to him, of the number of schedules he received, and the manner in which they were disposed of, and to return all unused schedules to the enumerator. [Account of schedules.]

39.

Before giving in their returns to the enumerator, each sub-enumerator was required to copy from the householders' schedules he collected the totals of the population, distinguishing the sexes and the Chinese and Aborigines, into the pages of a book supplied him for that purpose, and to make a summary of the results and of the number of houses in his sub-district, whether inhabited, uninhabited, or in course of erection. From these summaries the enumerator then made out a table on a form entitled "Enumerator's Schedule C," embodying a statement of the total number of persons and houses in his district, and this he forwarded at once to the Government Statist. Every exertion was used to get these statements from the enumerators as quickly as possible, and as soon as all were received a rough summary of the results was published in theGovernment Gazettefor general information. This summary appeared on the 4th May, or just one month after the Census day, and a second return, containing ten tables made up from the same summaries, giving copious details of the European, Chinese, and Aboriginal population in the counties, electoral provinces, electoral districts, shires, cities, towns and boroughs, as well as comparisons with former Censuses, was sent to the printer on the 23rd May, and was laid before Parliament a few days after. It may be stated that, in this respect, the arrangements were perfectly successful, and resulted in the approximate gross results of the Census being made public in a shorter time from the date of its collection than had ever previously been the case in Victoria, and fully a fortnight sooner than any, and many weeks sooner than some, of the other Australasian colonies (in all of which the Census was taken on the same day as in Victoria) were able to issue any of their results. [Arrangements for speedy publication of Census results.]

40.

As soon as the sub-enumerators of any district had completed their returns, all who were willing to accept payment for the time which the enumerator had set down beforehand as sufficient for their work were paid at once, but much delay occurred over the payment of the others, mainly in consequence of the exorbitant claims many of them sent in. As it is difficult to foresee exactly the time the collection within a certain area ought to take, and as, moreover, circumstances might arise to delay the completion of the work, a clause had been inserted in the sub-enumerators' instructions to the effect that, if the time allowed should prove insufficient, the enumerator's recommendation for additional payment would be duly considered. This clause was the occasion of much mischief, as, out of the sub-enumerators employed, numbering nearly 1,900, fully 1,500 professed themselves unable to complete their work in the time allotted them, and claimed extra payment. Some of these claims were perfectly justified by the circumstances, but others were as groundless. The merits of every claim were carefully examined into by the Government Statist personally, and a great deal of valuable time, which could ill be spared, was devoted to this service. Some of the demands made were quite unreasonable ; the enumerators, as a rule, supported the Government Statist in resisting these, but in a few instances they failed in their duty in this particular and sided with the men, which added greatly to the difficulty of dealing with the cases. Much correspondence ensued, and many months elapsed before all the claims were satisfactorily settled. In view of the difficulty of determining whether a sub-enumerator has worked for a certain number of days, and, if so, whether he has worked honestly, or may not have wasted his time for the purpose of obtaining increased payment by making the collection extend over a longer period, I would strongly recommend that on future occasions of the Census being taken each sub-enumerator should be required to sign an agreement to complete his district in a certain number of days, to be arranged beforehand between him and the enumerator, and approved by the Government Statist, the clear understanding being, that if he should complete his work in less time than the agreement specified he should still receive the stipulated amount, but if he should take longer no further payment should be made. Provision should at the same time be made for penalties in the case of any sub-enumerator leaving his work unfinished, whether he might be able to complete it in the stated time or not, and for withholding payment altogether until the work was done in a satisfactory manner. [Exorbitant claims of some sub-enumerators.]

41.

The cost of taking the Census on the last four occasions, so far as the payments to enumerators and sub-enumerators were concerned, was as follows. In addition to the amounts named, considerable sums were expended on each occasion on clerical labor, office buildings, fittings and furniture, stationery, printing, advertising, and other charges :— [Cost of taking Census.]

COST OF ENUMERATIONS.—1857 TO 1881.
1857.1861.1871.1881.
£s.d.£s.d.£s.d.£s.d.
Paid to Enumerators1,8551161,9351901,6431002,143130
Paid to Sub-enumerators13,38519012,9651209,81617910,28800
Total£15241106£14901110£1146079£12431130

42.

The population enumerated in 1857 was 410,766 ; that in 1861 was 540,322 ; that in 1871 was 731,528 ; and that in 1881 was 862,346. The rate per head for the actual collection was thus at the first period nearly ninepence (8.91d.) ; at the second period less than sixpence three farthings (6.62d.) ; at the third period about threepence three farthings (3.76d.) ; and at the fourth period less than threepence halfpenny (3.42d).

OFFICE STAFF.

43.

Prior to the Census, a few extra clerks had been engaged to assist in the preparatory work, and these, being retained after the Census was taken, formed the nucleus of the staff employed to tabulate the results. Officers for the latter purpose were appointed by the Government as occasion arose for their services, the understanding being that their engagement was strictly temporary, and would last only so long as they could be kept fully employed. A considerable number of these officers were of fair ability and good conduct, but some were so defective in one or both of these respects as to be from first to last only a burden to the office. The whole were placed under the immediate superintendence of Mr. Joseph Hart, a permanent although unclassified officer of the department, who, by dint of exertion, industry, and patience, managed to make the most of the instruments placed at his disposal. An elaborate code of office regulations and instructions, designed to give full information as to the method of compiling the returns and to provide a solution for every point of difficulty likely to arise, had previously been drawn up by the Government Statist, and a copy was placed in the hands of each officer. [Census office staff.]

44.

That some members of a staff so hastily improvised as that engaged for the compilation of a Census should be found unfitted for the work is perhaps inevitable. No Minister has the leisure to scrutinize closely the capabilities of every candidate, and is sorely tempted to appoint persons urged to his notice by political supporters, who are perhaps eloquent as to the good qualities but silent as to the faults of those in whom they are interested. I submit, however, that it is only due to the officer charged with the conduct of the work, who is expected to produce the best results with as small an expenditure of funds as possible, that he should be empowered to dispense with the services of those who, from intemperate habits, mental incapacity, or defective education, prove themselves unfitted for their position ; or who by disobedience of orders or insubordinate conduct interfere with the discipline of the office. Were this latitude, for the fair and impartial exercise of which he might and ought to be held strictly responsible, allowed to the Government Statist, the results of the Census would be produced in a much shorter time and at a greatly reduced cost.

45.

During the progress of the work, the largest number of extra clerks attached to the Census office at any one time was 59, but the employment of so many only lasted for about five months.

COMPILATION OF THE CENSUS.

46.

An Intercolonial Statistical Conference, at which Victoria was represented by the present writer, was held in Tasmania in the early part of 1875, its object being to arrange that the official statistics of the different colonies should, as far as possible, be compiled upon a uniform system. The matter of Census compilation came under discussion at this conference, but the members felt that, in view of the length of time [Attempts to secure uniformity throughout Australasia.]

likely to elapse before a Census would be taken, they were unable to deal with the subject in a satisfactory manner, more especially as any changes which might be made in the columns of the householder's schedule might render their labors incomplete and perhaps useless. They, therefore, so far as this matter was concerned, confined themselves to a general resolution to the effect that it was desirable the compilation of the Census should accord in all essential particulars with the system in use in the United Kingdom, it being generally understood that an effort should be made prior to the taking of another Census to bring about a second conference for the purpose of settling the details of its compilation. Accordingly, towards the close of 1879, unofficial communications were opened up between the heads of the Statistical Departments in the different colonies, it being their unanimous wish that such a conference should take place in New South Wales, in the early part of the following year, the time being a particularly favorable one, as the Sydney International Exhibition would be open, and several of them contemplated visiting Sydney upon that occasion at any rate. Of course the invitation to the conference must come from the colony in which it was to be held, and accordingly Mr. E. G. Ward, the Registrar-General of New South Wales, was requested to urge the matter upon his Government, which he promised to do, and as much as possible to further the object sought to be attained. No result, however, came from Mr. Ward's efforts ; he stated he brought the subject repeatedly before the Government of New South Wales, but they were opposed to such a conference being held, and so the matter was necessarily abandoned. Subsequently, about the close of 1880, an attempt was made to bring about a conference in Melbourne, but too late, as the forms for the Census compilation had already been printed in most of the colonies ; and besides, the Census being so near at hand, the principal officers of the Statistical Departments were unable to be absent from their posts, and thus it resulted that no conference was held. This is doubtless to be regretted, although in the case of most of the colonies it has been found possible to secure an approach to uniformity by other means. An officer from Queensland and one from Tasmania, sent I believe by their respective Governments, visited Melbourne some months before the Census was taken, for the purpose of consulting with the Government Statist of Victoria on the subject of Census compilation, and at once agreed to adopt his forms and methods, which had been based as far as possible upon those used in connection with the Census of England and Wales. New Zealand had been entirely in accord with Victoria in this matter since 1873.

The present writer visited New Zealand in that year, and, at the request of the Government of that colony, investigated the working of the Statistical Department, and made suggestions for its improvement, and for the better taking and compilation of the Census, all of which were adopted.

Other colonies applied by letter for an explanation of the methods in use here, and ultimately adopted the major portion of them ; the only colony continuing to stand aloof as regards material points being New South Wales, the Census tables of which, especially those relating to the occupations of the people, differ widely from those of Victoria and the other colonies. The latter have throughout evinced every desire to assimilate their systems with the system in use here, the differences which still exist being only in minor matters of detail, which could scarcely be satisfactorily settled except at a conference.

47.

The work of compiling the returns of a Census is always a laborious one. In order to produce the figures contained in the tables presented to Parliament it is necessary to enter, copy, check, and re-check hundreds of thousands of other figures which never meet the public eye, and the very existence of which is unknown beyond the precincts of the Census office. This will be better realized when it is remembered that there are seven principal heads of inquiry, viz., Inhabitants and Houses, Birthplaces, Religions, Ages, Occupations, Conjugal Condition, and Education ; and the numbers of the population of either sex in the counties, electoral provinces, electoral districts, cities, towns, boroughs, shires, goldworkings, and all other aggregations of population throughout the colony must be got out under each of these heads with so much exactness that the results in every case balance with each other to a unit ; that besides these there are a number of minor heads of inquiry subsidiary to the principal heads, relating to sickness and infirmity, special particulars respecting Chinese and Aborigines, persons in hospitals, asylums, and gaols, employers, employed, and unemployed, husbands and wives, graduates of universities, and a variety of other matters ; that there are also computations to be made—many of them of a difficult and complicated character, but on which much of the usefulness of a Census depends—to show averages, percentages, comparisons with former Censuses and with those of other countries ; [Compilation of Census returns.]

and when it is remembered that the interval between two Censuses in Victoria being ten years, most if not all the persons employed on one Census have disappeared before the next one takes place, and fresh officers have to be taught duties for which many of them possess no natural or acquired qualification whatever, it will readily be believed that the work is one which imposes a heavy tax upon the energies of those whose duty it is to plan and superintend it.

48.

Before commencing to tabulate the Census returns it was necessary that the schedules should be arranged in order, those relating to each place it was desired to distinguish being kept separate from the others in the same bundle by means of sheets of paper labeled with the name of the county, electoral district, electoral province, parish, city, town, borough, or shire, ward or riding, township, village, or goldfield. When the arrangement of the schedules was completed, these were paged with a numbering machine, a number commencing afresh in each county with No. 1 being assigned to each place, and then the first tabulation, "Inhabitants and Houses," was commenced. For this tabulation the information was extracted from the schedules upon sheets having columns ruled for the purpose, but all the succeeding tabulations were effected by means of cards.

49.

The card system had been used for some years in the department of the Government Statist in the compilation of returns of marriages and deaths, the criminal statistics, and the valuations of friendly societies, but had never been employed here, nor, so far as I am aware, in any other country on the compilation of a Census. I had, however, been so satisfied with the system, in regard to the work which had already been done by it, that I determined on this occasion to extend its operation to the Census. [Card system of compilation.]

50.

The so-called cards were not made of card-board but of thick paper, and were about the size of ordinary playing-cards. For their custody and arrangement nests of pigeon holes were provided, constructed to stand on tables. These nests were 3 feet heigh, 3 feet 8 inches long, and 4½ inches deep, and contained fixed partitions 4 inches—or a little more than the width of the cards—apart, and movable cross shelves constructed to slide in and out between the partitions, through grooves placed every 2 inches apart, so that a large or a small space could be obtained, according as it was required to place a greater or less number of cards therein. These pigeon holes were intended for the cards actually being dealt with, but for those not in use for the time being a small room was fitted up with pigeon holes of various capacities fixed around it from floor to ceiling. A careful officer was placed in charge of this room, whose duty it was to see that the cards were put away in perfect order, so that he could at once lay hands on any which might be required. It will readily be understood that it would have been a serious matter if the cards, numbering, as they did, nearly 900,000, had been allowed to become disordered or misplaced, and that upon the perfection of the methods adopted for the arrangement and disposal of the cards much of the success of the card ----- depends.

51.

The process of being the cards may be briefly described. One card is devoted to each individual enumerated, viz., a white card to each male and a pink card to each female, so that 452,083 of the former and 410,263 of the latter were employed. On each card the name of the county and number of the place are stamped with india rubber stamps provided for the purpose, then the number of the schedule and the various particulars it contains respecting the individual to which the card relates are entered with pen and ink. After the entries are made and their correctness has been verified by examination, the next proceeding is to reduce the results to a tabular form. This is done by sorting the cards of each place into heaps, according to whatever head of inquiry it is desired to work out. Thus, in the case of the religions, say in the portion of La Trobe ward of the city of Melbourne situated in the electoral district of Richmond, the cards of the members of the Church of England are got together, also those of the Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, Wesleyans, &c., after which it is only necessary to count the cards in each heap, and to enter the numbers so obtained in the columns of specially prepared summary sheets. A precisely similar course is pursued in the case of the birthplaces, ages, education, conjugal condition, and occupations, after the last of which is completed, cards containing particulars it is desired to tabulate separately are thrown out from the others. These, on this occasion, embraced all those relating to Austro-Hungarian and Italian subjects (of which special information had been promised to their respective Governments), Chinese, Aborigines, persons laid up by reason of sickness or infirmity, miners who

stated their former occupations, unemployed persons, masters who stated the number of hands they employed, university graduates, husbands and wives whose consorts were absent, and inmates of charitable and penal institutions. The thrown-out cards are afterwards dealt with in the manner already described in regard to those relating to the principal heads of inquiry.

52.

The tabulation of a Census by means of cards being, as I have already stated, entirely novel, it is only reasonable to suppose that many improvements in the method of procedure suggested themselves in the course of the operation, and all these have been carefully noted, for the guidance of those charged with the conduct of future Censuses. One of these is to obviate the necessity of throwing out the cards by providing cards of a third color (not white or pink), on which duplicates could be made of those cards containing information it is desired to extract specially. This would enable the work of tabulating such information to be proceeded with simultaneously with that connected with the larger returns, and would also render it unnecessary to interfere with the arrangement of the original cards.

53.

After the contents of the cards have been arranged in a tabular form in the manner described, much work still remains to be done, especially in combining the information relating to fragments of places so as to show such places as a whole, in preparing subsidiary tables, and in copying the digested returns into forms specially arranged for publication. In these operations, summary after summary and abstract after abstract have to be written out, numbers of heavy additions and other more abstruse calculations have to be made, and the whole has at each step to be called over, checked and re-checked, so as, if possible, to preclude any chance of a mistake remaining undetected.

54.

In all operations connected with the Census under review mechanical appliances were used where possible, and by means of these much saving of clerical labor has been effected. I would particularly mention Edison's electric pen, which, as an instrument for multiplying copies of written documents, is perhaps unequalled ; numbering machines of simple and correct action, specially made to the order of Messrs. Semple and Ramsay of Melbourne ; also a French calculating machine, designatedL' Arithmometre, by Thomas de Colmar of Paris. [Mechanical appliancesused.]

55.

The first Census part, Inhabitants and Houses, is the only one in which detailed returns of the wards, ridings, towns, townships, villages, &c., throughout the colony have been published in full. Under the other heads of inquiry, in order to save time and expense, the printing has been confined to summaries showing the numbers in each county, electoral province, electoral district, shire, city, town, borough, and mining district. Tabular results, however, giving the same details as those contained in Part I. have been written out fairly, and are available for public reference in this office.

NUMBERS AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE PEOPLE.

56.

The population enumerated at the Census of 1881 was as follows :— [Population, 1881.]

Males452083
Females410,263
Total862,346

57.

The previous Census had been taken on the 2nd April 1871, when the enumerated population amounted to 731,528, viz., 401,050 males and 330,478 females. The increase in the period between the two enumerations was thus 130,818, consisting of 51,033 males and 79,785 females.

58.

Between the Censuses of 1871 and 1881 the excess of registered births over registered deaths was 145,903, viz., 66,923 of males and 78,980 of females. If the colony had retained the whole of this natural increase, the Census would have shown 15,890 more males than it did. It did show females equal in numbers to the natural increase and 805 more, and it thus resulted that the total increase of both sexes was less by 15,085 than the natural increase.

59.

In the same ten years the excess of recorded arrivals over recorded departures by sea was 52,352, viz., 39,314 males and 13,038 females. These numbers being added to those just given showing the excess of registered births over registered deaths, the apparent increase of population between the Censuses will be found to be 198,255, viz., 106,237 males and 92,018 females. The increase actually shown by the Census of 1881 was, however, less than these numbers by 67,437, viz., 55,204 males and 12,233 females. [Enumerated short of estimated population.]

60.

It being very generally known that no record was or could be taken of the arrivals in and departures from Victoria overland, it was at first thought that the missing individuals had crossed the frontiers to the adjacent colonies ; but when the published Census returns of the neighboring colonies showed a deficiency of a similar character, although less in degree, to exist in New South Wales and Queensland, which was only partly compensated by a small surplus in South Australia, it was at once realized that this supposition failed to account for the loss. The following is a statement of the exact deficiency or surplus in the colonies named :—

DEFICIENCY OR SURPLUS OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS RETURNS OF VICTORIA, NEW SOUTH WALES, AND SOUTH AUSTRALIA.
Colony.Difference between Estimated and Enumerated Population.
Males.Females.Total.
Deficiency.
Victoria55,20412,23367,437
New South Wales27,2722,68029,952
Queensland9,8334,39214,225
Total92,30919,305111,614
Surplus.
South Australia10,15619810,354
Net Deficiency82,15319,107101,260

61.

The simultaneous Census of the colonies thus discloses the astonishing fact that—whilst an exact record is professed to be kept in each colony of the arrivals and departures by the seaboard—in the ten years 1871 to 1881 over 101,000 persons, or about 1 in 18 of the average population of the four colonies, seem to have left the Australian continent unobserved. The registration of deaths in all the colonies is known to be more perfect than that of births, therefore, from this cause, a surplus instead of a deficiency might be expected ; the solution of the difficulty must therefore be looked for either in the inaccuracy of the returns of the Census or of those of emigration.

62.

It is extremely improbable that the Census of 1881 was imperfect, as in all the colonies it was taken under the supervision of the same department as that which had conducted previous enumerations, and the experience gained would tend to make it the most perfect of any. For this reason, if persons were missed at either of the last two Censuses, the chances are that they were so in 1871 rather than in 1881, and this should go towards causing the population enumerated at the latter period to be above rather than under the estimate.

I am aware it was asserted in the Parliament of New South Wales that the Census of that colony had been incorrectly taken, and this fact was admitted by Sir John Robertson, the Acting Premier ; but the inaccuracy, so far as I understand, was only stated to apply to the distribution of the inhabitants of the colony in rural districts and towns, not to the numbers of the population taken as a whole. (See report of a debate in the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales, 21st September 1882, on a motion of adjournment by Mr. J. P. Abbott.)

63.

The question of the accuracy of the returns kept by the Immigration authorities was inquired into by the Statistical Conference of representatives of the Australasian colonies held in Tasmania in 1875,

See Report of Conference of Government Statists, resolution 4, page 9, and introductory letter to the same by the Government Statist of Victoria, paragraph 14, page 6, Parliamentary Paper No. 11, Session 1875.

when it was found that, whilst a sufficiently correct account was kept of all persons arriving in each colony, also of those departing to distant countries, the records of persons leaving one colony to go to another were very imperfect. This was mainly due to the fact that many persons traveling between the colonies omitted to take their passages beforehand, with the effect that their names did not appear in the lists supplied by the shipping agents at the colony of departure, whereas they were duly entered in those supplied at the colony of arrival, the consequence being that they were added to the estimated population of the latter without being deducted from that of the former. This has since often been referred to officially by me,

SeeVictorian Year-Book,1877-8, paragraph 40 ; ditto, 1878-9, paragraph 36 ; ditto, 1879-80, paragraph 42 ; footnote toGazettetable of population on the 30th June 1879, &c., &c.

and has been the occasion of some correspondence between this department and that of the immigration agent in Melbourne. I am assured that, so far as Victoria is concerned, the evil is much less than it used to be ; but from inquiries I have made at the offices of the intercolonial steamers, I am led to believe that it still exists to a certain extent, and that at the present time several thousand persons leave the colony each year without being noted.

64.

I have made an attempt to ascertain the number of unrecorded persons who left Victoria by sea in the interval between the Censuses of 1871 and 1881, by comparing the numbers recorded as arriving in the neighboring colonies from Victoria by the seaboard with those who were known to leave Victoria for those colonies by that mode of exit in the same period. In this I was quite successful, so far as New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, and New Zealand were concerned ; but I failed to get reliable information respecting South Australia and Western Australia, chiefly, I believe, in consequence of the returns being complicated by entries of persons who left Victoria for England and the East via those colonies, which I found it impossible to separate from entries of persons traveling by the same steamers who were going to remain in Australia. The following is the result of the inquiry, so far as the first-named four colonies are concerned :—

RECORDED DEPARTURES FROM VICTORIA FOR, AND ARRIVALS FROM VICTORIA AT, FOUR OF THE NEIGHBORING COLONIES, 1871 TO 1881.
Year.New South Wales and Queensland.Tasmania and New Zealand.
Recorded Departures from Victoria therefor.Recorded Arrivals from Victoria thereat.Difference, being those who left Victoria unrecorded.Recorded Departures from Victoria therefor.Recorded Arrivals from Victoria thereat.Difference, being those who left Victoria unrecorded.
1871* (last three quarters)5,6066,7001,0943,4673,974507
187212,33512,5522175,6056,421816
187310,26311,7171,4546,4307,367937
187411,36813,1031,7357,6018,7081,107
187511,64214,4072,7658,6189,542924
187612,57313,7101,1379,51110,9671,456
187711,98114,5872,6069,18611,1131,927
187813,50315,0271,5249,81910,769950
187916,09917,3851,28610,63112,0041,373
188018,19621,3413,14510,01911,8071,788
1881* (first quarter)6,1287,2541,1264,1495,3701,221
Total129,694147,78318,08985,03698,04213,006
[* The Census was taken on the 2nd April in 1871 and on the 3rd April in 1881.]

65.

It is thus seen that in the interval between the last two Censuses 214,730 persons were recorded as leaving Victoria for the four colonies named, but as many as 245,825 persons, or 31,095 more, were recorded as arriving from Victoria in those colonies. The recorded departures from Victoria in the same period for South Australia and Western Australia numbered 63,706, which I have already stated I find it impossible to reconcile with the recorded arrivals from Victoria thereat. From inquiries, however, I have made of the agents and captains of the steamers trading to the western colonies, I find that the evil complained of exists in that direction to just as great an extent as it does in the case of the colonies of which the returns are available ; therefore, applying the same proportion to the recorded departures for the former as has been found to apply to those for the latter, it may be assumed that 8,995 unrecorded persons left this colony for South Australia and Western Australia in the ten years' interval. The following would therefore be the estimate of persons who left by the seaboard during the ten years intervening between the Censuses of 1871 and 1881 without their departure being noted by the Immigration authorities :—

UNRECORDED DEPARTURES FROM VICTORIA BY SEA, 1871 TO 1881.
Unrecorded Persons who left for New South Wales and Queensland18,089
Unrecorded Persons who left for Tasmania and New Zealand13,006
Unrecorded Persons who left for South Australia and Western Australia8,995
Total40,090

66.

The total number of persons the Census of Victoria failed to account for has already

See paragraph 59 ante.

been shown to be 67,437, representing an average loss of over 6,700 annually. Of these it may be assumed from the above figures that 40,090, or an average of 4,000 annually, went away by sea, and 27,347, or 2,700 annually, left by land. Of the latter it was always known that no note could be taken, but the unrecorded departure of so large a number of persons by sea has been a circumstance altogether unexpected until brought to light by the Census.

67.

The remarks applicable to Victoria in this respect apply with equal force to the other Australian colonies, in the whole of which the same system exists of taking a complete account of the arrivals, but a defective one of the departures. This is proved in the case of New South Wales and Queensland by the large deficiencies (amounting in the aggregate to over 44,000) found to exist in their Census populations as compared with the estimates, which can be set down to no other cause. These deficiencies would no doubt have been greater if those colonies had not gained largely, just as Victoria had lost considerably, by persons crossing the borders. Until some principle is adopted whereby the departures by sea are noted with the same accuracy as the arrivals, it must be expected at each Census that the returns of the population of the Australian continent will be much smaller than had been anticipated.

68.

The Census under review showed that the Australasian colonies, taken as a whole, contained over 2,800,000 inhabitants, of which about 2,166,000 were upon the Australian continent. The following are the numbers returned in each colony :— [Population of Australasia, 1881.]

POPULATION OF THE AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881., (Including Chinese and enumerated Aborigines.)
Colony.Persons.Males.Females.
Victoria862,346452,083410,263
New South Wales751,468411,149340,319
Queensland234,110136,04498,066
South Australia286,211153,008133,203
Western Australia32,05418,70213,352
Total2,166,1891,170,986995,203
Tasmania115,70561,16254,543
New Zealand534,030293,973240,057
Grand Total2,815,9241,526,1211,289,803

69.

The Chinese enumerated in Victoria numbered 12,128 as against 17,935 in 1871, the falling-off being thus 5,807. In the numbers for 1881, 169 half-castes are included, viz., 74 males and 95 females. These are chiefly the offspring of Chinese fathers and of mothers of European birth or extraction. [Chinese in Victoria and other colonies.]

70.

According to the following figures, which express the number of Chinese returned in each Australasian colony, the Chinese in those colonies, taken as a whole, numbered 43,706 when the Census was taken, and of these 37,858 were on the continent of Australia :—

CHINESE IN THE AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
Colony.Persons.Males.Females.
Victoria12,12811,869259
New South Wales10,20510,14164
Queensland11,22911,20623
South Australia4,1514,1465
Western Australia145145
Total37,85837,507351
Tasmania8448422
New Zealand5,0044,9959
Grand Total43,70643,344362

71.

Only 780 Aborigines were enumerated in Victoria at the recent Census, as against 1,330 at the former one. It is not probable that all were returned at either period. It is, however, tolerably certain that, at the present time, there are not 1,000 Aborigines in the colony. [Aborigines in Victoria and other colonies.]

72.

In all the colonies on the Australian continent the enumeration of the Aborigines was incomplete. This is of little importance, so far as this colony is concerned, the numbers here being so small. In New South Wales only the "civilized" Aborigines were returned, which probably represent only a small portion of the whole ; in Queensland only a few Aborigines were returned in the first instance, but an estimate was subsequently made by officers of the Police Department, and the Census figures have been supplemented by the numbers so obtained ; the figures for South Australia do not include the Aborigines in the Northern Territory ; and those for Western Australia

only relate to the Aborigines in service. No Aborigines remain on the island of Tasmania.

Mr. R. M. Johnston, who has recently succeeded Mr. E. C. Nowell as Government Statistician of Tasmania, writes— "The last male of the Tasmanian Aboriginals died on the 3rd March 1869, and the last of the race (Trucaninni,a female) died at Hobart on the 8th May 1876. On the islands of Bass's Straits (Barren and Badger) there are a few families of half-castes who live in a miserable sort of way ; catching mutton birds and boiling them down for oil seems to be their principal occupation. Although the men are strong and vigorous, and excelling as boatmen, they are extremely improvident and lazy. So far as I can learn, these half-castes are mixed, and are quite as much related to the natives of continental Australia as they are to the Aborigines of Tasmania."

In New Zealand an enumeration of the Maoris was made by the officers of the Native Department, and this is believed to have been tolerably correct. The following are the returns obtained in the different colonies :—

ABORIGINES ENUMERATED IN THE AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
Colony.Persons.Males.Females.
Victoria780460320
New South Wales *1,643938705
Queensland †20,58510,7199,866
South Australia ‡6,3463,4782,868
Western Australia §2,3461,640706
Total31,70017,23514,465
Tasmania
New Zealand ‖44,09724,36819,729
Grand Total75,79741,60334,194
[* Returns were obtained of the "civilized" Aborigines only.] [† The numbers for Queensland have been partly derived from estimates. Mr. Henry Jordan, Registrar-General of that colony, thinks these estimates are too low. He writes as follows in his report on the Census :—"In the northern parts of the colony they are comparatively numerous, and some persons resident in the Cook and Palmer districts have supposed there may be 70,000 Aborigines in Queensland. This, however, is a very crude estimate, and may be far wide of the truth."] [‡ The Aborigines in the Northern Territory of South Australia are not included. In the whole colony there are probably quite as many Aborigines as in Queensland.] [§ The Aborigines returned at the Census of Western Australia are only those in the employment of the colonists. Large portions of that immense territory have not yet been explored, and in some places Aborigines are very numerous.] [‖ In his report upon the Census, Mr. W. R. E. Brown, Registrar-General of New Zealand, writes as follows respecting the enumeration of the Maoris :—" An attempt was made in 1881 to obtain a correct enumeration of the native population, but although the officers of the Native Department who had the charge of the enumeration do not think that there are any material errors in the results obtained, yet they agree in stating that the numbers given are not correct, and in many instances only estimates. In some parts no access was permitted to those desirous of obtaining information. In parts the natives showed a suspicion of the enumerators, and a growing di-inclination to have their numbers, known, and information relating thereto was refused. Difficulty was also experienced on account of the nomadic habits of portions of the tribes ; and in some instances the natives who were at a distance from their tribes were enumerated in loco and given again by another officer among the number of their tribe. * * * The total number is greater by 502 than that returned at the Census of 1878 ; but as the reports of the native officers generally point to a perceptible decrease in the Maorl population, this apparent increase may be attributable to a better enumeration on the present occasion."]

73.

During the interval between the Censuses of 1871 and 1881 the increase of the total population of Victoria was 18 per cent., the increase in the male population was 13 per cent., and the increase in the female population was 24 per cent. [Increase of population.]

74.

Between the Censuses of 1861 and 1871 the total population increased in the proportion of 35 per cent., or nearly double the rate at which it increased between 1871 and 1881. Between previous Censuses the increase was still greater. In the four years from 1857 to 1861 it was in the proportion of 32 per cent., in the three years from 1854 to 1857 it was in the proportion of 73 per cent., and in the three years from 1851 to 1854 it was in the proportion of 206 per cent.

75.

The increase of population between 1871 and 1881 was, as may be supposed, greatest in the metropolitan county of Bourke, where it amounted to 70,804, or more than half the total increase in the colony. After this it was greatest in the counties most largely peopled by land selectors. Thus the increase in Moira amounted to 19,420, in Borung to 16,017, in Rodney to 10,769, in Buln Buln to 7,340, and in Tangil to 4,278. In the county of Bendigo the increase was 10,544, but in most of the other goldfield counties, as well as in some of the older settled agricultural counties, the population decreased. In Talbot there was a falling-off of 16,799, in Grenville of 16,758, in Grant of 7,655, in Dalhousie of 5,096, in Bogong of 2,800, in Ripon of 1,669, in Wonnangatta of 1,131, in Villiers of 280, and in Karkarooc of 215. In Hampden, males were fewer by 51 than in 1871, but females being more numerous by 132, the whole county showed an increase of 81 inhabitants.

76.

The shipping in Victorian waters contained fewer males by 467 than in 1871, but, as there were 61 more females, the total diminution of the floating population was reduced to 406.

77.

Omitting a few thinly-peopled districts, municipal government extends over the whole of Victoria. The territory not embraced in municipalities covered 14,000 square miles in 1871, but only about 6,000 square miles in 1881 ; the inhabitants of the extra-municipal portions numbered 11,531 at the former and 7,818 at the latter period. [Population outside municipalities.]

78.

The municipalities are of two kinds, urban and rural ; the former being called cities, towns, and boroughs, and the latter shires. In 1881, the urban [Population of municipal districts.]

Municipalities contained rather more inhabitants than the rural ones, the numbers being respectively 434,467 and 420,061. In 1871, also, the cities, towns, and boroughs were slightly more populous than the shires, the numbers in the former being 374,150, and in the latter 345,847.

79.

In 1881, the shires embraced nine townships which were boroughs in 1871, but had since ceased to be such.

These towns are Beechworth, Chiltern, Graytown, Guildford, Jamieson, Kilmore, South Barwon, Steiglitz, and Woodend.

The population within the limits of these, as ascertained in 1881, has, however, been separated for the purpose of making comparison with the former period. Adding the population of these places, also that of the borough of Walhalla, which was created between the last two Censuses, to the population of the other cities, towns, and boroughs as returned in 1881, the whole urban population in that year is found to have amounted to 444,193, as against 374,150 in 1871, the proportion to the total population being about 51 per cent. at both periods.

80.

Of the 64 urban municipalities in existence in 1871 the boundaries of several had been changed,

These are Brunswick, Emerald Hill, Fitzroy, Geelong, and St. Kilda.

but within the same limits 30 had larger and 34 had smaller populations in 1881 than at the former period. The following are the names of the towns in which the population increased, and the numbers at both periods :—

TOWNS IN WHICH POPULATION INCREASED BETWEEN 1871 AND 1881.
Name of Town.Population.*Increase.
1871.1881.
Ararat2,3702,740370
Brighton3,0594,7551,696
Brunswick †4,3886,5982,210
Carisbrook9411,089148
Chiltern1,2121,24331
Collingwood18,59823,8295,231
Eaglehawk6,5907,362772
Echuca1,6494,7893,140
Emerald Hill ‡17,10124,5257,424
Essendon and Flemington2,4565,0612,605
Fitzroy §15,54722,7427,195
Footscray2,4735,9933,520
Hamilton2,3492,967618
Hawthorn3,3296,0192,690
Hotham13,49117,8394,348
Inglewood1,1891,20011
Kew2,4304,2881,858
Maryborough2,9353,297362
Melbourne54,99365,85910,866
Prahran14,09621,1687,072
Queenscliff9541,216262
Richmond16,88923,4056,576
Sale2,1053,073968
Sandhurst21,98728,1536,166
Sandridge6,3888,7712,383
St. Arnaud1,1012,6291,528
Stawell5,1667,3482,182
St. Kilda ‖9,08513,3444,259
Warrnambool3,7994,8391,040
Williamstown7,1269,0341,908
Total245,796335,17589,379
[* At both periods within the boundaries existing in 1871.—] [†Population in 1881 within reduced boundaries, 6,222.—] [‡ Population in 1881 within extended boundaries, 25,374. Since the Census, the boundaries have been again reduced.—] [§ Population in 1881 within extended boudaries, 23,118.—] [‖ Population in 1881 within reduced boundaries, 11,654. Since the Census, the boundaries have been increased.]

81.

The following are the towns in which the population was smaller in 1881 than in 1871 :—

TOWNS IN WHICH POPULATION DIMINISHED BETWEEN 1871 AND 1881.
Name of Town.Population.*Decrease.
1871.1881.
Ballarat24,30822,4111,897
Ballarat East16,39714,8491,548
Beechworth2,8662,399467
Belfast2,4851,757728
Browns and Scarsdale2,1211,0851,036
Buninyong1,9811,416565
Castlemaine6,9355,7871,148
Chewton2,3871,688699
Clunes6,0685,811257
Creswick3,9693,731238
Daylesford4,6963,892804
Dunolly1,5531,50251
Geelong †15,02614,566460
Graytown1,4221611,261
Guildford1,156765391
Heathcote1,5541,203351
Jamieson38932861
Kilmore1,5551,092463
Koroit1,6721,64428
Majorea1,734994740
Malmsbury1,3571,32928
Newtown and Chilwell4,7494,642107
Portland2,3722,265107
Raywood528426102
Rutherglen616484132
Sebastopol6,4962,4983,998
Smythesdale1,003685318
South Barwon1,6841,474210
Steiglitz1,058275783
Talbot2,8782,318560
Tarnagulla1,359886473
Wangaratta1,4691,331138
Woodend1,4521,148304
Wood's Point1,059562497
Total128,354107,40420,950
[* At both periods within the boundaries existing in 1871.] [† Population in 1881 within reduced boundaries, 9,721.]

82.

It will be observed that the total increase of population in the first 30 towns was 89,379, and the total decrease in the last 34 was 20,950, resulting in a net increase of 68,429.

83.

With the exception of Belfast, Geelong, Koroit, Newtown and Chilwell, Portland, South Barwon, and Woodend all the towns in which the population fell off

Between the Censuses were either on or in the immediate vicinity of goldfields. On the other hand, the mining towns of Ararat, Chiltern, Eaglehawk, Inglewood, Maryborough, Sandhurst, and Stawell were amongst those in which more or less increase occurred.

84.

Of the Chinese, 3,962 (of whom 120 were females), or nearly a third, were living in cities, towns, and boroughs ; and 8,018 (of whom 139 were females), or about two-thirds, were living in shires. In the urban districts the largest numbers were found to be in Melbourne, 621 ; Sandhurst, 518 ; Ballarat East, 382 ; Creswick, 252 ; and Castlemaine, 245. In shires, the largest numbers were in Grenville, 746 ; Bright, 685 ; Beechworth, 648 ; Mount Alexander, 375 ; and Stawell, 322. Eight of the Chinese, all males, were on board ships lying in the port of Melbourne. [Chinese in municipalities.]

85.

Only 12 Aborigines, viz., 8 males and 4 females, were abiding in cities and boroughs on the Census night, viz., 1 in Browns and Scarsdale, 2 in Clunes, 1 in Collingwood, 1 in Essendon and Flemington, 3 in Kew, 1 in Portland, 2 in Prahran, and 1 in St. Kilda ; 384 male and 256 female Aborigines were enumerated in shires, chiefly in Avon, Bairnsdale, Echuca, Lowan, Portland, Swan Hill, and Warrnambool. The remaining Aborigines, viz., 68 males and 60 females, were in places outside municipal jurisdiction. [Aborigines in municipalities.]

86.

Excluding from the population in shires that of the nine townships

See footnote to paragraph 79ante.

which had ceased to be boroughs between 1871 and 1881, also a portion of Caulfield shire which had been severed from St. Kilda borough during the same period, the remainder is 410,335, which, added to the population in places outside local jurisdiction, already stated to be 7,818, amounts to a total of 418,153, representing the extra-urban

This term is not strictly correct, as the minor townships and villages are still included, also 5 towns which were formerly boroughs, but which had ceased to be such prior to the Census of 1871. The latter with their enumerated populations at the two periods are as follow :—Avoca, 768 in 1871 and 904 in 1881 ; Gisborne, 729 in 1871 and 379 in 1881 ; Kyneton, 2,849 in 1871 and 3,062 in 1881 ; Maldon, 3,817 in 1871 and 2,809 in 1881 ; Taradale, 1,945 in 1871 and 1,466 in 1881.

population of the colony, as against 357,378 at the previous Census. [Extra-urban population.]

87.

In the Census return of the goldfields, certain cities, towns, and boroughs are included and certain portions of the shires. The goldfield population of all classes was 270,428 in 1871, and 230,944 in 1881. The diminution between the periods was thus 39,484. [Population on goldfields.]

88.

The Chinese resident on the goldfields numbered 7,840, or 65 per cent. of the whole number. This proportion is much smaller than that which obtained at former Censuses. In 1871, 90 per cent., and in 1861 no less than 97 per cent., of the Chinese in the colony were enumerated on the goldfields. [Chinese on goldfields.]

89.

The Aborigines on the goldfields numbered 128, viz., 70 males and 58 females. The number of Aborigines enumerated on the goldfields in 1871 was 31 ; in 1861 it was 147. [Aborigines on goldfields.]

90.

Melbourne within its corporate limits is more than twice as populous as any other municipality in Victoria, but the city comprises only a small portion of the metropolis, or "Greater Melbourne" as it may be called, which may be considered to extend in all directions for a distance of ten miles from the Melbourne Post Office, and comprises 16 urban municipalities besides several townships and villages which still form portions of shires. The population within this area, which is being rapidly covered with houses, amounted when the Census was taken to 282,947, as against 206,780 in 1871. The increase within the periods was thus 76,167, or at the rate of 37 per cent. It has been stated already that the increase of the total population was at the rate of only 18 per cent., so that the metropolitan population increased in a much larger ratio than the general population. [Population of Melbourne.]

91.

In 1881 the population of Greater Melbourne was in the proportion of 33 per cent. of the total population of Victoria. In 1871 it was in the proportion of 29 per cent., and in 1861 of only 26 per cent. of that population.

92.

Chinese males numbering 1,044 and Chinese females numbering 58 were domiciled in Greater Melbourne at the time of the Census. Only 5 Aboriginal males and 4 Aboriginal females were enumerated in the metropolis on the same occasion. [Chinese and Aborigines in Melbourne.]

93.

The population of 489 cities, towns, boroughs, townships, and villages was ascertained from the Census returns. Of these, 8 contained upwards of twenty thousand inhabitants ; 3 had between ten and twenty thousand ; 2 had between nine and ten thousand ; 1 had between eight and nine thousand ; 2 had between seven and eight thousand ; 2 had between six and seven thousand ; 4 had between five and six thousand ; 6 had between four and five thousand ; 5 had between three and four thousand ; 8 had between two and three thousand ; 30 had between one and two thousand ; and 51 had between five hundred and a thousand. [Population of towns.]

ELECTORAL REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE.

94.

The boundaries of the electorates for both Houses of the Legislature having been changed between the Censuses of 1871 and 1881, it is not possible to make comparisons between the populations of the different provinces and electoral districts at the two periods. Complete information has, however, been obtained respecting the population within the boundaries of the respective electorates, as described in theLegislative Council Act1881 (45 Vict. No. 702) and theElectoral Act Amendment Act1876 (40 Vict. No. 548), which are at present in force. [Boundaries of electorates changed.]

95.

It is prescribed by the Legislative Council Act that each of the new provinces shall return three representatives, but this gives an unequal representation to the population of the different provinces ; the province most largely represented,i.e.,with the smallest number of persons to a representative, being the South-Eastern, and the one with the least amount of representation,i.e.,with the largest number of persons to a representative, being the Melbourne. The following are the numbers to a representative in each province, the provinces being arranged according to the order of the amount of representation they respectively receive :— [Representation for Legislative Council.]

REPRESENTATION OF ELECTORAL PROVINCES.
Persons to a Representative.
South-Eastern13,595
Gippsland14,135
Western15,818
North-Central17,757
Nelson17,971
Southern18,009
South-Western18,495
North-Eastern19,153
North-Western19,611
Northern24,050
Wellington25,473
South Yarra25,758
North Yarra26,604
Melbourne29,755
Average20,442

96.

The order of the provinces in regard to the representation of the male population, exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines, differs but slightly from that of the total population ; the South-Eastern Province, with 7,108 such males to a representative, being still at the top, and the Melbourne Province, with 14,582, still at the bottom. Taking one province with another, the average number of such males to a representative was 10,401.

97.

If the male population over 21 years of age be alone considered, and the Chinese and Aborigines be excluded as before, the average number of such males to a representative would be 5,080, ranging from 3,420 in the South-Eastern Province to 8,100 in the Melbourne Province.

98.

The range of the representation in the electoral districts is even greater than in the provinces. The district with the smallest number of persons to a representative is Belfast, with 4,812, and the next Kyneton Boroughs, with 6,092 ; on the other hand St. Kilda had no fewer than 18,275 persons to a representative, or nearly four times as many as Belfast, and Moira had 16,261. The electoral districts have been arranged in the order in which their populations are represented, in the same manner as the provinces, and the result is as follows :— [Representation for Legislative Assembly.]

REPRESENTATION OF ELECTORAL DISTRICTS.
Persons to a Representative.
Belfast4,812
Kyneton Boroughs6,092
Maldon6,205
Ararat6,393
Geelong6,418
Dundas6,477
Grenville6,690
Footscray6,785
Portland7,074
Evelyn7,227
Warrnambool7,457
Grant7,465
Benambra7,595
Brighton7,627
Castlemaine7,833
Dalhousie7,976
Bourke East8,020
Polwarth and South Grenville8,038
Normanby8,044
Melbourne East8,102
Ovens8,395
Maryborough and Talbot8,396
Melbourne West8,726
Sandridge8,771
Williamstown9,034
Stawell9,145
Villiers and Heytesbury9,268
Ballarat East9,279
Kilmore and Anglesey9,346
Bourke South9,583
Creswick9,767
Delatite9,889
Sandhurst9,943
Gippsland South9,969
Barwon10,197
Ripon and Hampden10,024
Bourke West10,381
Gippsland North10,525
Ballarat West10,713
Avoca10,866
Rodney11,106
Collingwood11,194
Mandurang11,409
Mornington11,467
Bourke Boroughs East11,548
Boroondara11,832
Fitzroy12,090
Kara Kara12,592
Emerald Hill12,687
Carlton13,589
Richmond14,068
Wimmera14,310
Melbourne North14,578
Moira16,261
St. Kilda18,275
Average9,983

99.

The order of the electoral districts in regard to the proportional representation of the male population of all ages exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines, varies somewhat from that of the total population, Belfast, however, being still at the top of the list, but Moira, changing places with St. Kilda, at the bottom. In Belfast there were 2,475 such males to a representative, in Geelong 2,962, in Kyneton Boroughs 2,997, in Ararat 3,119, and in Maldon 3,144. On the other hand, there were in Moira as many as 9,034 males to a representative, in St. Kilda 8,062, in Wimmera 8,031, and in North Melbourne 7,117. Throughout the electoral districts, the average number of such males to a representative was 5,080.

100.

Males of 21 years of age and upwards, exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines, were most largely represented in Belfast with a representative to as few as 1,017 ; next so in Kyneton Boroughs with one to 1,329, Geelong with one to 1,369, and Grenville with one to 1,451. Such males had the smallest amount of representation in Moira with a representative to as many as 4,503, then in Wimmera with one to 3,991, St. Kilda with one to 3,889, Richmond with one to 3,774, and North Melbourne with one to 3,600. The average throughout all the districts was one representative to every 2,481 such males.

101.

On the rolls of the 21st March 1881 there were 207,117 electors for the Legislative Assembly, whilst the number of males over 21 years of age, exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines, was 213,363, or only 6,246 more. In 22 out of the 55 districts the electors on the roll exceeded the number of such males. This was partly in consequence of some persons possessing votes in districts other than those in which they resided, partly by reason of the deaths or removals of electors, and partly in consequence of the names of the Chinese ratepayers being still on the electoral roll. The names of the electoral districts in which the electors were more numerous than the adult males of European birth or extraction were—Ballarat East and West, Belfast, Brighton, Carlton, Castlemaine, Collingwood, Dundas, Footscray, Geelong, Gippsland South, Grenville, Kyneton Boroughs, Mandurang, Maryborough and Talbot, Melbourne West, Mornington, Ovens, Richmond, Sandhurst, Stawell, and Williamstown.

PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES.

102.

In 1881 the sexes showed a closer approximation to uniformity than at any previous period of the colony's history, the average number of females to every 100 males being nearly 91 (90.75), as against 82 in 1871, 64 in 1861, and 67 in 1851. [Proportions of the sexes.]

103.

These are the proportions over the colony taken as a whole. In a few of the counties, however, the uniformity existing in 1881 between the numbers of the sexes was greater, whilst in others it was much less than the average of the colony. In Bourke, in which Melbourne and its suburbs are situated, the females actually exceeded the males, the numbers being respectively 155,948 and 151,634, and the proportion 103 of the former to every 100 of the latter. The other counties in which the sexes were most nearly equal in numbers were Grant, in which Geelong and Ballarat East are situated, with 98 females to 100 males ; Normanby, in which Portland is situated, with 97 females to 100 males ; Grenville, in which Ballarat city is situated, with 94 females to 100 males ; Villiers, in which Warrnambool and Belfast are situated, and Bendigo, in which Sandhurst is situated, each with 92 females to 100 males ; and Polwarth, in which Colac and Birregurra are situated, with 91 females to 100 males. On the other hand, in Weeah, situated in the heart of the mallee district, the inhabitants (which, however, numbered only 4) were all males ; in Karkarooc, situated also in the mallee, there were no more than 41 females to every 100 males ; in Dargo, situated in Gippsland, there were only 56 females to every 100 males ; and in Croajingolong and Tambo, situated in the extreme east of Gippsland, Millewa, situated in the mallee to the north of Weeah, and Benambra, situated in the north-eastern portion of the colony, the proportions were between 63 and 64 females to every 100 males.

104.

In the urban municipalities, taken as a whole, females exceeded males, the numbers being respectively 220,843 and 213,624, and the proportions 103.38 of the former to every 100 of the latter. The individual cities, towns, and boroughs in which the females exceeded the males numbered 26, the excess being proportionally greatest in St. Kilda, Prahran, Hawthorn, and Newtown and

Chilwell in the order named. The following are the names of these municipalities and the relative proportions of the sexes in each :—

CITIES, TOWNS, AND BOROUGHS IN WHICH FEMALES ARE MORE NUMEROUS THAN MALES.
No. of Females to 100 Males.
St. Kilda132.34
Prahran121.84
Hawthorn120.48
Newtown and Chilwell120.31
Brighton117.82
Queenscliff117.14
Geelong West115.91
Portland113.28
Geelong113.13
Wangaratta112.28
Collingwood109.38
Fitzroy107.71
Echuca107.50
Kew106.95
Richmond105.69
Belfast104.78
Williamstown104.67
Emerald Hill104.00
Stawell103.55
Ballarat103.39
Warrnambool103.06
Rutherglen102.51
Hamilton102.25
Clunes100.79
Essendon and Flemington100.59
Hotham100.24

105.

In the city of Melbourne, males numbered 33,102 and females 32,757, the excess of males being 345 ; but in Greater Melbourne, males numbered 139,006 and females 143,941, the excess in favor of females being 4,935. These figures furnish a proportion of 98.96 females to 100 males in Melbourne city, and of 103.55 females to 100 males in Greater Melbourne.

106.

In the rural municipalities (shires) taken as a whole there were only 80.25 females to every 100 males. The only shires in which the former outnumbered the latter were Caulfield with 120.57, Mornington with 101.57, Boroondara with 101.45, and Bulla with 100.20 females to 100 males.

107.

On the goldfields, the males outnumbered the females in all the mining districts. The excess was least in Sandhurst and Ballarat, each with 94 females to 100 males ; then in Ararat with 90, Castlemaine with 85, Beechworth and Maryborough each with 77, and Gippsland with 61 females to 100 males. In every one of the mining districts the excess of males over females was relatively less than in 1871.

108.

In all the Australasian colonies males are still much more numerous than females. The sexes are most nearly equal in Victoria, next so in Tasmania, and next so in South Australia ; the inequality is greatest in Western Australia, and next so in Queensland. This will be seen by the following figures :— [Proportion of the sexes in Australasian colonies.]

PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES IN THE AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES., (Including Chinese and Aborigines.)
Females to every 100 Males.
1. Victoria90.75
2. Tasmania89.18
3. South Australia87.05
4. New South Wales82.77
5. New Zealand81.66
6. Queensland72.09
7. Western Australia71.39

109.

In every one of the colonies Chinese females, even including the half-castes, bear a very small proportion to Chinese males. In Victoria the former, at the Census, amounted only to a fraction over 2 per cent. of the latter, and in most of the other colonies the relative proportion of females was still smaller. In the colonies, taken as a whole, the Chinese females numbered only 362 ; and as the Chinese males numbered 43,344, the proportion of the former was less than 1 (0.84) to every 100 of the latter. [Proportions of the sexes of Chinese.]

110.

In Victoria, Aboriginal females were in the proportion of 70 to every 100 Aboriginal males. In some of the other colonies the enumeration, so far as it went, showed a higher proportion of females, the proportion on the whole Australian continent being 82 to 100 males. In New Zealand, Maori females were in the proportion of 81 to every 100 Maori males. [Proportions of the sexes of Aborigines.]

DENSITY, AREALITY, AND PROXIMITY OF THE PEOPLE.

111.

The relation the inhabitants bear to the area of a country, or to any of its divisions, may be expressed in three ways, viz., first by what is termed the density of the population, secondly by its so-called areality, and thirdly by its so-called proximity. [Density, areality, and proximity.]

112.

The density of the population is ascertained by calculating the average number of persons to any given area, the most convenient being the square mile

These areas would only be the most convenient when making calculations relating to the country as a whole, or to any of its larger divisions, such as counties, shires, &c. In towns, it would be necessary to use smaller areas,e.g.,acres or roods for the density, and square yards for the areality.

; the areality is ascertained by finding the average number of smaller areas, the most convenient being acres, to each person ; the proximity is found by calculating the mean distance between person and person.

113.

In Victoria, excluding the persons in ships and vessels, the number of persons to the square mile (density) was 9.791, or nearly 98 persons to 10 square miles ; the number of acres to each person (areality) was about 65(65.364).

114.

In considering the mean proximity of the inhabitants of a country or district, they must be imagined to be placed at equal distances apart over its entire area ; when their proximity would be the distance between one person and another, or the extent of ground each would have to travel over to reach his next neighbors.2 The result of such a distribution in Victoria would show the mean proximity of the land population, when the Census was taken, to have been 604½ yards, or about 18 yards more than the third of a mile.

115.

The proximity being dependent upon the same conditions as the areality, and being in fact only another method of denoting the same thing, the two elements will be found to vary in the different counties in the same direction, the ratio of their variation being that of the latter to the square of the former upon the well-known principle of Plane Geometry, that similar figures are to one another in the duplicate ratio of their homologous lines.

SeeEuclid, Book VI., proposition XX.

The areality varies from the density in an inverse ratio, the one increasing as the other diminishes. The following table shows the mean

2 The following explanation of the manner in which the mean proximity of the population has been calculated is by Mr. E. F. Owen, the actuary for Friendly Societies attached to this department. :—

In presenting an idea of the relative populousness of the different districts of the colony under the form of the comparative proximity of the people, each county is supposed to be divided equally among the persons residing within its boundary, and each person to stand in the middle of his allotment, the shape of which being of necessity in such a case that of a regular figure of six equal sides or hexagon, as shown inthe diagram.

figure

The manner in which the quantities in the last column of the following table were obtained will be readily understood from the following explanation :—

The areaaof each person's allotment was first found in yards by dividing the area of the whole county A by the number of persons in it, P, thusa=The distancedseparating each pair of neighbours will be seen by reference to the diagrams to be double th eapothermp,i.e.,the line drawn form the centre of the hexagon to bisect a side perpendicularly.

In the diagram, P is the perpendicular of the right-angled triangle h p b, which is half of one of the six equilateral triangles into which the hexagon is divided ; b is the base of the same triangle, h the hypotenuse, and obviously, By Euclid I. 47,, and therefore, consequently, By Euclid I. 41, the area of the equilateral traiangle, and the area of the hexagon, thereforeand the distance

figure

This expression for the distance may be put in a form better adapted for calculation, for

The distance apart was thus found in each case by multiplying the number of square yards in each person's hexagonal allotment by 1.1547005, and extracting the square root of the product.

Rhe raltion of the quantities may be exhibited in another form which may perhaps prove useful. Sincewhereand , a result which may be thus expressed :—

The number of persons it would be necessary to assign to a district in order that they might stand at any given distance apart will be found by dividing the area of the distsrict by the square of the given distance and multiplying the quotient by the square root of 1 , that is by 1.1547.

Density, the mean areality, and the mean proximity in each of the counties, and in the whole colony :—

DENSITY, AREALITY, AND PROXIMITY IN EACH COUNTY.
Counties.Persons to the Square Mile. (Mean Density.)Acres to each Person. (Mean Areality.)Average Number of Yards Apart. (Mean Proximity.)
Anglesey3.737171.2978.2
Benambra1.350474.11627.8
Bendigo29.06822.0350.8
Bogong7.49385.4690.9
Borung6.342100.9751.0
Bourke178.7233.6141.5
Buln Buln3.064208.91080.5
Croajingolong0.1454390.84953.7
Dalhousie16.31739.2468.2
Dargo1.651387.71472.0
Delatite4.479142.9893.7
Dundas3.841166.6965.0
Evelyn6.166103.8761.6
Follett2.118302.21299.6
Gladstone11.09657.7567.8
Grant36.08117.7314.9
Grenville30.14221.2344.5
Gunbower5.652113.2795.5
Hampden4.646137.7877.4
Heytesbury5.083125.9838.9
Kara Kara7.17789.2705.9
Karkarooc0.02228336.712584.4
Lowan1.349474.31628.1
Millewa0.04613689.18746.7
Moira7.33687.2698.2
Mornington7.05790.7712.0
Normanby5.774110.8787.0
Polwarth4.514141.8890.1
Ripon7.01691.2714.0
Rodney10.68859.9578.5
Talbot41.92715.3292.1
Tambo0.4141545.22938.6
Tanjil5.422118.0812.2
Tatchera0.982651.51908.2
Villiers12.67650.5531.2
Weeah0.001640640.059836.3
Wonnangatta1.277501.01673.3
Total of Victoria, exclusive of persons in ships9.79165.4604.4

116.

It will be noticed that the figures vary widely in the different lines. In Bourke there were as many as 179 persons to the square mile, or only 3acres to each person, and the inhabitants were on the average only 141½ yards, or less than a twelfth of a mile apart. In Talbot, there were 42 persons to the square mile, 15acres to each person, and the inhabitants were 292 yards, or a sixth of a mile apart ; in Grant there were 36 persons to the square mile, 17acres to each person, and the inhabitants were 315 yards, or more than a fifth of a mile apart. On the other hand, in Weeah there was only 0.001 of a person to a square mile, or one person to 1,000 square miles or to 640,640 acres, and the 4 inhabitants, if equally scattered over the whole area of the county, would be 59,836 yards, or 34 miles apart. In Karkarooc, in the same manner, there were 22 persons to every 1,000 square miles, 28,337 acres to each person, and an equal distribution of the inhabitants would place 12,584 yards, or more than seven miles, between each and his next neighbour.

117.

The density of the population is much greater in Victoria than in any of the other Australasian colonies, as will be seen by the following figures, all of which are derived from the returns of the Census of 1881 :— [Density of population in Australasian colonies.]

DENSITY OF POPULATION IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES.
Persons to the square mile.
1. Victoria9.791
2. New Zealand5.115
3. Tasmania4.387
4. New South Wales2.431
5. Queensland0.350
6. South Australia0.317
7. Western Australia0.033

118.

It is thus seen that the colonies which approached most closely to Victoria in point of density of population are New Zealand and Tasmania, but in the former of these the population is little more than half as dense, and in the latter it is not

Half as dense as it is in Victoria ; in New South Wales the density is only a quarter as great as in Victoria, whilst in the other three colonies, in which there is only a small fraction of a person to the square mile, the comparison with Victoria is much wider still.

119.

In the continent of Australia, taken as a whole, there was at the Census 0.736 of a person to the square mile, or about 74 persons to 100 square miles ; in Australia, with Tasmania and New Zealand added, there was 0.916 of a person to the square mile, or 92 persons to 100 square miles.

DOMICILIATION OF THE PEOPLE.

120.

The habitations of all descriptions returned in 1881 numbered 179,816, of which 176,719 were dwelling-houses, 465 were stores, offices, or public buildings in which some person abode on the Census night, and 2,632 were tents. Of the dwelling-houses, 9,049 were unoccupied and 681 were in course of erection. In accordance with previous practice no account was taken of stores or public buildings without resident caretakers. [Habitations, materials, and rooms.]

121.

The material of which 45,615 houses were built was brick or stone ; 115,143 houses were built of wood, iron, or lath and plaster ; 12,604 of the dwellings were huts built of slabs, bark, or mud ; the 2,632 tents were constructed of canvas, linen, or some other textile fabric ; and the materials of 3,822 houses were not specified.

122.

The total number of rooms was 765,339, which were distributed as follows :—13,850 dwellings had one room ; 24,615 had two rooms ; 71,785 had three or four ; 37,687 had five or six ; 24,514 had more than six ; and of 7,365 the number of rooms was not returned.

123.

Between the Censuses of 1871 and 1881 the dwellings of all kinds increased by 21,335, and the inhabited dwellings by 19,468.

124.

It is satisfactory to find that the tendency to build substantial habitations is greater than formerly, for whilst brick and stone houses increased 36 per cent. between the Censuses, wood, iron, and lath and plaster houses increased only 13 per cent. ; and huts and tents actually decreased in numbers, the former by 3,895, and the latter by 2,024.

125.

The superior character of the dwellings in 1881 is also indicated by the number of rooms, for whilst houses of one and two rooms decreased by 6,888 and 8,608 respectively, and houses of three and four rooms increased only 14 per cent., houses of five and six rooms increased 72 per cent., and houses of more than six rooms increased 60 per cent.

126.

In 1881, the average number of rooms to a dwelling was 4.26, as against 3.78 in 1871, 2.79 in 1861, and 2.42 in 1857.

127.

The unoccupied houses amounted to about 5 per cent. of the whole. Of the 9,049 returned, 3,603 were in cities, towns, and boroughs, and 5,381 in shires ; the proportion of vacant houses to the whole number being 4 per cent. in the former and 6 per cent. in the latter. The towns which had the largest number of houses untenanted were Melbourne, with 358 ; Sandhurst, with 317 ; Geelong, with 228 ; Stawell, with 192 ; Prahran, with 162 ; Richmond, with 161 ; Collingwood, with 140 ; Fitzroy, with 130 ; Emerald Hill, with 120 ; and St. Kilda, with 110. The shires which contained the largest number of unoccupied houses were Echuca, with 342 ; Swan Hill, with 238 ; St. Arnaud, with 182 ; Marong, with 161 ; Tullaroop, with 149 ; Waranga, with 120 ; and Ballan, with 115. The enumerator for Horsham, Mr. H. R. Usher, gives an explanation of the reason for there being so many unoccupied houses in his district, which may perhaps account for the same circumstance in other parts of the interior. He writes as follows :— [Unoccupied houses.]

"Many of the selectors had left their houses at the time of the taking of the Census for a short time, on account of the dryness of the season and the almost entire absence of water in their immediate localities. Again, in many cases three, four, and five blocks have been taken up by families, the sons or daughters having built upon their selections, intending eventually to reside thereon, but at present residing with their parents. I find, from inquiries which I have instituted, that only about one-third of the number of houses returned as unoccupied can be considered as permanently uninhabited."

128.

The density, areality, and proximity of the houses in different districts is ascertained in a similar manner to that adopted in order to ascertain the same elements in regard to the population. The following is the result of such a calculation in [Density, areality, and proximity of houses.]

Reference to the former for each county in Victoria and for the entire colony. The table relates only to the inhabited houses ; those unoccupied or unfinished not being taken into account :—

DENSITY, AREALITY, AND PROXIMITY OF DWELLINGS.
Counties.Dwellings to the Square Mile. (Mean Density.)Acres to each Dwelling. (Mean Areality.)Average Number of Yards apart. (Mean Proximity.)
Anglesey0.804796.12109.4
Benambra0.3231979.03325.7
Bendigo6.049105.8768.9
Bogong1.591402.21499.3
Borung1.310488.21651.9
Bourke33.13519.3328.6
Buln Buln0.6321012.32378.5
Croajingolong0.03319580.510460.9
Dalhousie3.191200.61058.8
Dargo0.4151541.72935.3
Delatite0.936683.51954.4
Dundas0.699915.32261.7
Evelyn1.301491.91658.0
Follett0.3821672.83057.6
Gladstone2.835225.71123.2
Grant7.01091.3714.3
Grenville5.942107.7775.9
Gunbower1.176544.01743.6
Hampden0.854749.52046.6
Heytesbury0.898712.81996.0
Kara Kara1.553412.01517.5
Karkarooc0.00699924.223631.6
Lowan0.2632430.43685.5
Millewa0.00973744.520301.2
Moira1.439444.61576.3
Mornington1.471435.11559.5
Normanby1.068599.51830.4
Polwarth0.837764.92067.5
Ripon1.416452.11589.6
Rodney2.069309.31314.7
Talbot9.34868.5618.6
Tambo0.0728244.26787.8
Tanjil1.097583.31805.5
Tatchera0.2043130.74182.9
Villiers2.195291.51276.4
Weeah*0.0022562560.0
Wonnangatta0.3152027.63366.2
Total, exclusive of ships and unoccupied and unfinished houses1.935330.71359.5
[* There was only one house in Weeah.]

129.

As the average number of persons to a house does not differ greatly in the several counties, the density of the houses will be found to vary in about the same ratio as that of the persons. Thus a comparison of this table with a previous one

See table following paragraph 115ante.

will show that both houses and persons are in closest proximity in Bourke, Talbot, Grant, Bendigo, and Grenville, and, omitting Weeah (where there is only one house), furthest apart in Karkarooc, Millewa, and Croajingolong, and so on for the other counties.

130.

By the figures in the last column it will be seen that, if a sub-enumerator had to leave schedules at, or a rate-collector had to visit, 100 houses of proximity equal to the average of the colony, and he could go straight from house to house, he would have to travel 77 miles and 430 yards ; if equal to the average of Bourke he would have to travel only 18 miles and 1,180 yards ; but if equal to the average of Karkarooc he would have to travel as much as 1,342 miles and 1,240 yards, and if equal to the average of Croajingolong he would have to travel 594 miles and 650 yards, &c.

131.

At the Census of 1881, 818,843 persons, or 95 per cent. of the population, were living in houses properly so called ; 33,858, or less than 4 per cent., were living in slab, bark, or mud huts ; 4,661, or 1 in 185, were living in tents ; 1846, or 1 in 467, were living in ships, and 1,187, or 1 in 726, were camping out. At no previous Census-period since the discovery of gold was the population so well housed as at the one under review. In 1871 less than 93 per cent., in 1861 only 69 per cent., and in 1857, only 63 per cent. of the population were living in houses. [Population and dwellings.]

132.

Since the days of the early gold discoveries, an entire change has come over the habits of the population in respect to living in tents. In 1857, 135,866 persons were living in 45,161 tents, and in 1861, 122,877 persons were living in 42,750 tents, whereas in 1871 only 8,660, and in 1881 only 4,661 persons were living in tents ; the number of such habitations being reduced to 4,656 and 2,632.

133.

The persons camping out on the Census night numbered 2,621 in 1861, and 2,661 in 1871, but only 1,846 in 1881.

134.

The persons in ships were fewer in 1881 than at any of the three previous Census-periods. In 1857 there were 3,773 persons afloat in the bays and harbors of the colony, but then several hulks containing prisoners were moored in Hobson's Bay. By 1861, the prison hulks having been abolished, the shipping population had fallen to 1,918 ; this had risen to 2,252 in 1871, but had again fallen to 1,846 in 1881.

135.

As the houses are larger than formerly, so also the average number of persons they contain has increased. In 1881, throughout the colony, the mean number of persons to an inhabited dwelling was about 5 (5.06) as against 4.84 in 1871, 4.16, in 1861, and 4.21 in 1857.

136.

As a rule there are more people to a house in town than in the country. In 1881 the average number was 5.18 in cities, towns, and boroughs, and 4.94 in shires.

137.

On the goldfields the average number of persons to each habitation was 4.17 in 1871, and 4.56 in 1881.

138.

The total number of rooms in all the houses in the colony was 765,339, and as the population living on land numbered 860,500, there was not one room to each person. The number of persons, however, approached nearer to the number of apartments in 1881 than at former periods, the proportion of persons to a room having been 1.12, as against 1.22 in 1871, 1.44 in 1861, and 1.65 in 1857.

139.

In cities, towns, and boroughs the rooms numbered 414,806, and the persons 434,467, so that the number of rooms approached closely to that of persons. In shires the difference was much greater, there being no more than 347,136 rooms to 420,061 persons. The proportion of persons to each room was 1.05 in the former and 1.21 in the latter.

140.

On the average, the Chinese are not so well housed as the Europeans, as only 6,832 out of 12,128, or about 56 per cent., were living in houses properly so called. Of the remainder, 5,122 were living in huts, 154 in tents, 12 were camping out, and 8 were in ships. [Domicillation of Chinese.]

141.

It has often been confidently asserted that the Chinese crowd together in their dwellings in large numbers, and that, especially in Little Bourke street, Melbourne, and the surrounding lanes and rights-of-way, they congregate so densely as to be a positive source of danger to the health of the rest of the community. To ascertain the truth of this assertion I have examined the schedules relating to the locality in question and find the statement to be entirely without foundation, there being, on the average, fewer persons in the houses inhabited by Chinese than in those occupied by Europeans. The whole number of persons living in the dwellings represented by the schedules examined was 548, who were spread over 156 houses, containing 637 rooms. There were thus only 3.5 persons to a house, the average of the colony being 5, as already stated, and considerably less than 1 person to a room, the average of the colony being over 1 to a room. Not one of the houses was found to be overcrowded, there being generally no more than from 2 to 4 persons in each. The greatest number returned in any house was 15, the rooms in which (a large building formerly used as a horse bazaar) were set down as numbering 24 ; the next highest numbers were 11 in a nine-roomed house, 11 in a ten-roomed house, and 10 in a six-roomed house.

142.

Nearly all the Aborigines are now living under shelter. Of the 780 returned, 680 were in houses or huts, and only 100 were camping out. At the Census of 1871 the reverse was the case, as out of 1,330 Aborigines, 739 were camped out, and only 591 were housed or hutted. [Domiciliation of Aborigines.]

143.

The following table shows the number of inhabited dwellings returned in each Australasian colony, the average number of such dwellings to the square mile, and the average number of persons to the inhabited house :— [Domicillation in Australasian colonies.]

INHABITED DWELLINGS IN EACH AUSTRALASIAN COLONY, 1881.
Colony.Inhabited Dwellings.Persons to the Inhabited Dwelling.
Total Number.Number to the Square Mile.
Victoria170,0861.935.06
New South Wales135,3260.445.55
Queensland45,1160.075.19
South Australia51,1030.065.06
Western Australia5271*0.016.08
Total406,9020.145.32
Tasmania21,8580.835.29
New Zealand95,7500.925.58
Grand Total524,5100.175.37
[* It is not stated whether all these dwellings were inhabited.]

144.

It will be observed that Victoria is the only colony which has, on the average, more than 1 habitation to the square mile, New Zealand coming next, with a small fraction less than 1 ; whilst Western Australia has only 1 habitation to every 100 square miles ; South Australia, 1 to every 17 square miles, and Queensland, 1 to every 14 square miles. It will be further noticed that Victoria has fewer persons to the habitation than any of the other colonies, and that there are more persons to the habitation in Western Australia than in any of the other colonies.

BIRTHPLACES OF THE PEOPLE.

145.

The country of birth of 857,587 persons out of a total of 862,346 was entered on the Census Schedules, and the information given showed that of these, 826,840 were natives of British, and 30,747 of Foreign, dominions. Of the remaining 4,759, there are grounds for assuming that all but 52 were British. It thus appears that 831,547 persons, or 96½ per cent. of the population, were British subjects by birth, and 30,799, or only 3½ per cent., were foreigners. [Birthplaces.]

146.

As many as 539,060 persons, or 62 per cent. of the population, were natives of the Australasian colonies, and of these, 499,199, or 93 per cent., were born in Victoria ; the proportion of the latter to the whole population was 58 per cent. [Australasians.]

147.

This is the first Census of which the returns showed half the population to be natives of the colony. The Victorian born, in proportion to the whole, amounted only to 45 per cent. in 1871 ; 26 per cent. in 1861 ; 17 per cent. in 1857, and 13 per cent. in 1854.

148.

Of natives of the other Australasian colonies living in Victoria, the most numerous were those of Tasmania, which numbered 11,876 ; then those of South Australia and New South Wales, which numbered respectively, 9,928 and 9,826 ; of New Zealand, which numbered 2,885 ; of Queensland, which numbered 1,120 ; of Western Australia, which numbered 404, and of Fiji, which numbered 95. Besides these, there were 3,727 persons simply stated to have been born in Australia or Australasia, without the name of the colony being mentioned.

149.

Next to the native Australasians, persons born in the United Kingdom formed the largest section of the population. These numbered 282,339, of whom 142,906 were born in England, 86,733 in Ireland, 48,153 in Scotland, and 4,547 in Wales. [Other British subjects.]

150.

Of the other British subjects, 3,564 were born in British possessions outside Australasia and the British Isles, 1,877 were born at sea, and of 4,707 the birthplace was not specified.

151.

The other British possessions referred to may be divided into European, Asiatic, African, and American. The European possessions comprise Heligoland, Malta, and Gibraltar, which jointly supplied 136 persons to the population ; the Asiatic possessions comprise India, which supplied 998 persons, including 32 of British race, and Ceylon, Burmah, the Straits Settlements, and Hong Kong, which together supplied 132 persons, including one person of British race ; the African possessions comprise the Cape Colony, which supplied 380, the Mauritius, which supplied 169, and Natal, Basutoland, St. Helena, Ascension, and Sierra Leone, which together supplied 89 persons ; the American possessions comprise the Dominion of Canada, which supplied 1,118, the West India Islands, which supplied 432, and Newfoundland, the Bermudas, British Guiana, and the Falkland Islands, which together supplied 110 persons.

152.

The foreigners by birth may be divided into natives of European, Asiatic, African, American, and Polynesian countries. To the first of these divisions, Germany—which next to China is the foreign nationality most largely represented in the Victorian population—contributed 8,571 persons ; Sweden and Norway, 1,375 ; France, 1,334 ; Switzerland, 1,314 ; Denmark, 1,039 ; Italy, 947 ; Russia, 369 ; Holland and its Dependencies, 342 ; Austria, 323 ; Portugal and its Dependencies, 153 ; Spain and its Dependencies, 148 ; Belgium, 112 ; Greece, 90 ; and Europe (country not named), 194. To the Asiatic group, China—natives of which are of all foreigners the most numerous in Victoria—contributed 11,799 ; Persia, 16 ; Japan, 5 ; and Borneo, 1. To the African group, Egypt contributed 3 ; Madagascar, 2 ; and Africa (country not named), 92. To the American group, the United States—which after China and Germany is the foreign nationality most largely represented—contributed 2,343 ; Brazil, 42 ; Chili, 24 ; Hayti, 6 ; Mexico, 5 ; Peru, 2 ; and South America (country not named), 50. [Foreigners.]

To the Polynesian group, the South Sea Islands contributed 19, and the Sandwich Islands, 10. Besides these, 17 foreign subjects were stated to have been born at sea, and of 52 foreigners the place of birth was not stated.

153.

Of natives of foreign countries, 183 were stated to be British subjects by naturalization, viz., 128 born in Germany, 10 in Russia, 6 in France, 6 in Denmark, 6 in the United States, 5 in Greece, 4 in Italy, 4 in China, 3 in Austria, 3 in Portugal, 3 in Sweden, 2 in Holland, 1 in Belgium, 1 in Spain, and 1 in Central America ; 17 were stated to be of British parentage, viz., 11 born in the United States, 1 each in France, Sweden, Russia, and the Ionian Islands, and 2 in the South Sea Islands. [Naturalized British subjects.]

154.

Between the Censuses of 1871 and 1881 natives of Victoria increased by 169,602. Natives of all the other Australasian colonies, resident in Victoria, also increased in numbers, viz., natives of South Australia by 3,034, of Tasmania by 2,579, of New South Wales by 1,510, of New Zealand by 1,338, of Queensland by 457, of Western Australia by 92, of Fiji by 77, and of Australia or Australasia (colony not named) by 2,087. Natives of almost all countries, outside of Australasia, which found place in our population in 1871, showed smaller numbers in 1881. Natives of England decreased by 21,381, of Wales by 2,067, of Scotland by 8,057, of Ireland by 13,735, of other British Possessions by 1,780, of Germany by 424, of China by 6,058, and of the United States by 80. There were slight increases in the case of France and a few other foreign countries, but in most of these the tendency was in the direction of decrease. The total diminution in the number of natives of countries outside of Australasia was 49,958. [Increase or decrease of each nationality.]

155.

The increase of the native Victorians was greater by 21,920 between 1861 and 1871 than between 1871 and 1881, the numbers of Victorian born added to the population in the two intervals respectively being 191,522 and 169,602. The first of these increases was upon a population of 540,322, and was in the proportion of 35 per cent., whilst the second was upon a population of 731,528, and amounted to only 23 per cent.

156.

It is a remarkable fact that amongst natives of all the Australasian colonies, except Queensland and Fiji, resident in Victoria, females were more numerous than males, the net excess of Australasian females over Australasian males being 5,788. In the case of natives of Victoria, the excess of females was 4,143 ; of New South Wales, 330 ; of South Australia, 162 ; of Western Australia, 46 ; of Tasmania, 788 ; of New Zealand, 49 ; and of Australia (colony not named), 459. On the other hand, males exceeded females in the case of natives of Queensland by 170, and of Fiji by 19. [Proportion of the sexes.]

157.

Besides these instances, the only other important case of the females of any nationality living in Victoria, outnumbering the males of the same nationality, was that of the Irish, amongst whom the excess of females was 4,281.

158.

The following were the proportions of the sexes in every 1,000 persons of different birthplaces living in Victoria :—Victorians, males 496, females 504 ; other Australians, males 479, females 521 ; English, males 578, females 422 ; Welsh, males 609, females 391 ; Scotch, males 545, females 455 ; Irish, males 475, females 525 ; natives of other British possessions, males 643, females 357 ; French, males 781, females 219 ; Germans and Austrians, males 723, females 277 ; Americans, males 702, females 298 ; Chinese, males 995, females 5. Taking British subjects as a whole, the proportions in every 1,000 were—males 512, females 488 ; and taking foreign subjects as a whole, the proportions per 1,000 were—males 861, females 139.

159.

Of the 11,869 Chinese males returned—which include half-castes—126 were set down as being born elsewhere than in the Chinese Empire, viz. :—81 in Victoria, 4 in New South Wales, 38 in the British Possession of Hong Kong,

In the tables of birthplaces published before this report was written, only 19 of the Chinese were set down as born in Hong Kong, but a subsequent investigation has led to the discovery of entries of 19 more.

and 2 in that of Singapore, and 1 in the Portuguese Possession of Macao. Of the 259 Chinese females (also including half-castes), 203 were stated to have been born outside the Empire, viz., 197 in Victoria, 4 in New South Wales, 1 in Tasmania, and 1 in Hong Kong. It is probable that many more of the Chinese were born in Hong Kong, and possibly a few more in Macao, it being almost certain that some of the sub-enumerators did not realize the necessity of noting the distinction between British or Portuguese China, and China proper. [Birthplace of Chinese.]

160.

All the Aborigines were not natives of Victoria. Of the 460 males, 26 were stated to have been born in New South Wales, 15 in Queensland, and 6 in South Australia. Of the 320 females, 18 were returned as natives of New South Wales, 2 of Queensland, 4 of South Australia, and 1 of Western Australia. [Birthplaces of Aborigines.]

161.

Natives of Victoria, backed by Victorian enterprise, energy, skill, and capital, have made their way into every other colony of the group. The exact number of Victorians in New South Wales, Queensland, and Tasmania, has been ascertained from their Census returns, but it is to be regretted that in the tables of South Australia, Western Australia, and New Zealand, the numbers born in Australasia outside those colonies, have not been shown separately, but have been merely grouped under the head of "Other Australasian Colonies." Judging, however, from the proportions shown in the colonies in which the numbers are known, and from other circumstances, it may fairly be estimated that one-third of those grouped as stated, are natives of Victoria. This would give a total of 539,000 Victorians distributed throughout Australasia, of whom 40,000 were living outside the boundaries of the colony of their birth. These were spread over the different colonies as follow :— [Victorians in other colonies]

VICTORIANS IN EACH AUSTRALASIAN COLONY, 1881.
Colony in which resident.Numbers born in Victoria.
Males.Females.Total.
Victoria247,528251,671499,199
New South Wales14,32810,67825,006
Queensland1,8761,2733,149
South Australia*1,7451,4433,188
Western Australia*13387220
Total265,610265,152530,762
Tasmania1,3781,2062,584
New Zealand*2,9292,8305,759
Grand Total269,917269,188539,105
[* In these cases it has been estimated that one-third of those stated to have been born in "Other Australian Colonies," were Victorian.]

162.

The following table contains a statement of the birthplaces of the people of each Australasian colony, according to the returns of the Census of 1881 ; also the number of males and females of each birthplace :— [Birthplaces of persons in each Australasian colony.]

BIRTHPLACES OF THE PEOPLE IN EACH AUSTRALASIAN COLONY, 1881.
Colony.Number of Persons born in—Total.
The Colony.*Other Australasian Colonies.†England and Wales.Scotland.Ireland.Other British Possessions.France.Germany.The United States.China.Other Foreign Countries.Residue.‡
MALES.
Victoria247,52819,05185,42626,22441,2262,3481,0426,1441,64511,7435,8883,818452,083
New South Wales234,45324,66570,78715,82836,4942,6741,2055,3671,94710,1416,0381,550411,149
Queensland54,2818,64022,6086,07014,8428842616,89126111,2249,339743136,044
South Australia85,2285,23633,8336,0289,0609032135,234§4,1462,390737153,008
Western Australia10,5284004,9805751,519232161681453057718,702
Total632,01857,992217,63454,725103,1416,8322,74223,6973,92137,39923,9606,9251,170,986
Tasmania39,8942,05911,3831,9313,401364284649684230339761,162
New Zealand136,7728,78870,70431,00527,6662,4296143,1886375,0175,8851,268293,973
Total Males808,68468,839299,72187,661134,2089,6253,38427,3494,65443,25830,1488,5901,526,121
FEMALES.
Victoria251,67120,71562,02721,92945,5071,3112922,427698567952,835410,263
New South Wales232,74919,84939,8879,25132,6981,0872922,15457164740977340,319
Queensland52,5406,02514,7823,85913,453278794,74783291,75543698,066
South Australia84,6254,33025,3184,6099,186445803,567§5476562133,203
Western Australia9,5912601,7801571,456129101994913,352
Total631,17651,179143,79439,805102,3003,13375212,9051,3711543,7754,859995,203
Tasmania40,0971,9285,9241,8133,791301313184529419954,543
New Zealand130,7298,48950,48321,74821,6971,5852341,631204162,351890240,057
Total Females802,00261,596200,20163,366127,7885,0191,01714,8541,6201726,2205,9481,289,803
BOTH SEXES1,610,686130,435499,922151,027261,99614,6444,40142,2036,27443,43036,36814,5382,815,924
[* Including enumerated Aborigines.] [† Not including Fiji.] [‡ Comprising those born at sea and those of whom the birthplace was not returned.] [§ In South Australia those born in the United States were not separated from natives of "Other Foreign Countries."]

163.

The table shows the natives of the Australasian colonies resident therein to have numbered 1,740,000, of whom 1,370,000 were born on the Australian continent. The former number furnishes a proportion of 62 per cent., and the latter one of 63 per cent. to the total population.

164.

Although New South Wales had been settled fully twice as long as Victoria,

Captain Phillip landed in New South Wales on the 18th January 1788. Batman arrived at Port Phillip on the 29th May 1835, Fawkner's party on the 28th August 1835, and Fawkner himself on the 18th October 1835.—See Victorian Year-Book, 1874, pp. 1 and 8. Ferres, Melbourne, 1875.

the table shows that natives of Victoria resident therein outnumbered resident natives of New South Wales by about 32,000.

165.

By comparing figures in the last two tables, it will be found that the natives of other Australasian colonies, resident in Victoria, were about equal to the Victorians resident in the other Australasian colonies, the numbers respectively being 39,906 and 39,766. Victorian males, however, living out of the colony were more numerous than male natives of the other colonies living in Victoria, the reverse being the case as regards the females. The following are the figures :—

Males.Females.Total.
Victorians living in other Australasian colonies22,38917,51739,906
Natives of other Australasian colonies living in Victoria19,05120,71539,766

166.

The Chinese in the Australasian colonies are shown by the last table to have numbered 43,400. It is estimated that in 1859 nearly that number (42,000) were in Victoria alone. [Chinese in Australasian colonies.]

See Victorian Year-Book, 1881-2, pp. 68 and 69.

RELIGIONS OF THE PEOPLE.

167.

At the Census under notice, as well as at the two previous Censuses, a statement of religious belief was not made compulsory, persons having a conscientious objection to make such a statement being allowed to enter the word "object" instead. For this reason the information respecting the Religions of the People, although correct as far as it goes, is not quite so complete as that obtained under the other heads. The total number of persons who made a return of their belief was 847,291, those who stated their objection to do so numbered 8,598, and those who left the space for it altogether blank numbered 6,457. [Religions.]

168.

In classifying the religions, the exact entry made in the Census schedule was copied upon the cards and afterwards placed under the proper head, and in the event of there being no entry of religion in the schedule, the person, if an adult, was set down as unspecified. Children, respecting whom no return of religion was made, were entered as of the religion of their parents if the father and mother were of the same religion, or if the religion of only one parent was stated. If, however, the parents were of widely different denominations, as for instance one being a Protestant and the other a Roman Catholic or a Jew, no assumption was made as to the religion it was intended to bring such children up to, and they were classed with the unspecified ; but if the parents were of different Protestant sects the boys were entered as of the religion of the father, the girls of that of the mother. If such children were the offspring of a woman of European extraction and a Chinaman, they were all set down as of the religion of the mother.

169.

Protestants and Roman Catholics together numbered 821,872, and amounted to 97 per cent. of those whose religious beliefs were stated. The number of each of these bodies, and its proportion to the sum of the two, was as follows at the last three Censuses :— [Protestants and Roman Catholics.]

PROTESTANTS AND ROMAN CATHOLICS, 1861 TO 1881.
Name of Denomination.1861.1871.1881.
Numbers.Proportions per cent.Numbers.Proportions per cent.Numbers.Proportions per cent.
Protestants380,56377.61517,32675.20618,39275.24
Roman Catholics109,82922.39170,62024.80203,48024.76
Total490,392100.00687,946100.00821,872100.00

170.

It will be observed that, relatively to their combined numbers, Roman Catholics lost and Protestants gained by a small fraction between the last two Censuses. This is different from the experience between the Censuses of 1861 and 1871, when, in proportion to their joint numbers, Roman Catholics gained and Protestants lost considerably.

171.

Relatively to the total population, both Protestants and Roman Catholics gained slightly between 1871 and 1881, the gain of the former being, however, the greater. Between 1861 and 1871, while Roman Catholics gained considerably in proportion to the population, Protestants lost ground. This loss was, however, more than made up between 1871 and 1881. The following are the proportions to every 10,000 of the total population at the three periods :—

PROPORTIONS OF PROTESTANTS AND ROMAN CATHOLICS TO THE TOTAL POPULATION, 1861 TO 1881.
1861.1871.1881.
Protestants7,2887,2247,297
Roman Catholics2,1022,3832,402
Residue610393301
10,00010,00010,000

172.

Of the Protestant sects the most important numerically are the Church of England, and the Presbyterian, Methodist, Independent, and Baptist Churches. The following are the numbers and proportions to the total number of Protestants of each of these denominations at the same three Censuses :— [Protestant sects.]

PROTESTANT DENOMINATIONS, 1861 TO 1881.
Name of Sect.1861.1871.1881.
Numbers.Proportions per cent.Numbers.Proportions per cent.Numbers.Proportions per cent.
Church of England212,06855.73257,83549.84311,29150.34
Presbyterians87,08422.88112,98321.84132,59121.44
Methodists45,86012.0590,02617.40108,39317.53
Independents12,7963.3618,1913.5219,8783.21
Baptists9,0012.3716,3113.1520,3733.30
Other Protestants13,7543.6121,9804.2525,8664.18
Total Protestants380,563100.00517,326100.00618,392100.00

173.

It will be seen that, in proportion to the whole number of Protestants, the Church of England and the Presbyterians lost, and the Methodists, Independents, and Baptists gained between 1861 and 1871 ; also that the Church of England, the Methodists, and the Baptists gained and the Presbyterians and Independents lost between 1871 and 1881.

174.

The following are the proportions of the same Protestant sects to every 10,000 of the total population at the three periods :—

PROPORTION OF EACH PROTESTANT DENOMINATION TO THE TOTAL POPULATION, 1861 TO 1881.
1861.1871.1881.
Church of England4,0593,6013,674
Presbyterians1,6671,5781,564
Methodists8781,2571,279
Independents245254235
Baptists172228240
Other Protestants267306305
Residue2,7122,7762,703
10,00010,00010,000

175.

In proportion to the total population, the Church of England lost in the interval between 1861 and 1871, but gained slightly between 1871 and 1881 ; the Presbyterians lost and the Methodists and Baptists gained during both intervals, the Independents and Other Protestants gained in the first interval, but lost in the second.

176.

In 1881 the Jews numbered 4,330, or 759 more than at the previous Census ; they amount to about half per cent. of the population. [Jews.]

177.

In accordance with a practice which has always prevailed in Victoria, the persons who returned themselves as Protestants, without any qualification, are classed with members of the Church of England. Their numbers, however, which on this occasion amounted to 11,639, have been kept separate, so that they might be [Church of England.]

eliminated by any who might disapprove of this classification. The adherents of the Free Church of England, which numbered 110 are also included with the Church of England.

178.

Partly in consequence of want of accord between the two principal branches of the Presbyterian denomination, and partly from the fact that a large proportion of the members of that church do not use any qualifying term to the word "Presbyterian" when entering their religion in the householder's schedule, there has at each Census been some difficulty in classifying the members of this sect. Before the Census which is the subject of this report was taken, I had some correspondence with the heads of the two branches referred to, viz., the Presbyterian Church of Victoria and the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria, on which occasion I suggested that those who returned themselves simply as Presbyterians might be considered to belong to the former, and those who returned themselves as Free Presbyterians to the latter. The governing body of the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria was willing to accept this arrangement, but not so that of the Presbyterian Church of Victoria, and in consequence it became necessary to make four divisions of these two branches of the Presbyterian Church instead of two, which would have sufficed if my proposition had been acceded to. As the figures stand, the Presbyterian Church of Victoria shows a falling-off of no less than 44,677 persons, but if those who were returned as Presbyterians without definition be embodied with these, the numbers would amount to 126,249 and the increase to 33,737. Those who were returned as of the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria fell off largely, as also did those who were returned as Free Presbyterians only, their joint number in 1881 being only 5,748, as against 20,160 in 1871. Besides these Presbyterian bodies, there were, in 1881, Reformed Presbyterians with 114, United Presbyterians with 390, Welsh Presbyterians with 40, Dutch Presbyterians with 3, the Presbyterian Synod of Victoria with 42, the Presbyterian Church of England with 3, and the Puritans with 2 adherents. [Presbyterians.]

179.

By far the largest body of Methodists are the Wesleyans, who numbered 97,115 in 1881, and increased in ten years by 16,624. Then there are Primitive Methodists, who numbered 8,707 and increased by 807 ; United Free Methodists, who numbered 1,625 and increased by 299 ; and New Connection Methodists, who numbered 159 and decreased by 70. Besides these, the returns showed 2 Particular Methodists, 16 Independent Methodists, 17 Welsh Methodists, 5 members of the Wesleyan Free Church, and 747 persons returned simply as Methodists. [Methodists.]

180.

Next to the Church of England, the Presbyterians, and the Wesleyans, the most important Protestant sects were as follow :—The Baptists, which in 1881 numbered 20,373 and increased in ten years by 4,062 ; the Independents, which numbered 19,878 and increased by 1,687 ; the Lutherans (composed almost entirely of Germans or their descendants), which numbered 11,149 and increased by 590 ; the Bible Christians—formerly classed with Wesleyans, but at their own request kept separate from that body in the returns of the Census under review—which numbered 6,660 and increased by 2,466 ; the Disciples of Christ—styling themselves also Members of the Church of Christ or simply Christians—which numbered 4,859 and increased by 1,319 ; the Unitarians, which numbered 942 and decreased by 74 ; the Calvinists—originally a Welsh sect, also called Calvinistic Methodists, but more closely resembling Presbyterians—which numbered 712 and decreased by 720, or more than half ; the Christian Brethren—also called Plymouth Brethren or simply Brethren—which numbered 648 and increased by 455 ; the Society of Friends—also called Quakers—which numbered 282 and decreased by 51 ; and the Moravians or United Brethren, which numbered 172 and increased by 79. Besides these there were a number of minor Protestant sects with a few adherents to each, the Calvinistic Reform Church with 11, the Free Church of Victoria, with 24 (all females), the United Free Church with 10, the Union Church with 25, the Reunion with 3, the Welsh Union with 8, the Welsh Church with 51, the French Reformed Church with 7, the sect of Waldenses with, 1 (a sailor on board the Italian war transportEuropa), the Dutch Reformed Church with 9, the Church of Denmark with 3, the Reformed Church of Hungary with 2, the Church of Sweden with 1, the Reformed Church of Switzerland with 1. Then there were 4 Sandemanians, 3 Morrisonians, 3 Reformed Protestants, 100 Evangelists, 7 Evangelical Reformers, 4 members of the Evangelical Union, 7 Second Adventists, 1 Huguenot, and 1 Sankeyite. Thirty-six persons were returned as Dissenters, 42 as Nonconformists, 2 as of the Gospel Hall, 5 of the Christian Meeting House, 4 of the Town Mission, and 4 of the Mission School. [Other Protestant sects.]

181.

Of those classed as Roman Catholics, 6,323 were returned as Catholics, without any qualification. These increased in ten years by 3,171, whilst those returned as Roman Catholics increased by 29,689, the whole increase being 32,860. The Greek Catholics, which numbered 103 as against 332 in 1871, are not classed with the Roman Catholics. [Catholics.]

182.

Of the sects not classed either as Protestant or Catholic, the following were probably Christian :—The Catholic Apostolic Church with 383 adherents, the Apostolic Church with 5, the Israelites—also called Christian Israelites—with 238, the New or Swedenborgian Church with 292, the Mormons or Latter Day Saints with 15, the Christadelphians with 155, the Church of the Holy Disciples with 2, the Church of the First Born with 9, and the followers of Bishop Colenso with 1. The following were distinctly non-Christian :—The Jews, which numbered 4,330 and increased since 1871 by 759 ; the Chinese sects : Confucians, Buddhists, Taou, &c., all combined in the returns under the name of Pagans, which numbered 11,159 and decreased by 6,491 ; the Mahometans, which numbered 111, the Hindoos, which numbered 21, the Parsees and the Worshippers of the Sun, each of which numbered 1. But little is known of the tenets of the following sects, or whether they profess to follow any form of Christianity :—The Spiritualists or Spiritists, which numbered 853 and increased by 682 ; the Universalists with 68 adherents, the Theists with 14, the Memnonites with 2, the Josephites with 8, the Borrowites, Millerites, and Walkerites, each with 1, the Church of God with 4, the Church of Eli Sands with 5, the Broad Church with 2, the Orthodox Church with 8, the Separatists with 5, the Primitives with 2, the Mosaic Dispensation with 2, the Original Session with 6, and the Brotherhood of New Life with 1. [Other religions.]

183.

Besides 3,475 persons who returned themselves as of No Denomination, the following were also classed under that head, making a total of 4,979, as against 2,737 in 1871 :—Freethinkers 1,174 ; Unsectarian 84 ; "Unknown, Uncertain, Not Determined, Not Decided" 84 ; " No Church at Present, No Creed" 20 ; Neutral 2 ; Eclectic 2 ; Rationalists, Reasonists 7 ; Rational Christians 2 ; "Natural Religion" 4 ; "Liberal Views" 2 ; "Liberty of Conscience" 3 ; " Moses and the Laws " 3 ; " Bible Truth" 7 ; Saved Sinners 3 ; "Doctrine of Jesus Christ" 6 ; "Love and fear God, Godfearing" 8 ; Pantheists 5 ; Deists 69 ; Theosophist, Man of God, Believer in parts of the Bible, "Justice and Liberty," Free Religion, Silent Admirer, and Humanitarian, each 1. Also 12 children, respecting whom the entry was made "Choose for themselves," "As they please," or "What they will." [No denomination.]

184.

The Census clerks were specially cautioned not to classify any one as of no religion, unless that term or some other which might fairly be held to express the same meaning was used respecting him. The numbers so placed were 2,607, as against 2,150 in 1871. Of these, 2,428 were returned as of No Religion, 17 of No Profession, and the remainder as follow :—53 Agnostics, 37 Atheists, 7 Secularists, 1 Positivist, 6 Socialists, 24 Materialists, 1 Immaterialist, 1 Iconoclast, 1 Fatalist, 2 Students of Philosophy, 1 Heretic, 1 Sceptic, 14 Infidels, and 4 Unbelievers. In 4 instances "Cosmopolitan," in 3 instances "£ s. d.," in 1 instance "Nature" ; and in 1 instance "Free Trade" was entered upon the schedule. [No religion.]

185.

The persons returned as of no denomination and no religion amounted together to 7,586, or 1 in 11 of the population. If to these be added the numbers of the Unitarians and Spiritualists, a total is arrived at of 9,381, or 1 in 90 of the population, who have not hesitated to return themselves amongst those who are sometimes spoken of as unorthodox.

The two sects named are so set down by the Reverend Maurice Davies, D.D., in hisUnorthodox London, pp. 31 and 302 ; and in hisHeterodox London, pp. 1, 121, and 311. Tinsley Brothers, London, 1874.

It is not to be supposed, however, that these figures represent the complete number. Those who have inwardly abandoned the beliefs in which they were brought up would probably, in many instances, shrink from stating as much in the Census schedule, but would prefer to shelter themselves in the ranks of the various sects, or avail themselves of the provision which allows them to object to make any entry whatever respecting their religious opinions, and thus the total amount of skepticism existing in Victoria cannot be expressed statistically. ["Unorthodox" beliefs]

186.

The persons who stated their objection to make a return of their religion were more numerous by 1,367 in 1871 than in 1881. They amounted to rather more than 1 per cent. of the population at the former period, and not quite 1 per cent. of the population at the latter period. [Objectors.]

187.

In most of the denominations there were more males than females. The reverse was, however, the case in the following :—The Free Church of England, the [Proportions of the sexes.]

Free and Reformed Presbyterian Churches, the Wesleyan and New Connection Methodist Churches, the Independent, Baptist, and Bible Christian Churches, the Church of the Disciples of Christ, the Roman Catholic Church, the Catholic Apostolic Church, and the New or Swedenborgian Church. In the Moravian Church the number of males and females was exactly equal.

188.

Of the 12,128 Chinese (including half-castes) returned at the Census, 11,139 (embracing 11,102 males and 37 females), or 92 per cent. of the whole, were set down as Pagans.

An interesting letter on the religious belief of the Chinese, addressed to the Government Statist by Mr.C.P. Hodges, the well-known Chinese scholar, is published immediately after this Report.

Of the remainder, 375 were returned as members of the Church of England, 81 as Presbyterians, 229 as Methodists, 5 as Baptists, 6 as Bible Christians, 1 as a Disciple of Christ, 132 as Roman Catholics, 4 as Mahometans, and 156 as objecting to state their religion. As no Chinese had made such an objection at any former Census, I directed the interpreters to make some inquiry into the matter, when it was explained that the majority of the objectors had ceased to have any faith in the peculiar tenets of the various sects grouped under the head of Paganism, and a few had secretly embraced Christianity, but they refrained from expressing this in the schedule for fear of arousing the animosity of their fellow-countrymen, and being subjected to persecution at their hands. Of the Chinese half-castes, numbering 366, 31 were amongst those who objected to state their belief, 21 were returned as Pagans, and the remainder were distributed amongst the Christian sects. [Religions of Chinese.]

189.

Of the Aborigines, 422, or about 54 per cent., were stated to have embraced Christianity. Of these, 255 were returned as members of the Church of England, 50 as Presbyterians, 57 as Methodists, 4 as Lutherans, 54 as Moravians, and 2 as Roman Catholics. Of the remainder, 44 were set down as "Unsectarian," and 314 as of no religion. Upon inquiry of the superintendents of the Aboriginal stations as to the precise meaning of the last two terms, it was explained that the first was used to indicate those who had received religious instruction and had apparently been more or less impressed thereby, but had not embraced Christianity ; and the second, those who had not received any religious instruction, also those upon whom such instruction having been given had produced no visible effect. [Religions of Aborigines.]

190.

The following table shows the principal religious denominations in each Australasian colony, except Tasmania, in which no census of religions was taken ; also the number of males and females adhering to each denomination :— [Religions of Australasian colonies.]

RELIGIONS OF THE PEOPLE IN EACH AUSTRALASIAN COLONY, 1881.
Colony.Number of Persons of each Denomination.*Total.
Church of England.Presbyterians.Methodists.Independents.Baptists.Other Protestants.Roman Catholics.Jews.Pagans.Residue.†
MALES.
Victoria164,52068,75354,0979,8599,69814,765100,6442,39611,12216,229452,083
New South Wales187,05540,16232,9657,1263,8339,984108,5331,8589,28510,348411,149
Queensland42,35912,6877,4792,4702,81810,31528,52827816486‡1,905125,325
South Australia40,9919,53126,5065,0476,68024,83021,8714124146§9,516149,530
Western Australia9,5736331,0966564,53756717,062
Total444,498131,766122,14325,15823,02959,894264,1134,94441,03938,5651,155,149
New Zealand111,65361,54323,6463,4495,7857,58836,9638444,93113,203269,605
Total Males556,151193,309145,78928,60728,81467,482301,0765,78845,97051,7681,424,754
FEMALES.
Victoria146,77163,83854,29610,01910,67511,101102,8361,934378,756410,263
New South Wales155,30432,38331,3877,2023,4745,63799,0731,408604,391340,319
Queensland31,5619,9226,8722,2942,7657,83825,848179385‡53688,200
South Australia34,8218,38626,2824,8617,29921,39220,7573506,182130,335
Western Australia6,6903719886063,87611512,646
Total375,147114,900119,82524,98224,21345,968252,3903,87148719,980981,763
New Zealand91,68051,56522,6363,2505,6915,48532,02169257,303220,328
Total Females466,827166,465142,46128,23229,90451,453284,4114,56349227,2831,202,091
BOTH SEXES1,022,978359,774288,25056,83958,718118,935585,48710,35146,46279,0512,626,845
[* Not including Aborigines except the few enumerated in Victoria and New South Wales.] [† Including those of other religions than those named, those objecting to state their religion, those returning themselves of no denomination, or no religion, and the unspecified.] [‡ The Mahometans were combined with the Pagans in Queensland.] [§ The Pagans in South Australia, not having been distinguished in the Census returns, have been assumed to be equal to the number of Chinese.]

191.

Combining the Protestant sects so as to obtain the total number of Protestants in each colony (except Tasmania), and contrasting them with the Roman Catholics and Jews, the proportions given in the following table are obtained :—

PROTESTANTS, ROMAN CATHOLICS, AND JEWS IN EACH AUSTRALASIAN COLONY, 1881.
Colony.Numbers.Proportions per cent.
Protestants.Roman Catholics.Jews.Total.Protestants.Roman Catholics.Jews.
Victoria618,392203,4804,330826,20274.8424.640.52
New South Wales516,512207,6063,266727,38471.0128.540.45
Queensland139,38054,376457194,21371.7728.000.23
South Australia216,62642,628762260,01683.3116.400.29
Western Australia*20,6138,41329,02671.0228.98
Total1,511,523516,5038,8152,036,84174.2125.360.43
New Zealand393,97168,9841,536464,49184.8214.850.33
Grand Total1,905,494585,48710,3512,501,33276.1823.410.41
[* In Western Australia the Jews were not separated from certain denominations tabulated under the head of "Other Sects," and therefore cannot be shown here.]

192.

The proportions in the table are those of the Protestants, Roman Catholics, and Jews to the sum of the three bodies combined ; and it should be pointed out that such proportions would all be somewhat lower if calculated to the whole population of specified beliefs, which, in addition to the bodies named, contains Pagans and other non-Christian sects, as well as persons of No Denomination, No Religion, &c. In proportion to the total of the three combined bodies. Protestants were most numerous in New Zealand, and next to that in South Australia, those being the only colonies in which they amounted to more than 75 per cent. of the whole ; Roman Catholics were most numerous in Western Australia, next so in New South Wales and Queensland, those being the colonies in which they exceeded 25 per cent. of the whole, and Jews were most numerous in Victoria, that being the only colony in which they amounted to over ½ per cent. of the whole.

AGES OF THE PEOPLE.

193.

Entries of the ages of 449,744 males and 408,804 females appeared upon the Census schedules. On the other hand, no statement was made of the ages of 471 male and 347 female children, and of 1,868 male and 1,112 female adults. The unspecified have since been distributed amongst those whose ages were recorded, according to the same proportions the latter are found in, so that the probable ages of the whole population are shown. [Ages.]

194.

It is to be regretted that a considerable want of accuracy occurs in making the return of ages not only here but elsewhere, and, from whatever motive, a tendency is observed, in almost every country where a Census is taken, to date back the age to the preceding decennial or quinquennial period.

Thus a person aged 26, 27, 28, or 29 is commonly set down as aged 25. A person aged 31, 32, 33 or 34, is set down as aged 30, &c. Mr. E. C. Nowell, the Government Statistician of Tasmania, in his General Report upon the Census of that colony, 1881, page xx, makes the following appropriate and eloquent remarks upon this subject.—"Many persons either cannot or will not state their exact ages, and put them down roughly at the nearest decennial or quinquennial period. Hence they cluster like a swarm of bees round those periods. Some people, no doubt, really do not know their own ages, but many more fail to return them accurately simply from carelessness or want of conscientiousness. Until we have a higher standard of morality—until men learn to carry their religion into the smallest affairs of common life ; to acknowledge that the obligation to be scrupulous in complying with the laws of the land is as great as, if not greater, than to hold orthodox opinions on controverted subjects ; and to shrink as much from putting their hands to an untruth on a census schedule as from swearing what they know to be a lie in a court of justice ; until they are educated to observe truth and honor in the smallest as well as in the greatest matters ; and until they are brought to see that it is for the interest personally, as well as generally, of every member of a community to make its statistics as perfect as possible—until all this is recognised and carried into practice, such anomalies as these will occur in spite of every effort we may make to prevent them."

For this reason, when an attempt is made to tabulate the population at each year of age, clusters are found to exist at such periods, and thus errors are indicated upon the very face of the table. It is, therefore, found more correct to arrange the ages in quinquennial periods, and afterwards distribute them into single years by proportion.

195.

The increase or diminution in the numbers of the population at each age at one Census-period, as compared with the previous one, is easily shown by placing the numbers in parallel columns and taking the difference between them. This, however, [Increase or decrease at each age.]

only indicates whether there are more or fewer persons at each age at the later than at the earlier period, but does not show how the numbers would have stood if the same people had lived, and remained in the country, and consequently whether, between the two Census-periods, a loss occurred by emigration and deaths, or a gain by immigration and births. There having been an interval of 10 years between the Censuses of 1871 and 1881, it is evident that every person who lived would be 10 years older at the latter period than at the former. As, however, some must have died at each age, and none of those born between the Census-periods would be more than 10 years old in 1881, it follows that there would necessarily be a smaller number in 1881 than in 1871, at each period of life over 10, unless the places of those who died were supplied by immigrants. To show the gain by immigration, or loss by emigration, which occurred at each age, I have constructed a table in which the numbers in 1881 are placed side by side with those who were returned as 10 years younger in 1871, and the births between the Census-periods are placed beside the numbers under 10 in 1881. The difference between the numbers in the two columns is then taken, to show the increase or decrease at each age, and the figures thus obtained are collated with those representing the deaths which have occurred during the decenniad intervening between the censuses ; the sum of the two, if there has been an increase, or the difference if a decrease, will then indicate the gain by excess of arrivals over departures, or loss by the contrary, which has taken place at each age during the 10 years. The following is the table in which this is shown, males and females being distinguished :—

AGES, BIRTHS, AND DEATHS, 1871 TO 1881.
Ages.Numbers.Increase (+). Decrease (-).Deaths in Ten Years.*Gain by Immigration (+). Loss by Emigration (-).
1871.1881.1871.1881.
Males.
Not bornUnder 10 years137308†112,689- 2461927,163+ 2544
Under 5 years10 to 15 years58,93754,330- 46073,727- 880
5 to 10 years15 to 20 years53,54949,445- 41041,968- 2136
10 to 15 years20 to 25 years43,01240,593- 24191,774- 645
15 to 20 years25 to 30 years20,26427,482+ 12181,630+ 2848
20 to 25 years30 to 35 years24,00422,633- 13711,841+ 470
25 to 30 years35 to 40 years28,87523,434- 54412,474- 2967
30 to 35 years40 to 45 years33,25725,948- 73093,291- 4018
35 to 40 years45 to 50 years38,40528,354- 100514,355- 5696
40 to 45 years50 to 55 years34,87626,439- 84374,671- 3766
45 to 50 years55 to 60 years22,09115,967- 61244,109- 2015
50 to 60 years60 to 70 years25,31018,202- 71086,684- 424
60 and upwards70 and upwards12,4706,567- 59036,698+ 795
Total538,358452,083- 8627570,385- 15890
Females.
Not bornUnder 10 years131563†110,820- 2074323,691+ 2948
Under 5 years10 to 15 years57,75153,923- 38283,767- 61
5 to 10 years15 to 20 years52,95451,191- 17631,936+ 173
10 to 15 years20 to 25 years42,57343,324+ 7511,803+ 2554
15 to 20 years25 to 30 years28,29226,992- 13001,817+ 517
20 to 25 years30 to 35 years25,41821,954- 34641,996- 1468
25 to 30 years35 to 40 years25,39521,571- 38242,239- 1585
30 to 35 years40 to 45 years24,10021,245- 28552,447- 408
35 to 40 years45 to 50 years23,62519,439- 41862,471- 1715
40 to 45 years50 to 55 years17,94515,296- 26492,070- 579
45 to 50 years55 to 60 years11,3689,118- 22501,796- 454
50 to 60 years60 to 70 years13,31210,809- 25032,844+ 341
60 and upwards70 and upwards7,7454,581- 31643,706+ 542
Total462,041410,263- 5177852,583+ 805
[* This column contains a statement of the actual number of persons who died, from year to year, at ages which would have placed them in the respective groups named in the second column of the table had they lived until 1881. Thus the group, 10 to 15, is made up of the deaths between 1 and 6 years of age, which occurred in the last nine months of 1871 (the Census was taken on the 2nd April of that year) ; 2 and 7 years of age in the whole of 1872 ; 3 and 8 years of age in 1873, &c. It has been found impossible to eliminate the deaths of persons who arrived in the colony between the Censuses. As, however, no great iuflux of immigrants occured in the period referred to, those would not much affect the calculations.] [† Births in the interval between the Censuses of 1871 and 1881.]

196.

The sum of the numbers returned in 1871, and of the births which took place between then and the Census of 1881, expresses the whole number of persons to be accounted for, viz., 538,358 males and 462,041 females. A glance at the fifth column will show that the only periods at which the immigration was so great as to outnumber not only the deaths but also the emigration, were 25 to 30 (15 to 20 in 1871) in the males, and 20 to 25 (10 to 15 in 1871) in the females ; the excess of the former being 1,218 and of the latter 751. The sixth column shows the deaths at each period in the ten years, the difference between which and the numbers in the fifth column, where

the minus sign occurs, or their sum where the plus sign occurs, gives the numbers in the last column, which express the actual gain by excess of arrivals over departures, or loss by excess of departures over arrivals at each period of age during the ten years.

197.

It will be observed that, in the case of both males and females, a gain is shown in the period "Under 10" (not born in 1871), but this can scarcely have been caused by more infants being brought here than have been taken away, as the opposite has generally been noticed so far as the arrivals and departures by sea are concerned ; it is therefore probable that this apparent excess has resulted entirely from unregistered births. There has, however, undoubtedly been a net gain by immigration of 3,318 males at 25 to 35 (15 to 25 in 1871), and of 795 at 70 and upwards (60 and upwards in 1871) ; also a net gain of 3,244 females at 15 to 30 (5 to 20 in 1871), and of 883 females at 60 and upwards (50 and upwards in 1871), a loss being shown at all the other periods.

198.

The difference between the sum of the plus quantities and the sum of the minus quantities in the last column shows a net loss by emigration of 15,890 males, and a net gain by immigration of 805 females, which numbers agree exactly with those quoted in a previous paragraph,

See paragraph 58ante.

as showing the extent to which the natural increase of population had been diminished by emigration in the case of the males, and added to by immigration in the case of the females.

199.

In 1871, a smaller number of males were returned at all the years of age from 20 to 35, and a smaller number of females at 24, and at each year from 26 to 28 than in 1861, but larger numbers at all the other years up to 90. In 1881 there were smaller numbers than in 1871 at various periods of life, which, together with the larger numbers that appeared at other periods, are shown in the following table :— [Excess of males and females at each age.]

EXCESS OR THE CONTRARY OF MALES AND FEMALES AT EACH AGE, 1881 OVER 1871.
Years of Age.*Higher Numbers in 1881 than in 1871.Lower Numbers in 1881 than in 1871.
Males.Females.Males.Females.
Under 1 year609463
1 year22079
2 and 3 years886959
4 years18449
5 and 6 years599435
7 years33274
8 to 26 years53,49555,224
27 years34460
28 to 40 years31,5514,707
41 to 43 years2,0085,355
44 to 92 years35,71528,242
93 years31
94 years41
95 to 103 years1514
104 years1
105 years21
Total excess and diminution90,23086,04039,1976,255
Deduct diminution from excess39,1976,255
Net Excess51,03379,785
[* Where two years of age are named, the numbers at both such ages are included.]

200.

As the headings indicate, the first two columns of males and females show the excess of the numbers in 1881 over those in 1871, and the last two columns the opposite. The term "excess" is used in place of "increase," since, as has been already shown, the fact of there being higher numbers at one period than at a former one does not necessarily denote that an increase, or the contrary fact that a decrease of population has taken place, as, if immigration and emigration be left out of account, the numbers at the later period depend upon the numbers at quite another age at a former one. It will be observed that the principal ages at which the numbers at the later period exceeded those at the former were—males, all the years from 8 to 26 and from 44 to 92 ; females, all the years from 8 to 27 and 41 to 92 ; and the principal ages at which the numbers in 1881 were less than those in 1871 were—males, the years from 27 to 43 ; females, the years from 28 to 40. The whole diminution being deducted from the whole excess, the net excess at all ages of males is shown to have been 51,033, and of females 79,785, as has been previously stated.

See paragraph 57ante.

201.

The total population of Victoria halves itself at 20 years of age, there being about as many persons at and above as below that age. Upon the same principle the male population halves itself at 21 years of age, and the female population at 19 years of age. [Age at which population halves itself.]

202.

The legal age of infancy ends and that of majority begins at 21 years. The following are the numbers and relative proportions of those of either sex above and below that age when the Census was taken :— [Persons under and over 21.]

MALES AND FEMALES UNDER AGE AND OF FULL AGE, 1881.
Ages.Males.Females.
Number.Proportions per cent.Number.Proportions per cent.
Under 21 years225,31249.84225,65455.00
Over 21 years226,77150.16184,60945.00
Total452,083100.00410,263100.00

203.

The term "infant," although applied in its legal sense to all persons under 21 years of age, in its popular sense is applied only to those who have not yet completed their first year. The following are terms of like common application which to many would convey more meaning than a mere statement of the age in figures :—"Children," to denote persons of from 1 to 5 years of age ; "boys and girls," from 5 to 15 years ; "youths and maidens," from 15 to 20 years ; "young men and young women," from 20 to 30 years ; " middle-aged men and middle-aged women, " from 30 to 50 years ; "old men and old women," 50 years and upwards. The following were the numbers at these different periods of life returned at the last Census :— [Persons at various periods of life.]

Males.Females.
Infants11,84811,578
Children45,99844,781
Boys and girls109,173108,384
Youths and maidens49,44551,191
Young men and women68,07570,316
Middle-aged men and women100,36984,209
Old men and women67,17539,804
Total452,083410,263

204.

According to the returns, 1,099 males or 1 in every 411, and 842 females or 1 in every 487 had passed their eightieth birthday ; 69 males and 66 females had passed their ninetieth ; and 11 persons, all males, had passed their hundredth. Of the last named, 5 were stated to be 100 years of age, 2 were set down as 101, 2 as 103, and 2 as 105. [Octogenarians, nonagenarians, and centenarians.]

205.

Males as young as 14 and females as young as 12 may, with the consent of their parents or guardians, legally marry. Those at and above these ages, or in other words at a legally marriageable period of life, were 295,224 males and 277,456 females, or 65 per cent. of the whole number of the former and 68 per cent. of the latter. [Persons at marriageable age.]

206.

The average age of males was greater in 1881 than at any previous Census since that of 1854, whilst the average age of females was greater than at any previous period of the colony's history. The following are the figures at successive Census-periods :— [Average age of the population.]

MEAN AGE OF THE POPULATION, 1841 TO 1881.
Census Periods.Average Age.
Males.Females.Both Sexes.
Years.Years.Years.
184129.2922.6227.32
184625.7120.3123.62
185125.3820.2123.30
185426.4020.9724.48
185725.7720.6823.84
186125.4520.4823.58
187125.2221.3023.44
188126.1123.2924.77

207.

It is evident that a population which, relatively to the total number of units of which it is composed, contains a great many children and very old people, is not so physically effective as one which has a larger proportion of persons at the middle period of life. Speaking generally, it may be said that persons between 15 and 65 years of age are able to contribute largely to their own maintenance, and often to support themselves altogether, whilst those under 15 and over 65 are supported by others. Upon this principle the Victorian population was relatively somewhat stronger in 1881 than in 1871, although it was not at either period nearly so strong as in 1861 ; this will be seen by the following figures, which show the numbers in every 10,000 living at the supporting and dependent ages at the three periods :— [Effective strength of the population.]

NUMBERS IN EVERY 10,000 LIVING.—BOTH SEXES.
1861.1871.1881.
Under 15 years3,4944,2333,847
15 to 65 years6,4475,6295,908
65 years and upwards59138245
10,00010,00010,000

208.

It will be observed that the dependent classes in every 10,000 of the population, which numbered 3,553 in 1861, had risen to 4,371 in 1871, but had again fallen to 4,092 in 1881 ; whilst the sustaining classes in every 10,000, which, from 6,447 in 1861, had fallen to 5,629 in 1871, had again risen to 5,908 in 1881.

209.

If males alone be considered, the numbers at the supporting ages would be higher, and those at the dependent ages lower at each of the Census-periods than when the whole population is taken into account, but, as in the latter case, the supporting classes are found to have been in a larger, and the dependent classes in a smaller proportion than in 1871, whilst the former were not in so large, and the latter not in so small a proportion as in 1861. This will be seen by the following figures :—

NUMBERS IN EVERY 10,000 MALES LIVING.
1861.1871.1881.
Under 15 years2,7393,8773,695
15 to 65 years7,1965,9706,024
65 years and upwards65153281
10,00010,00010,000

210.

From 15 to 45 may be called the fruitful or child-bearing age of females. The proportion at this period of life, as compared with the whole female population, was observed to have fallen off greatly in 1871 as compared with 1861 ; but as the youthful female population have grown to womanhood, the proportion has again increased, and in 1881 was 159 per 10,000 higher than in 1871. It had not, however, reached so high by 587 per 10,000 as the proportion in 1861, that being a period at which, although the stream of immigration which had been attracted to Victoria by the fame of the goldfields had ceased, its expanding influence upon the ranks of the adult population had not subsided. The following figures express the number of females in 10,000 living at the reproductive age at the last three Censuses :— [Females at the reproductive age.]

FEMALES AT THE REPRODUCTIVE AGE.
Number in 10,000 Females living.
18615,127
18714,381
18814,540

211.

Notwithstanding the continuous stream of adult immigration which has been flowing to most of the other Australasian colonies under the auspices of the State, Victoria has still, in proportion to the total population, more people at the middle period of life, and fewer of the young and very old, than any other colony of the group except Queensland. In this respect South Australia and New South Wales stand fourth and fifth, and New Zealand last. This will be seen by the following table, in which the colonies are arranged in order according to the position in which they stand in regard to the proportion of persons at the sustaining, as [Relative effectivement of population of Australasian colonies.]

contrasted with those at the dependent periods of life. The former are placed in the first column, and the latter in the last two columns :—

RELATIVE STRENGTH OF THE POPULATIONS OF AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
Colony.Numbers in every 10,000 persons living—
At Supporting Ages (15 to 65 years).At Dependent Ages.
Under 15 years.65 years and upwards.
1. Queensland5,9933,888119
2. Victoria5,9083,847245
3. Western Australia5,8913,855254
4. South Australia5,8793,885236
5. New South Wales5,7683,987245
6. Tasmania5,6923,821487
7. New Zealand5,6044,254142

212.

Relatively to the numbers of the population, it will be observed that, whilst Victoria has more persons at the middle period of life than any other Australasian colony except Queensland, as has already been stated, she has fewer children than any of the other colonies except Tasmania, but more old people than any except Western Australia and Tasmania.

213.

If, in regard to relative strength, as measured by the proportionate numbers at the middle period of life, the male population only be considered, the positions of most of the colonies change. Queensland is still at the first, but Victoria falls to the fifth place. Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales, and New Zealand rise to the second, third, fourth, and sixth places, whilst Tasmania falls to the last. The following are the figures :—

RELATIVE STRENGTH OF THE MALE POPULATIONS OF AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
Colony.Numbers in every 1,000 Males living—
At Supporting Ages (15 to 65 years).At Dependent Ages.
Under 15 years.65 years and upwards.
1. Queensland6,4873,386127
2. Western Australia6,2813,389330
3. South Australia6,1093,654237
4. New South Wales6,0273,691282
5. Victoria6,0243,695281
6. New Zealand5,9513,902147
7. Tasmania5,6873,676637

214.

The figures in the last column but one show that, in proportion to the male population, Victoria contains a larger number of boys than any other Australasian colony except New Zealand, but in this respect is closely approached by New South Wales ; and the figures in the last column show that, in proportion to that population, Victoria has about as many old men as New South Wales, but a larger number than any other colony except Western Australia and Tasmania. Attention is called to the very large proportion of old men contained in the population of the latter.

215.

In proportion to the total number of females, Victoria contains a smaller number at the reproductive ages than South Australia, but a larger number than any other Australasian colony. New South Wales and Queensland follow next in order, and then Tasmania, New Zealand being last on the list. The following are the numbers living at such ages in each colony and their proportions to its total female population :— [Women at reproductive ages in Australasian colonies.]

WOMEN IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES AT THE REPRODUCTIVE PERIOD OF LIFE (15 TO 45 YEARS).
Number.Number in 10,000 Females living.
1. South Australia59,4344,561
2. Victoria186,2774,540
3. New South Wales153,1724,509
4. Queensland39,6384,504
5. Tasmania24,2344,439
6. Western Australia5,5674,404
7. New Zealand96,1444,370

216.

To every 10,000 persons of both sexes living in England and Wales in 1871, those at the supporting period of life were in the proportion of 5,916, which is higher than the proportion existing in 1881 in any Australasian colony except Queensland ; males at [Effectiveness of population of England.]

the same period were in the proportion of 5,842, which is lower than in any of the colonies except Tasmania. The following were the numbers in 10,000 at that and at the dependent periods of life in England and Wales, when the Census of 1871 was taken :—

ENGLAND AND WALES.—NUMBERS IN EVERY 10,000 LIVING IN 1871.
Both Sexes.Males.
Under 15 years3,6113,715
15 to 65 years5,9165,842
65 years and upwards473443
10,00010,000

217.

According to the returns of the same Census, women in England and Wales, at the reproductive period of life (15 to 45 years), were in the proportion of 4,496 per 10,000 females at all ages. This is a lower proportion than that which obtains in South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, or Queensland, but higher than that in the other three colonies. [Women at reproductive period in England.]

218.

From 20 to 40, being the age at which the first call upon the male inhabitants of a country would be made in order to repel an invasion, is designated "the Soldiers' Age." It appears that the Australasian colonies could raise an army of over 450,000 such males, the following being the numbers obtainable from each colony :— [Men at "Soldiers' age" in Australasian colonies.]

MALES AT THE SOLDIERS' AGE (20 TO 40 YEARS) IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES.—NUMBERS.
Number.
Victoria114,142
New South Wales131,805
Queensland46,427
South Australia52,529
Western Australia4,354
Tasmania15,929
New Zealand86,514
Total451,700

219.

It will be noticed that the contingent available from this colony is smaller by 18,000 than that from New South Wales, and a simple calculation will show that, relatively to the total population, males at the soldiers' age are fewer in Victoria than in any of the other Australasian colonies. In fact, it may be stated that the deficiency of males at this important period of life is the weakest point in the Victorian population. The following are the numbers of such males in every 10,000 of the population of both sexes in each colony. The colonies being arranged in order, it is shown that Victoria occupies the lowest position, as has been already stated :—

MALES AT THE SOLDIERS' AGE (20 TO 40 YEARS) IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES.—PROPORTIONS TO THE TOTAL POPULATION.
Number per 10,000 of both Sexes living.
1. Queensland2204*
2. South Australia1,877
3. New Zealand1,771
4. New South Wales1,760
5. Western Australia1,471
6. Tasmania1,377
7. Victoria1,324
[* The proportion in Queensland is swelled by the large number of male Chinese and Kanakas resident in that colony. If these be omitted from the calculation, the proportion would be reduced to 1636.]

220.

The following table shows, in quinquennial periods, the ages of the people in each of the Australasian colonies :—

AGES OF THE PEOPLE† IN EACH AUSTRALASIAN COLONY, 1881.
Ages.Victoria.New South Wales.Queensland.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.
MALES.
Under 5 years57,84656,16916,17821,0282,0708,12741,636
5 to 10 years54,84349,87713,63717,4071,8787,27434,305
10 to 15 years54,33045,07111,70416,2071,8026,99728,875
15 to 20 years49,44538,1699,35714,8011,5056,70121,060
20 to 25 years40,59340,05612,22816,9071,3866,00122,078
25 to 30 years27,48235,05012,81115,0321,1024,19523,916
30 to 35 years22,63329,36110,88210,9658303,16820,202
35 to 40 years23,43427,33810,5069,6251,0362,56520,318
40 to 45 years25,94824,2429,6007,3441,1552,57720,099
45 to 50 years28,35419,4266,2145,6721,2322,43513,972
50 to 55 years26,43915,6494,1814,8971,1142,6779,553
55 to 60 years15,9679,0862,1683,3366982,1804,855
60 to 65 years12,0468,3501,6152,7705952,3753,809
65 to 70 years6,1565,1348101,6072621,5531,879
70 to 75 years3,6863,4614491,1021821,2461,175
75 to 80 years1,7821,64518953775638581
80 and upwards1,0991,27711329340453322
Unspecified1,7882,683100970
Total Males452,083411,149125,325149,53017,06261,162269,605
[† Not including Aborigines, except the few enumerated in Victoria and New South Wales.]
AGES OF THE PEOPLE* IN EACH AUSTRALASIAN COLONY, 1881—continued.
Ages.Victoria.New South Wales.Queensland.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.
FEMALES.
Under 5 years56,35954,95415,75620,6562,0718,06540,653
5 to 10 years54,46149,14113,41017,3571,8476,96833,610
10 to 15 years53,92343,40811,20016,0681,7446,66328,747
15 to 20 years51,19137,5658,70314,9911,5476,66521,549
20 to 25 years43,32434,4818,67913,8441,2225,93819,287
25 to 30 years26,99225,4886,67810,1958493,81116,670
30 to 35 years21,95421,2785,6317,6896852,77614,393
35 to 40 years21,57119,0675,5426,6706482,56113,244
40 to 45 years21,24515,2934,4056,0456162,48311,001
45 to 50 years19,43911,8962,9434,9494942,2647,369
50 to 55 years15,2968,8351,9963,8713231,9265,010
55 to 60 years9,1185,9231,2152,6912161,3892,965
60 to 65 years7,0085,5288962,2501871,2902,530
65 to 70 years3,8013,1484761,406947721,353
70 to 75 years2,5242,05726690459514912
75 to 80 years1,21599213244725269411
80 and upwards8426378130214189262
Unspecified6281915362
Total Females410,263340,31988,200130,33512,64654,543220,328
[* Not including Aborigines, except the few enumerated in Victoria and New South Wales.]

221.

It will be observed that, notwithstanding the smaller total population of New South Wales, she returned more males than Victoria at each of the periods between 25 and 40. Males at all the other age periods, however, and females at all the age periods, were more numerous in this colony than in New South Wales.

222.

Almost all the Chinese males living in Victoria are adults, as many as 11,516, out of 11,869, being over 21 years of age ; most of these were in the prime of life, no less than 8,924 being between 35 and 60 years. Of the 259 Chinese females, the majority were children, only 46 being over 21 years of age. It is probable that most of the young Chinese of both sexes were half-castes, although not always noted as such. Twenty-five of the Chinese males were set down as being between 75 and 80 years, 7 as being between 80 and 85 years, and 1 as being 85 years of age. [Ages of Chinese.]

223.

According to the returns of the Aborigines, children under 5 amounted to 12 per cent. of the whole, the same proportion in the general population being 13 per cent. ; persons under 15 amounted to 34 per cent., and persons under 21 to 43 per cent. of the whole, as against 38 per cent. and 52 per cent. at the same periods of life in the general population. Four of the male and 1 of the female Aborigines were set down as being between 75 and 80, 1 of the males as being between 80 and 85, and 1 of the males as being 90 years of age. [Ages of Aborigines.]

EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE.

224.

The Census return of education embraces the result of an inquiry as to the ability of each member of the population to read and write, but does not extend to any higher attainments, except in the case of individuals possessing University degrees, respecting whom the sub-enumerators were instructed to enter the letters by which the degree was expressed, and the name of the University at which it was obtained. An account of the holders of University degrees will be given later. The present portion of this Report, therefore treats only of the extent to which the inhabitants of the colony were versed in the rudimentary arts of reading and writing. [Education.]

225.

Probably most of the Chinese acquire some proficiency in reading and writing their own language, but as the characters in it number, it is said, at least 40,000 (words not being built up of letters as in our own system, but each character standing for a word), and as the ability to decipher and form a few of these characters is probably attained by almost every Chinese during the course of his lifetime, whereas a perfect knowledge of every character in the language is rarely, if ever, gained even by the most advanced scholars, it is difficult to say where the ability of a Chinaman to read and write begins and where it ends—how many characters it is necessary for him to know and be able to make before he could be stated to be instructed, or how few would warrant his being classed as illiterate. This being the case, and considering also that a knowledge of a certain number of the characters of their own language would but slightly, if at all, add to their usefulness as citizens of this community, I was instrumental in causing a short instruction to be inserted at the head of the Education [Chinese and Aborigines eliminated.]

Column of the Householder's Schedule used at the Census of 1871, to the effect that the Chinese not able to read or write English should be set down as illiterate. This was noticed with approval in the other Australasian colonies, and on the occasion of the present Census a similar instruction was embodied in the schedule of almost every colony of the group. As, however, such a number of illiterate adults would give a false view of the educational state of the community, I have had tables prepared excluding them as well as the Aborigines from the numbers, and shall, in the present portion of my Report, treat of the population exclusive of the members of those two races.

226.

The returns of education were not so complete as those given in response to most of the other Census inquiries, the schedules being silent as to the degree of education possessed by as many as 8,119 males and 6,468 females over five years of age. These have, however, been distributed by proportion amongst the other numbers, and thus, after eliminating the Chinese and Aborigines, I am able to treat of the whole residue of the population.

227.

The persons able to read numbered 700,193, of whom 650,809 could also write, and those unable to read numbered 149,245. The population treated of being 849,438, it follows that 82 per cent. of that number could read, 77 per cent. could write, and 18 per cent. were unable to read. [Education at all ages.]

228.

These figures apply to the population at all ages ; but it is evident that, to obtain a correct knowledge of the educational condition of the community, it is necessary to eliminate those who are not old enough to receive instruction. Taking then the population of 5 years of age and upwards, numbering 735,499, it is found that 696,025, or 95 per cent., could read ; 650,809, or 88 per cent., could write, and only 39,474, or 5 per cent., could not read. [Education at over 5 years.]

229.

The returns show rudimentary education to have been more widely spread in 1881 than at any previous period since the discovery of gold. This is made plain by the following figures, which indicate the measure of such education at successive Censuses :— [Education at successive Census.]

EDUCATION AT SUCCESSIVE CENSUSES, 1854 TO 1881.
Educational Attainment.Proportion per 10,000 persons living, aged 5 years and upwards.
1854.1857.1861.1871.1881.
Could read8,7729,1349,0709,1689,463
Could write7,5127,8617,7898,0438,849
Could not read1,228866930832537

230.

It will be noticed that education retrograded somewhat, between 1857 and 1861, but an improvement took place between the last-named Census and that of 1871, and a still further and considerably greater improvement between 1871 and 1881.

231.

The returns of 1881 show the instruction of females to have been slightly inferior to that of males. In proportion to their respective numbers (viz., 382,053 males, and 353,446 females over 5 years of age), they were about equal in point of ability to read, but more males than females could write. The following are the figures :— [Education of males and females.]

EDUCATION OF MALES AND FEMALES, 1881.
Educational Attainment.Numbers aged 5 years and upwards.Proportions per 10,000 living, aged 5 years and upwards.
Males.Females.Males.Females.
Could read361,600334,4259,4659,462
Could write341,024309,7858,9268,765
Could not read20,45319,021535538

232.

From 6 to 15 years is the age during which the law prescribes that children should be receiving education, and is therefore called the school age. The returns of the Census showed 194,979 children at that age, of whom 97,722 were boys and 97,257 were girls. The following are the numbers of these who could read, who could also write, and who could not read :— [Education at School age.]

EDUCATION OF CHILDREN AT THE SCHOOL AGE, 1881.
Boys.Girls.
Could read92,36292,489
Could write82,71483,708
Could not read5,3604,768

233.

The present Education Act (36 Vict. No. 447) came into operation 21 months after the Census of 1871 was taken, and thus the returns of that Census and of the Census under review afford an opportunity of comparing the state of children's education before and since the passing of that Act. Such a comparison is made in the following table, the education of children being reduced to a common standard, the numbers per 10,000 being taken as such at both periods :—

EDUCATION OF CHILDREN AT THE SCHOOL AGE, 1871 AND 1881.
Educational Attainment.Proportions per 10,000 living at the School Age (6 to 15 years).
Boys.Girls.Both.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Could read8,9559,4519,0459,5109,0009,481
Could write7,0728,4647,1248,6077,0988,535
Could not read1,0455499554901,000519

234.

In 1881, as compared with 1871, an increase will be observed in the numbers of both sexes able to read, but a much larger one in those able to write, the increase of the former (the returns of the two periods being reduced to a common standard) being about 5 per cent., whilst that of the latter was over 20 per cent. ; at the same time the decrease of those unable to read was 48 per cent.

235.

It will be noticed that at both periods rudimentary education was rather more common amongst girls than boys, the numbers of the former able to read and to write being greater, and the numbers unable to read being smaller, than those of the latter.

236.

The degree of education at the school age is found to differ according to the religious denomination. In the following table the numbers of, and proportionate amount of primary instruction possessed by, the children belonging to each of the principal sects are shown :— [Education of children of different denominations.]

EDUCATION OF CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS,* 1881.
Religious Denomination.Numbers at the School Age who—Proportions per 10,000 living at the School Age who—
Could Read.Could Write.Could not Read.Could Read.Could Write.Could not Read.
Church of England63,21157,4313,3279,5008,631500
Presbyterians28,21825,6331,1359,6148,733386
Methodists25,80823,6649499,6458,844355
Bible Christians1,6771,543539,6948,919306
Independents4,1933,9001459,6668,990334
Baptists4,2193,9131609,6358,936365
Lutherans1,6581,5291159,3528,624648
Other Protestants1,7101,589779,5698,892431
Total Protestants130,694119,2025,9619,5648,723436
Roman Catholics45,63040,0533,3069,3258,185675
Jews954920339,6669,321334
Residue3,3102,9532579,2808,279720
Grand Total180,588163,1289,5579,5008,577500
[* This table includes the few Chinese and Aborigines who were at the school age, but is exclusive of those whose education was unspecified. The latter numbered as follow :—Members of the Church of England, 1,664 ; Presbyterians, 495 ; Methodists, 511 ; Bible Christians, 46 ; Independents, 93 ; Baptists, 101 ; Lutherans, 43 ; Other Protestants, 48 ; Roman Catholics, 1,043 ; Jews, 13 ; Residue, 252 ; Total, 4,309.]

237.

According to the table, the children of the Bible Christians, in proportion to their numbers, stand higher than those of the members of any of the other denominations, so far as the ability to read is concerned ; but the children of the Jews stand the highest in reference to the ability to write, in which respect the children of the Independents and Baptists also surpass those of the Bible Christians. The children of the Roman Catholics appear to be less instructed, both in reading and writing, than any of the others ; the next less instructed being the children of the Lutherans, and then those of the members of the Church of England.

238.

Prior to the passing of the present Education Act, which defined the school age as that between 6 and 15 years, the period between 5 and 15 years was accepted as the school age ; therefore to compare the education of children of adherents of the different sects, as returned in 1881, with similar information obtained from previous Censuses, it has been necessary to add the year 5 to 6 to the grouping

in the last table ; the degree of education shown, viz., that of children between 5 and 15 being naturally not quite so high as that there indicated. This being done the result has been embodied in the following table, the figures being placed side by side with similar figures derived from the Census returns of 1871 and 1861 :—

EDUCATION OF CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS AT LAST THREE CENSUSES.
Religious Denomination.Proportion per 10,000 children (5 to 15 years)living who—
Could Read.Could Write.Could not Read.
1861.1871.1881.1861.1871.1881.1861.1871.1881.
Church of England7,7038,4469,0954,7516,4388,0432,2971,554905
Presbyterians8,2028,7009,2455,0096,6588,1421,7981,300755
Methodists8,7778,9729,2815,6976,8958,2391,2231,028719
Bible Christians9,0209,0149,2975,4906,7668,224980986703
Independents8,7859,0839,2536,1127,4948,3791,215917747
Baptists8,6999,0009,2346,0237,3148,3531,3011,000766
Lutherans6,4917,8778,9224,5296,5398,1313,5092,1231,078
Other Protestants8,1948,9879,1436,0327,4798,3231,8061,013857
Total Protestants8,0298,6489,1745,0386,6598,1301,9711,352826
Roman Catholics6,9237,9098,8814,1245,6437,5843,0772,0911,119
Jews8,2858,9839,2806,3037,8058,7811,7151,017720
Residue7,2728,2018,5954,8425,6147,3022,7281,7991,405
Grand Total7,7908,4649,0884,8586,3987,9772,2101,536912

239.

Every one of the denominations shows a satisfactory improvement from Census to Census, the advancement of all, during the 20 years ended with 1881 being most encouraging. Even the Roman Catholic children, which at the date of the Census under review were still less educated than those of the members of any other denomination, showed an amount of education which ten years previously was only surpassed by a few of the best instructed sects.

240.

The school age prescribed by law differs in the various Australasian colonies.

The prescribed school age is in Victoria from 6 to 15 years, in New South Wales from 6 to 14 years, in Queensland from 6 to 12 years, in South Australia from 7 to 13 years, in Tasmania from 7 to 14 years, and in New Zealand from 7 to 13 years.

In scarcely one of them, strange to say, have the Census returns been compiled in such a manner that the state of education at its own school age can be ascertained from the published tables, much less compared with that obtaining at the school age of this colony. All of the colonies, however, have published their education returns in quinquennial periods, so the period from 5 to 15 years will be adopted for Victoria, as well as for the others, as an age at which the success of the respective educational systems can be conveniently judged. The following figures measure the education of the children of each colony at that age, the colonies being arranged in order :— [Education of children in Australasian colonies.]

EDUCATION OF CHILDREN IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
Colony.Proportions per 10,000 children (5 to 15 years)living who—
Could Read.Could Write.Could not Read.
1. Victoria9,0887,977912
2. New Zealand8,2546,8511,746
3. South Australia8,1386,9561,862
4. Queensland8,0826,6761,918
5. New South Wales7,8326,4952,168
6. Western Australia7,8096,0752,191
7. Tasmania7,6326,1602,368

241.

It will be observed that Victoria stands easily at the head of the list, being much in advance of all the other colonies, both as regards reading and writing. As the arrangement is in accordance with the numbers able to read, South Australia is placed below New Zealand, and Tasmania below Western Australia ; but the order in these cases would have been reversed had the arrangement been in accordance with the numbers able to write, as the proportion of such was greater in South Australia than in New Zealand, and greater in Tasmania than in Western Australia.

242.

In Victoria children were sometimes returned as able to read when 2 years and even 1 year old, and as able to write at almost equally early ages ; but, as the Census is, I conceive, not intended to record the acquirements of infant phenomena, in all probability exaggerated by parental fondness or vanity, I instructed the compiling clerks not to tabulate any child as able to read until it was 3 years, or as able to write until it was 5 years of age. Between 3 and 6 years of age the number of male children returned was 34,101, and of female children 33,211, of whom the degree of education, as finally made up in the tables, was as follows :— [Education under school age.]

EDUCATION OF CHILDREN UNDER THE SCHOOL AGE, 1881.
Educational Attainment.Children from 3 to 6 years.Proportions per 10,000 living from 3 to 6 years.
Boys.Girls.Boys.Girls.
Could read7,3057,8272,1422,357
Could write1,9952,176585655
Could not read26,79625,3847,8587,643

243.

Before they arrive at the school age, girls appear to be more capable of receiving instruction than boys, as the proportions of the former able to read and able to write were higher than those of the latter. Some doubt exists as to the reliability of the information given as to the acquirements of very young children ; but if it be true that over a fifth of the boys and nearly a fourth of the girls between 3 and 6 years of age could read, as is shown by the figures, it cannot be said that instruction, even at this early age, is entirely thrown away.

244.

The persons above the school age may be designated adults. The following are the numbers of those of either sex, returned as able to read, as able also to write, and as uninstructed :— [Adult education.]

EDUCATION OF ADULTS (15 YEARS AND UPWARDS), 1881.
Males.Females.
Could read263,830236,380
Could write256,315223,901
Could not read9,2388,867

245.

Education amongst adults was more general in 1881 than in 1871. This is especially the case as regards female education, the improvement in which is very striking. The following table shows the number of male and female adults, per 10,000 living, able to read and to write, and unable to read at the two periods :—

EDUCATION OF ADULTS, 1871 AND 1881.
Educational Attainment.Proportion per 10,000 adults (15 years and upwards) living.
Males.Females.Both.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Could read9,5379,6629,4639,6389,5059,651
Could write9,0749,3868,5149,1298,8299,265
Could not read463338537362495349

246.

It will be observed that at both periods the amount of education respecting which the Census supplies information, was rather more general amongst male than female adults. This is especially the case as regards writing, although the difference between the sexes in this respect was not so marked in 1881 as in 1871.

247.

In compiling their returns of education, most of the colonies of this group have excluded the Aborigines, but several of them have not separated the Chinese, or distinguished their educational attainments so as to admit of their being accurately deducted from the remainder of the population ; and as the Chinese have been set down as illiterate if not able to read English, which few of them are able to do, the view which such colonies have given of the state of adult education within their borders is not so favorable as it should have been. To rectify this, and to enable fair comparisons to be made between the different colonies, I have in these cases assumed the bulk of the Chinese to be included amongst the adults unable to read, [Adult education in Australasian colonies.]

and have deducted them therefrom, so that the state of adult education in all the colonies is given, as nearly as possible, exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines. Upon the number so obtained, the following proportions have been based :—

EDUCATION OF ADULTS IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
Colony.Proportions per 10,000 adults (15 years and upwards) living who—
Could Read.Could Write.Could not Read.
1. New Zealand9,6999,390301
2. Victoria9,6519,265349
3. South Australia9,6199,179381
4. Queensland9,4468,918554
5. New South Wales9,2988,747702
6. Western Australia9,0048,362996
7. Tasmania8,8978,1531,103

248.

Victoria, it will be observed, is no longer at the top of the list, but is below New Zealand, although only slightly so, South Australia in like manner, being slightly below Victoria. New South Wales, as in the case of the education of children, occupies the fifth place on the list and stands below all the other colonies, except Western Australia and Tasmania.

249.

Twenty-one being the age at which both sexes attain their legal majority, it is interesting to know the state of education from that age upwards. When the Census was taken there were in Victoria, exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines, 214,978 men and 184,396 women who had arrived at that period of life. The following table shows the numbers of those who could read, who could also write, and who could not read ; also the proportions of those of each degree of education to every 10,000 of the same age and sex living :— [Education of men and women.]

EDUCATION OF MEN AND WOMEN, 1881.
Educational Attainment.Numbers aged 21 years and upwards.Proportions per 10,000 living aged 21 years and upwards.
Men.Women.Men.Women.
Could read206,365175,8509,5999,537
Could write199,424163,7329,2768,879
Could not read8,6138,546401463

250.

A comparison of these figures with those in a former table will show that males and females of 15 and upwards were more generally educated than those of 21 and upwards, thereby proving that the standard of education in the former was raised by the nearer approach to universal education existing amongst those between 15 and 21.

251.

Education amongst males of 21 and upwards was more common than amongst females at the same period of life, which is more especially apparent in the matter of writing. Girls were more generally educated than boys, as has been already mentioned, but at almost all the adult ages the absence of instruction was found to be more common amongst females than amongst males.

252.

Exclusive of medical men with no other than professional degrees entered, the number of persons stated to be possessed of University degrees was 236 ; there were probably many more, but no entry appeared in the schedules to indicate the fact. Of these, 104 were said to have attained the degree of B.A., 89 that of M.A., 32 that of LL.B., 10 that of LL.D., and 1 that of B.Sc. The following are the Universities at which the degrees were obtained and the number who graduated at each :—Aberdeen, 9 ; Berlin, 1 ; Cambridge, 31 ; Christiania, 2 ; Durham, 1 ; Edinburgh, 4 ; "French University," 6 ; Glasgow, 2 ; Gottingen, 2 ; Halifax, 1 ; Harvard, 1 ; King's College, Scotland, 1 ; London, 5 ; Melbourne, 85 ; Oxford, 26 ; Paris, 7 ; Queen's College, Ireland, 3 ; Rostock, 1 ; Sydney, 1 ; Trinity College, Dublin, 36 ; Yale, 1 ; York, 1 ; not stated, 9. [University graduates.]

253.

I have thought it desirable to tabulate the University degree in connection with the occupation, so that it might be seen what calling the possessors of such qualifications were following. Subjoined is a summary of the information so obtained :—

OCCUPATIONS OF UNIVERSITY GRADUATES, 1881.
Government Officers8
Clergymen10
Judges, Law Court Officers4
Lawyers, Law Clerks, Law Students51
Medical men11
Authors, Editors, &c.6
Civil Engineers5
Other Scientific persons4
Professors, Schoolmasters, School Inspectors88
Actors2
Merchants, Shopkeepers, Clerks8
Farmers, Land Proprietors10
Other occupations29
Total236

254.

The "Other Occupations" mentioned in the lowest line include—an M.A., Oxford, following the calling of a laborer ; a B.A., Berlin, that of a bootmaker ; an M.A., Cambridge, that of a printer ; a B.A., London, that of a drover ; a B.A., Trinity College, Dublin, that of a livery-stable assistant ; and a B.A., university not stated, that of a cabdriver.

255.

Of the Chinese males over 15, 11,265 out of a total of 11,680, or 96 per cent., were unable to read English. The remainder, numbering 415, were said to be able to read our language, and of these 367 were stated to be able to write it. Of the Chinese females, at the same age, numbering 78, 40 were set down as able to read and 38 able also to write English. At the school age 170 Chinese and half-caste children were returned, of whom 139 could read and 117 could also write. [Education of Chinese.]

256.

The Aboriginal children at the school age numbered 153, of whom 132 could read and 113 could also write, while only 21 were altogether uninstructed. The Aborigines over 15 years of age numbered 511, of whom 164 were returned as able to read and 118 as able also to write, whilst 347 were set down as entirely uneducated. [Education of Aborigines.]

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE.

257.

By a regulation, issued under the 20th section of the Census Act 1881, it was ordained that the sub-enumerators should obtain from every school, whether State, private, industrial, reformatory, orphan, or of any other kind whatever, particulars as to the religious denomination with which it was connected, the number of teachers, and the number and ages of the scholars who attended during any portion of Monday the 4th April 1881. The following is a summary of the information obtained in pursuance of this regulation :— [Schools, teachers, and scholars.]

SCHOOLS, TEACHERS, AND SCHOLARS, 1881.
Description of School.Number of Schools.Number of Teachers.Scholars Attending on the 4th April 1881.
Under 6 years of age.Of 6 and under 15 years of age.Of 15 years of age and upwards.All Ages.
Males.Females.Total.Boys.Girls.Boys.Girls.Boys.Girls.Boys.Girls.Total.
State schools1,7111,8942,3974,29110,7629,72253,64352,3691,2731,28265,67863,373129,051
Private schools—
Church of England5743103146931245574312501279006821,582
Presbyterian1030205083331160194140533303836
Wesleyan5108181818109297420147248
Independent111131313
Lutheran10994210792111294206
Brethren13344117151126
Protestant (undefined)174293340561361671436190259449
Roman Catholic1871623825441,1791,3326,2827,1602322457,6938,73716,430
Jewish3671316813511313152124276
No Denomination3521605396995737262,3723,2255546183,4994,5698,068
Total Private schools6434251,0911,5161,9352,27310,05311,3841,3201,16913,30814,82628,134
Grand Total, State and Private schools2,3542,3193,4885,80712,69711,99563,69663,7532,5932,45178,98678,199157,185

258.

The number of schools returned being 2,354, the number of teachers 5,807, and the number of scholars who attended on the day succeeding the night of the Census 157,185, there were, on the average, 67 scholars and nearly 2.5 teachers to each school, and 27 scholars to each teacher.

259.

In State schools, which numbered 1,711, there were 4,291 teachers and 129,051 scholars in attendance. There were thus 75 scholars, and rather more than 2.5 teachers to each school, and about 30 scholars to each teacher.

260.

The private schools numbered 643, with 1,516 teachers and 28,134 scholars. To each such school, therefore, there were 44 scholars and rather less than 2.4 teachers, and to each teacher there were about 19 scholars.

261.

In private schools returned as connected with religious bodies, the average number of scholars entrusted to each teacher was found to be generally greater than in such schools returned as secular institutions, the proportion in the former being 1 teacher to 25 scholars, and in the latter, 1 teacher to 12 scholars. [Denominational schools.]

262.

The authorities of the different religious bodies were found to vary greatly in regard to the number of scholars they deem it expedient to entrust to each instructor. Thus, whilst in the Church of England schools the average was 11 scholars to each teacher, in the Roman Catholic schools it was as high as 30 to each, or exactly the same as in the State schools. The following are the proportions of scholars to each teacher in the schools returned as attached to the different sects :—

In schools of the Brethren there was 1 teacher to 9 scholars.
In schools of the Church of England there was 1 teacher to 11 scholars.
In schools of the Independents there was 1 teacher to 13 scholars.
In schools of the Wesleyans there was 1 teacher to 14 scholars.
In schools of the Protestants (undefined) there was 1 teacher to 14 scholars.
In schools of the Presbyterians there was 1 teacher to 17 scholars.
In schools of the Jews there was 1 teacher to 21 scholars.
In schools of the Lutherans there was 1 teacher to 23 scholars.
In schools of the Roman Catholics there was 1 teacher to 30 scholars.

263.

It is right I should point out that the name of the denomination with which the private schools were stated to be connected, is believed to have been sometimes meant to imply merely the religion of the head teacher or proprietor of the school, and perhaps the principles on which the establishment was conducted ; not that it was recognized as attached to his church or was subordinate to its clergy. The exceptions to this are believed to be most of the schools returned as Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Jewish, a few of those returned as of the Church of England, and one or two of those returned as Presbyterian and Wesleyan, but probably none of those returned as connected with any other denomination.

264.

The numbers of children below, at, and above the school age, who attended school on the 4th April, may be compared with the numbers at the same periods of life in the general population, the scholars under the school age being assumed to be between 3 and 6 years, and those above the school age being assumed to be between 15 and 18 years. As a fair proportion of the few young Chinese (mostly half-castes) and young Aborigines in the colony would probably be at school, the individuals of these races need not in this instance be eliminated. The following are the numbers of children in the population and at school at the three periods of age referred to ; also the proportions of the latter to the former :— [Proportion of scholars attending school.]

PROPORTION OF CHILDREN ATTENDING SCHOOL.
Ages.Numbers of Children in the Population.Numbers attending School.Proportion of those at School per 10,000 at same age in Population.
Boys.Girls.Total.Boys.Girls.Total.Boys.Girls.Total.
3 to 6 years34,17633,29367,46912,69711,99524,6923,7153,6033,660
6 to 15 years97,88897,414195,30263,69663,753127,4496,5076,5456,526
15 to 18 years30,04730,62860,6752,5932,4515,044863800831
Total 3 to 18162,111161,335323,44678,98678,199157,1854,8724,8774,860

265.

It will be observed that nearly 37 per cent. of the children in the colony who had passed the age of infancy, but had not reached the school age, were attending school on the 4th April ; but that only 65 per cent. of the children at the school age so attended, which, considering that the numbers were taken on a day specially appointed and made known beforehand, can hardly be considered a satisfactory result. Between the school age and 18 years the proportion who attended was

rather over 8 per cent., which, considering the early age at which persons of both sexes enter into business pursuits in this colony, is perhaps as high a proportion as could be expected.

266.

The figures given show the actual school attendance on Monday the 4th April, or the day succeeding the Census Sunday. As, however, it was thought only natural that the teachers would endeavor to secure as full an attendance of scholars as possible on that day, which might give larger numbers than were in the habit of attending under ordinary circumstances, it was deemed expedient also to obtain a statement of the average attendance during the five school days of the week preceding the Census ; and, as this was not generally known beforehand, it is believed that the numbers so obtained afford a fair view of the ordinary school attendance. These numbers in the following table are placed side by side with those showing the actual attendance on the Monday after the Census :— [School attendance on Census day, and in previous week.]

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AT TWO PERIODS, 1881.
Description of School.Average Number Attending during Five Days, ended 1st April, 1881.Actual Number Attending on Monday, 4th April, 1881.Five Days' Average in Excess of Attendance on 4th April.Attendance on 4th April in Excess of Five Days, Average.
Boys.Girls.Total.Boys.Girls.Total.
State schools60,52357,021117,54465,67863,373129,05111,507
Private schools—
Church of England8926961,5889006821,5826
Presbyterian5313128435333038367
Wesleyan19650246201472482
Independent13131313
Lutheran1331402731129420667
Brethren1614301511264
Protestant (undefined)1942534471902594492
Roman Catholic7,0477,79614,8437,6938,73716,4301,587
Jewish16714431115212427635
No denomination3,4764,5097,9853,4994,5698,06883
Total, Private schools12,66513,91426,57913,30814,82628,1341,555
Grand Total, State and Private schools73,18870,935144,12378,98678,199157,18513,062

267.

It will be observed that the average number of scholars attending during the week preceding the Census was less by 13,000 than the number attending on the day after it. The excess of the numbers at the latter period was almost entirely amongst the State schools and the Roman Catholic schools, in the former of which the attendance was nearly 10 per cent. and in the latter nearly 11 per cent. greater on the 4th April than the five days' average. In other cases there was no evidence of any special effort having been made to collect the scholars on the Monday, the difference between the numbers at the two periods being in all cases trifling, and the figures for the five days being in most instances slightly in excess of those for the 4th April.

268.

The children mentioned were no doubt all actually at school, but they evidently do not represent all the children receiving education in the colony ; for some children, attached to and on the books of both State and private schools, must necessarily have been absent during the week preceding and on the day following the Census, and some were doubtless receiving instruction at home under tutors or governesses. The number of children set down as scholars in the occupation column of the Census schedule may be supposed to afford means of ascertaining the whole number of children being educated, the result being much in excess of the return of those attending school at either of the periods named, as will be seen by the following figures :— [Children being educated.]

"SCHOLARS" ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS RETURN OF OCCUPATIONS.
Boys.Girls.
At State schools50,36148,506
At private schools8,5609,496
At home4,9086,639
Mode of instruction not stated28,04527,803
Total91,87492,444

269.

All the "scholars" just referred to are known to have been under 20 years of age, but further than this their ages have not been ascertained. The numbers, however, can be divided approximately into those below, at, and above the school age, by

considering the "scholars" at each period of age to bear the same proportion to the total number of "scholars" that those returned at each such period as attending school did to the total number so attending. The result of such an estimate is shown in the following table, also the proportion of the "scholars" of each estimated age to the numbers of the same age in the population :—

CHILDREN RECEIVING INSTRUCTION ("SCHOLARS"), APRIL, 1881.
Ages.Numbers at each Age (estimated).Proportion of those at each Age per 10,000 at same Age in the Population.*
Boys.Girls.Total.Boys.Girls.Total.
3 to 6 years14,76914,18028,9494,3214,2594,291
6 to 15 years74,08975,366149,4557,5697,7377,652
15 to 18 years3,0162,8985,9141,003946974
Total 3 to 1891,87492,444184,3185,6675,7305,699
[* For numbers of the population at these ages, see table following paragraph 264 ante.]

270.

According to this table, nearly 43 per cent. of the children between 3 and 6 years, or before they had reached the school age, nearly 77 per cent. of those between 6 and 15, or at the school age, and nearly 10 per cent. of those between 15 and 18, or after they had passed the school age, were receiving instruction about the time the Census was taken. The figures in the table on which these proportions were based probably give a fair statement of the numbers being educated at that time ; but it is known that many children are sent to school only during broken periods of the year, being removed at times to suit the convenience of parents, and again sent as they can be spared from home duties, and thus many more children than those whose numbers are given in the table were probably reached by the schoolmaster for a longer or shorter period during the course of the year. The Education Department have estimated that as many as 195,526 distinct children attended at State schools during some portion of 1881, of whom 156,206 were at the school age. These with the numbers at the same age, returned as attending private schools and being educated at home, give a total of 188,265, or 38,810 more than the numbers at the school age shown in the table ; the latter being the probable number of children at that age who, although attending school during some portion of 1881, were not so attending when the Census was taken.

271.

The Chinese under 20, including half-castes, numbered 494, viz., 286 boys and 208 girls. Of the former of these, 84, or 29 per cent., and of the latter 73, or 35 per cent., were returned as receiving education ; which, considering many of them must have been under and some over the school age, is not an unsatisfactory result. Of the whole number being educated—viz., 157—85 were attending State and 10 private schools, 18 were being instructed at home, and of 44 the mode of education was not stated. [Chinese at school.]

272.

The Aborigines under 20 numbered 325, of whom 167, or 51 per cent., were returned as being educated when the Census was taken. Twenty of these were said to be attending State schools, 101 private schools, 35 being instructed at home, and of 11 the mode of instruction was not specified. It is probable that those returned as receiving instruction at private schools and at home were at Aboriginal stations. [Aborigines at school.]

CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE.

273.

The entries in the Census schedules afforded information as to the conjugal condition of all the adult inhabitants of Victoria, except in the case of 2,821 males and 2,053 females, and as to their exact ages except in the case of 1,460 males and 822 females. The unspecified, however, have been distributed by proportion amongst the different groups, and thus, in considering the conjugal condition, it becomes possible to deal with the numbers of the whole population. [Conjugal condition.]

274.

Of the males at all ages from infancy upwards, 314,563 were set down as unmarried, 124,654 as husbands, and 12,866 as widowers. Of the females at all ages, 262,478 were set down as unmarried, 126,042 as wives, and 21,743 as widows.

275.

The wives exceeded the husbands by 1,388, as against an excess of wives over husbands, amounting to only 133 in 1871, and an excess of husbands over wives, amounting to 4,290 in 1861. [Husbands and wives.]

276.

Up to the age of 40, wives exceeded husbands at every period of age, the total excess being 21,591 ; but after 40 years of age husbands exceeded wives at every period, the total excess being 20,203.

277.

Although, throughout the colony the number of husbands was nearly equal to that of wives, it does not follow that the husbands all belonged to the wives, or all the wives to the husbands. Of the 124,654 husbands and 126,042 wives returned, only 112,539 abode in the same house on the Census night ; thus the husbands whose wives were absent numbered 12,115, and the wives whose husbands were absent numbered 13,503 ; the difference between the detached husbands and detached wives was of course the same as that between the whole number of husbands and the whole number of wives, viz., 1,388, as already stated.

278.

The proportion of husbands whose wives were absent was smaller, but the proportion of wives whose husbands were absent was somewhat larger on the Census night of 1881 than on that of 1871 or 1861. In every 1,000 married men returned in 1881, 903 were with, and 97 apart from their wives ; the corresponding numbers in 1871 being 898 and 102, and in 1861, 852 and 148. In every 1,000 married women returned in 1881, 892 were with, and 108 apart from their husbands ; the corresponding numbers in 1871 being 897 and 103, and in 1861, 895 and 105.

279.

In 1881, of every 1,000 of the population of the colony, 291 were in the marriage state ; of every 1,000 males, 276 were husbands, of every 1,000 females, 307 were wives.

280.

At 20 years of age and upwards the number of husbands was about equal to that of wives, there being 124,599 of the former and 124,569 of the latter. There were, however, at this period of life 41,290 more men than women, and thus it happens that whilst of every 1,000 of the men, only 529 were husbands ; of every 1,000 of the women, as many as 641 were wives.

281.

At the age of 40 and upwards, there were 78,633 husbands, but only 58,430 wives. At that period the whole number of men living exceeded that of women living by 40,989. Of the former, 647 in 1,000 were husbands, of the latter, 726 in 1,000 were wives.

282.

Males at the age of 14, females at the age of 12, may marry, as has been already stated,

See paragraph 205ante.

provided they obtain the consent of their parents or guardians ; but as a matter of fact, no male under the age of 19 was returned as a husband, no female under the age of 14 was returned as a wife.

283.

Fifty-five youths at the age of 19, and 228 at the age of 20, were returned as husbands. Five females at the age of 14, 14 at the age of 15, 46 at the age of 16, 176 at the age of 17, 405 at the age of 18, 827 at the age of 19, and 1,533 at the age of 20, were returned as wives. Thus, 283 of the husbands, and 3,006 of the wives had not attained the age of 21 years.

284.

Husbands under 21 years of age were in the proportion of 23 to every 10,000 husbands of all ages, or about 1 in 440. Wives under 21 years of age were in the proportion of 238 to every 10,000 wives of all ages, or about 1 in 42.

285.

The average age of husbands was 45.54 years, and the average age of wives was 40.46 years. Therefore, husbands were, upon the average, 5 years and 29 days older than wives.

286.

There were more wives than husbands in the counties of Bendigo, Bogong, Bourke, Dalhousie, Dundas, Grant, Grenville, Heytesbury, Normanby, Polwarth, and Rodney ; but in all the other counties, except Millewa, where the numbers were equal, there were more husbands than wives.

287.

In the cities, towns, and boroughs, taken as a whole, wives exceeded husbands by 3,963 ; but in nine of the individual boroughs, husbands were more numerous than wives ; and in two, viz., Malmsbury and Tarnagulla the number of husbands was identical with that of wives.

288.

In the total of the shires, husbands were more numerous than wives, the difference in favour of the former being 1,506 ; but in 44 of the individual shires the reverse was the case, wives being in excess of husbands ; and in two, viz., Ballarat and McIvor, the number of husbands and wives was equal.

289.

The following are the numbers of husbands and wives in each Australasian colony, those under and over 21 years of age being distinguished :— [Husbands and wives in Australasian colonies.]

HUSBANDS AND WIVES IN EACH AUSTRALASIAN COLONY, 1881.
Colony.Husbands.Wives.
Under 21 Years.Over 21 Years.Total.Under 21 Years.Over 21 Years.Total.
Victoria283124,371124,6543,006123,036126,042
New South Wales408109,810110,2184,040103,793107,833
Queensland11830,00430,1221,28528,83930,124
South Australia9543,86043,9551,34442,33943,683
Western Australia154,2604,2752073,7693,976
919312,305313,2249,882301,776311,658
Tasmania*7317,67117,74460716,52717,134
New Zealand9773,23473,3312,37470,43372,807
1,089403,210404,29912,863388,736401,599
[* In this line the numbers under and over 21 have been partly estimated.]

290.

Victoria is the only one of the Australasian colonies in which wives exceeded husbands. In Queensland the numbers were equal, but in all the other colonies husbands were in excess. Wives relatively to husbands were fewest in Western Australia, and next so in Tasmania. The following are the proportions in the different colonies :—

WIVES TO EVERY 10,000 HUSBANDS IN EACH COLONY.
1. Victoria10,111
2. Queensland10,000
3. South Australia9,938
4. New Zealand9,928
5. New South Wales9,773
6. Tasmania9,656
7. Western Australia9,301

291.

The tendency of males to marry under age appears to be greatest in Tasmania, and least in New Zealand, Victoria standing above the latter colony and South Australia. The following is the order in which the colonies stood in this particular, the colony in which the proportion of husbands under age was largest being placed first, and the rest in succession :—

HUSBANDS UNDER AND OVER 21 YEARS OF AGE IN EVERY 10,000 HUSBANDS LIVING IN EACH COLONY.
Under 21 Years.Over 21 Years.
1. Tasmania419,959
2. Queensland399,961
3. New South Wales379,963
4. Western Australia359,965
5. Victoria239,977
6. South Australia229,978
7. New Zealand139,987

292.

The tendency of women to marry under age appears to be greatest in Western Australia and Queensland, and least in Victoria—the first two being the colonies in which the proportion of females to the total population is lowest, and the last the colony in which it is highest. The following is the order of the colonies in this respect, the colony in which the proportion of wives under age was greatest being placed first, and that in which it was least last :—

WIVES UNDER AND OVER 21 YEARS OF AGE IN EVERY 10,000 WIVES LIVING IN EACH COLONY.
Under 21 Years.Over 21 Years.
1. Western Australia5219,479
2. Queensland4269,574
3. New South Wales3759,625
4. Tasmania3549,646
5. New Zealand3269,674
6. South Australia3089,692
7. Victoria2389,762

293.

If it be assumed that each wife represents a family, there were, when the Census was taken, 126,042 integral families ; but there were also 34,609 families in a state of dissolution, 12,866 by the death of the wife, and 21,743 by the death of the husband at the head, the former being the number of widowers, and the latter the number of widows returned. [Widowers and widows.]

294.

The widows exceeded the widowers by 8,877. In 1871, the former were also in excess of the latter, the difference being 3,865, but at all previous Censuses taken since the discovery of gold, widowers were more numerous than widows ; the excess of the former being 211 in 1861, 1,181 in 1857, and 1,518 in 1854. The inference is that, since the sexes have become more equalized, the facilities for widows to re-enter the marriage state are not so great as they were when males were very greatly in excess of females.

295.

The proportion of widowers to the whole male population was 1 in 35 ; that of widows to the whole female population was 1 in 19.

296.

At every one of the periods of life in which the numbers of widowers and widows have been grouped, the latter are found to be more numerous than the former.

297.

At the age of 20 and upwards, in proportion to the total numbers of their respective sexes, widows were twice as numerous as widowers, for whilst, at that period of life, 1 woman in 9 was a widow, only 1 man in 18 was a widower.

298.

At all ages, the husbands were to the widowers in the proportion of 10 to 1, and the wives to the widows were in the proportion of 6 to 1.

299.

Up to the age of 80, there were more husbands than widowers, and up to the age of 70, there were more wives than widows at each quinquennial age-period ; but after the age of 80, there were more widowers than husbands, and after the age of 70, there were more widows than wives.

300.

The youngest widowers were 20 years of age, at which period of life, 6 youths were so returned. Forty-seven females under 21 years of age were returned as widows, viz., 2 at 16, 5 at 17, 6 at 18, 7 at 19, and 27 at 20.

301.

There were more widowers than widows in the counties of Anglesey, Benambra, Buln Buln, Croajingolong, Dargo, Gladstone, Karkarooc, Lowan, Moira, Millewa, Tambo, Tatchera, and Wonnangatta ; but more widows than widowers in all the other counties except Weeah, where there was neither widower nor widow.

302.

In nearly all the cities, towns, and boroughs, widowers were more numerous than widows. The following are exceptions :—Carisbrook, Dunolly, Majorca, Raywood, and Walhalla ; also Tarnagulla, where the numbers were equal.

303.

In 26 of the shires the number of widowers exceeded that of widows ; in two, viz., Kowree and Romsey, the numbers were equal ; but in all the remaining shires widows were in excess of widowers.

304.

Of those returned as unmarried (never married), 216,409 males were under 20, and 164,738 females were under 15 years of age. If those beyond these ages be designated bachelors and spinsters, there were, when the Census was taken, 98,154 of the former, and 97,740 of the latter in the colony. [Bachelors and spinsters.]

305.

These numbers include the Chinese and Aborigines ; but as the Chinese seldom marry in this country, and since they, as well as the Aborigines, have been excluded from the returns of previous Censuses, and are also generally excluded from the Census returns of the other colonies of the group, both races will be eliminated upon the present occasion, which will leave the number of bachelors (over 20) as 87,071, and the number of spinsters (over 15) as 97,667.

306.

The figures just given furnish a proportion of 112 spinsters to every 100 bachelors ; but to ascertain the full marrying power of the population, it is evidently necessary to add the widowers to the bachelors, and the widows to the spinsters, when the proportion of marriageable women will be found to be nearly 120 to every 100 marriageable men. The following are the numbers :—

MARRIAGEABLE MEN AND WOMEN, 1881.
Conjugal Condition.Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines.
Marriageable Men.Marriageable Women.Women to every 100 Men.
Bachelors and spinsters87,07197,667112.17
Widowers and widows12,79621,711169.68
Marriageable persons99,867119,378119.54

307.

The Census under review is the first which has shown the number of marriageable women to be larger than that of marriageable men. At the previous Census there were only 73 of the former to every 100 of the latter, and in 1854 the proportion was as low as 21 to every 100. The relative increase of marriageable

women has, however, been steady since that period, as is seen by the following table, which contains a statement of the numbers and proportions at the last five Censuses :—

MARRIAGEABLE MEN AND WOMEN, 1854 TO 1881.
Year of Census.Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines.
Bachelors and Widowers (Marriageable Men).Spinsters and Widows (Marriageable Women).Marriageable Women per 100 Marriageable Men.
185470,86515,08321.28
185795,42726,31727.58
1861106,94037,00634.60
187189,92165,38672.71
188199,867119,378119.54

308.

It will be observed that each Census, as compared with the previous one, showed an increase in the number of marriageable women, but not so of marriageable men, whose number was much largest in 1861. The subsequent Census, that of 1871, showed a falling-off of 17,019 ; but the next, that under review, showed an increase of 9,946, which, however, still left the number of marriageable men fewer by 7,073 than in 1861.

309.

The returns for 1881 show a smaller number of marriageable males than marriageable females at each of the quinquennial periods of age at which they jointly occur. The reason of the whole number of the former being greater than that of the latter is that, in consequence of the ages at which marriages are found to take place, the marriageable age of females is assumed to commence at an earlier period of life (15 years) than that of males (20 years), which gives an addition of 49,677 to the former. Were 20 to be assumed to be the commencement of the marriageable age of females, as it is of males, the marriageable females would number only 69,701, or 30,166 less than the marriageable males.

310.

I have elsewhere shown, upon more than one occasion,

SeeVictorian Year-Book,1879-80, pages 103 and 104 ; same work, 1880-81, pages 199 and 200 ; and same work, 1881-2, pages 165 and 166.

that the frequency of marriage is not dependent upon the numbers of the total population, still less upon the number of marriageable women, but almost entirely upon the number of marriageable men the community contains, the tendency of whom to marry is modified by their habits and occupations, and upon the view they take of their future prospects. Thus men have a greater tendency to marry in prosperous than in dull times, and the men of a rural, and especially of an agricultural community, have a greater tendency to marry than those of an urban one. To demonstrate this I have constructed the following table, which shows the proportion of marriages to the population, to the number of single men, and to the number of single women in each of the last five Census years :— [Marriage rate at various periods.]

PROPORTION OF MARRIAGES TO POPULATION AND TO SINGLE MEN AND WOMEN, 1854 TO 1881.
Year of Census.Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines.
Population.Number of Marriages.Proportion of Marriages per 1,000 of the—
Population.Marriageable Men (Marriage Rate).Marriageable Women.
1854234,3613,69615.7752.16245.04
1857383,6684,46511.6446.79169.66
1861513,8964,5288.8142.34122.36
1871712,2634,7156.6252.4372.11
1881849,4385,7326.7557.4048.02

311.

The numbers in the last column but two, and those in the last column, show such a falling-off that, if the proportion that marriages bear to the total population or to the number of single females, were to be accepted as an index of the prosperity of the community, an alarming amount of depression would be indicated at the last two periods. The figures in the last column but one, however (hereafter called the "marriage rate"), tell a very different tale, and exhibit just such fluctuations as might have been expected from the changes which took place in the circumstances of the population between the different periods. Thus, in 1854, there was a very large influx to the colony of single adult males, some of whom brought money with them, which they saw, or

thought they saw, every prospect of speedily increasing, whilst others actually did make money very quickly, and consequently the "marriage rate" was high, but doubtless not so high as it would have been had it not been for the discomfort of living in tents, and other privations incident to a life on the early goldfields to which a large portion of the community was then subjected. By 1857 immigration had, for the time, been overdone, the result being that the gold obtained was very much less in proportion to the number of miners at work than it had been, whilst the discomforts of a goldfields life were as great as ever, and so the "marriage rate" naturally declined. By 1861 the yield of gold had seriously diminished, and as persons had not yet turned, to any great extent, to other pursuits, much distress was experienced, and the "marriage rate" fell to a minimum. By 1871, and in a greater degree by 1881, a large proportion of the population had settled on farms, whilst some, unable to obtain congenial occupation, had left the colony ; tents had almost disappeared from the goldfields ; the miners were, for the most part, working for wages, and did not, as formerly, rush about from place to place ; manufactures had been started, and had made considerable progress, and accordingly the "marriage rate" improved. In 1871 it was higher than at any previous period of the colony's history, and in 1881 it was still higher than in 1871.

312.

If unmarried men above 40 and unmarried women above 30 be termed old bachelors and old maids, there were in Victoria, when the Census was taken, 31,293 of the former and 9,716 of the latter ; but if these designations be not applied until single men have reached the age of 50 and single women the age of 40, there were in the colony only 16,216 old bachelors and 4,209 old maids. [Old bachelors and old maids.]

313.

Single males were more numerous than husbands at all ages up to 30, and single females were more numerous than wives at all ages up to 25 ; but after the age of 30, husbands were more numerous than bachelors, and after the age of 25, wives were more numerous than spinsters. [Single and married persons.]

314.

Divorced persons were tabulated with the unmarried, the fact of their being divorced being noted. They numbered 19, viz., 9 males and 10 females. As a matter of interest, I have caused their birthplaces, religions, ages, and occupations to be extracted from the schedules, with the following result :— [Divorced persons.]

DIVORCED PERSONS.—BIRTHPLACES, RELIGIONS, AGES, AND OCCUPATIONS.
Birthplaces.Males.Females.Religions.Males.Females.Ages.Males.Females.
Victoria1Church of England5325 to 30 years1
New South Wales1Presbyterian1130 to 35 years11
England63Methodist135 to 40 years2
Scotland1Baptist140 to 45 years31
Ireland13Lutheran145 to 50 years31
Germany1Roman Catholic1350 to 55 years12
United States1Free Thinker255 to 60 years1
At Sea160 to 65 years1
65 to 70 years1
Total910Total910Total910
Occupations.Males.Occupations.Females.
Merchant1Domestic Duties3
Shopkeeper1Innkeeper1
Farmer1Farmer1
Gardener2Tailoress1
Sheepfarmer1Needlewoman1
Cabinetmaker1Washerwoman2
Bootmaker1Independent Means1
Maltster1
Total9Total10

315.

According to a rule which, at my suggestion, was introduced at the Census of 1871, and which has since been adopted throughout the Australasian colonies, instructions were given to the sub-enumerators to enter all Chinamen as unmarried except those who had at the time of the Census or had had at some previous period wives in Australasia. Following out this principle, 11,102 male Chinese of 14 years old and upwards, or 95 per cent. of the whole, were set down as single, 560 were set down as husbands, and 30 as widowers. Married Chinamen were therefore in the proportion to the whole number over 14 as 1 to 21, and married and widowed together as 1 to 20. Of the 86 female Chinese over 14 years of age, 36, or 42 per cent., were wives, 36 were spinsters, and 1 was a widow. [Conjugal condition of Chinese.]

316.

Of the 325 male Aborigines of 14 years of age and upwards, 129 were returned as single, 156 as married, and 40 as widowed. Of the 201 female Aborigines at the same period of life, 38 were returned as single, 132 as married, and 31 as widowed. [Conjugal condition of Aborigines.]

317.

The following table shows the number of marriageable men and women in each Australasian colony, the unmarried (never married) being distinguished from the widowed :— [Bachelors and spinsters in Australasia colonies.]

MARRIAGEABLE MEN AND WOMEN IN EACH AUSTRALASIAN COLONY, 1881.
Colony.Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines.
Marriageable Men.Marriageable Women.
Bachelors aged 20 and upwards.Widowers at all Ages.Total.Spinsters aged 15 and upwards.Widows at all Ages.Total.
Victoria87,07112,79699,86797,66721,711119,378
New South Wales90,5979,848100,44568,20616,06484,270
Queensland*26,1772,23728,41414,4203,07717,497
South Australia29,3652,79032,15526,7115,86032,571
Western Australia4,8585395,3972,5015083,009
Total238,06828,210266,278209,50547,220256,725
Tasmania11,0892,37813,46712,7332,97415,707
New Zealand60,1234,96465,08737,1267,29644,422
Grand Total309,28035,552344,832259,36457,490316,854
[* In Queensland South Sea Islanders are excluded as well as Chinese and Aborigines.]

318.

It will be observed that there were more bachelors in New South Wales than in Victoria, and thus, although widowers in the latter were more numerous than in the former, the whole number of marriageable men was greater in New South Wales than in this colony.

319.

Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia are the only colonies in which the marriageable women exceeded the marriageable men. The following are the proportions of the former to the latter, the colonies being arranged in order :—

SINGLE WOMEN PER 10,000 SINGLE MEN LIVING IN EACH COLONY.
1. Victoria11,954
2. Tasmania11,664
3. South Australia10,135
4. New South Wales8,390
5. New Zealand6,825
6. Queensland6,158
7. Western Australia5,575

320.

New South Wales was the colony in which the marriages in the Census year bore the highest proportion to the total population, and next to it Queensland. Victoria stood fifth in this respect, being above New Zealand and Western Australia. [Marriage rates in Australasia colonies.]

The following are the figures :—

MARRIAGES(1) PER 100,000 OF THE POPULATION(2) OF EACH COLONY.
1. New South Wales850
2. Queensland842
3. South Australia837
4. Tasmania745
5. Victoria694(3)
6. New Zealand676
7. Western Australia666
[1 The marriages in 1881 numbered as follow in the different colonies :—Victoria, 5,896 ; New South Wales, 6,284 ; Queensland, 1,703 ; South Australia, 2,308 ; Western Australia, 197 ; Tasmania, 856 ; New Zealand, 3,281. It has not been possible to eliminate the marriages of Chinese and Aborigines as they are not kept separate in any of the colonies except Victoria. Their numbers, however, are but few.] [2 Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines. The following are the numbers :—Victoria, 849,438 ; New South Wales, 739,620 ; Queensland, 202,296 ; South Australia, 275,724 ; Western Australia, 29,563 ; Tasmania, 114,861 ; New Zealand, 484,929.]

321.

Comparing the marriages with the marriageable men, which is the most correct way of computing the marriage rate, South Australia—essentially an agricultural community

According to the latest returns, South Australia had about 9 acres in cultivation per head of the population, or nearly three times as much per head as any other Australasian colony. Tasmania stood next to South Australia with a little over 3 acres per head.

—stood first, and Western Australia last, the proportion in the latter being little more than half that in the former. In this respect Victoria occupied the fifth position, as before :—

MARRIAGES PER 100,000 MARRIAGEABLE MEN LIVING IN EACH COLONY.
1. South Australia7,178
2. Tasmania6,356
3. New South Wales6,256
4. Queensland5,994
5. Victoria5901

These proportions differ slightly from those given in the table following paragraph 310 ante, where the comparisons are made with the marriages which took place in the twelve months of which the Census was at the middle, instead of the calendar year 1881 which has here been adopted uniformly for all the colonies. The marriages also in the former table were exclusive of those of Chinese and Aborigines, which is not the case here.

6. New Zealand5,041
7. Western Australia3,650

322.

Women would appear to have a smaller chance of getting married in Victoria than in any other Australasian colony, as in 1881 the proportion of marriages to those of them who were marriageable was much lower here than in any of the other colonies. The colony which stood highest in this respect was Queensland, where nearly 1 in 10 of the single women married in the year, or about twice the proportion obtaining in Victoria :—

MARRIAGES PER 100,000 MARRIAGEABLE WOMEN LIVING IN EACH COLONY.
1. Queensland9,733
2. New South Wales7,457
3. New Zealand7,386
4. South Australia7,086
5. Western Australia6,547
6. Tasmania5,450
7. Victoria4939*
[* See third footnote on the preceding page.]

323.

To ascertain the relative fruitfulness of women in different countries it is necessary to compare the number of married women at the reproductive ages with the legitimate births. This can be done in Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, and New Zealand, but not in the other Australasian colonies ; as in the returns of the latter, no distinction is made between the infants born in, and those born out of wedlock. By means of such a comparison in regard to the four colonies named, it would appear that the highest degree of fecundity exists in New South Wales, and the lowest in Victoria, this being probably owing to the fact that the married women are, on the average, younger in the former and older in the latter than in the other two colonies. The following table shows the number of married women under 45 years of age, the number of legitimate births in the Census year, and the proportion of such births to such women in each of the four colonies :— [Fecundity of women in Australasian colonies.]

PROPORTION OF BIRTHS TO MARRIED WOMEN IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES.
Colony.Married Women under 45 Years of Age.Legitimate Births, 1881.
Total Number.Number per 100 Married Women under 45.
1. New South Wales80,47327,75734.49
2. Queensland24,1837,87532.56
3. New Zealand57,46418,19831.67
4. Victoria84,83125,67330.26

324.

The number of single women living in concubinage is ascertained approximately, by making a calculation based upon the assumption that the illegitimate births bear the same proportion to the single women at reproductive ages that the legitimate births do to the married women at such ages. This gives a number which does not include public prostitutes, who, as they very rarely have children, are excluded from the computation. By comparing the number of women so found, with the total number of single women at childbearing ages, the proportion of the latter living irregularly may also be ascertained. A calculation founded upon this principle shows that concubinage is most rife in Queensland, next in New South Wales, and next in Victoria and New Zealand, there being only a fractional difference between these two colonies. In the following table, the colony in which the largest proportion of concubinage exists is placed first, and that in which the smallest proportion exists, last :— [Concubinage in Australasian colonies.]

CONCUBINAGE IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES.
Colony.Single Women between 15 and 45 Years of Age.Illegitimate Births, 1881.Single Women living in Concubinage (exclusive of Public Prostitutes).
Total Number.Number per 100 Single Women between 15 and 45.
1. Queensland15,4413451,0596.83
2. New South Wales71,0851,2363,5835.04
3. Victoria101,4511,3824,5674.50
4. New Zealand38,6595341,6864.36

325.

The figures in the last column show the proportions which the single women leading a sexually immoral life, without being public prostitutes, bear to the whole number of single women at the fruitful period of life in each colony. These proportions will, perhaps, be better understood if expressed in another manner as follow :—

In Queensland 1 single woman in 13 was living immorally.
In New South Wales 1 single woman in 20 was living immorally.
In Victoria 1 single woman in 22 was living immorally.
In New Zealand 1 single woman in 23 was living immorally.

OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE.

326.

The occupations of the people have been tabulated upon a form similar to that used in 1871, this having been adapted by me at that time from the form of classification originally devised by the late Dr. Farr, C.B., F.R.S., for use in the United Kingdom, such changes alone being introduced as were required to render it suitable to the circumstances of the colony. [Occupations]

327.

The framer of this mode of classification formed the groups and combinations as far as possible according tothe materials on which people worked, and this being kept in mind, a ready explanation is found of the reason of some of the groupings, the principle of which it might otherwise be difficult to understand.

328.

On the present occasion the Victorian form for tabulating this portion of the Census has been followed in all the Australasian colonies except New South Wales. Close comparisons of the occupation returns of all the colonies with this exception are thus rendered easy, and the form being, as I have stated, based upon that used in the United Kingdom, comparisons can also be made without difficulty between the returns of the concordant colonies and those of the mother country.

329.

It is to be regretted that, in this respect, New South Wales should have chosen to stand apart from her neighbours. The inquiry as to occupations is generally considered to be the most important made at the Census, and any difference in the mode of treating the returns from that based upon recognized and generally adopted methods, must render the result less valuable not only to the diverging colony but to every other in the group, and indirectly and with less force to other and more distant countries.

330.

An instruction was printed on the householder's schedule to the effect that if a person followed two or more occupations he was to enter them in the order of their importance to himself, and this has been borne in mind in tabulating the returns, the first named being the only occupation of which account has been taken, subsequent ones being necessarily ignored, as no person can be tabulated more than once under any head of inquiry. The sole exception to this rule is in the case of Government officers following some other calling ; as for instance a deputy registrar or postmaster being also a storekeeper or a farmer, in which event he would be tabulated as the latter, although he may have placed it second. The number of public officers of the different grades is always known, but the number of storekeepers and farmers can only be ascertained when a Census is taken.

331.

The occupations of the people of this colony are grouped into 6 classes, which are subdivided into 15 orders, which are further subdivided into 62 sub-orders. Under the sub-orders 380 distinct callings are shown, some of which are still further subdivided, the result being that, in all, the names of over 1,600 occupations, and the numbers of either sex following each occupation, appear in the tables.

332.

It would, no doubt, have been desirable that the ages of the persons following the different callings should have been shown in quinquennial or decennial periods, but the labour attending such a compilation, and the bulk to which the returns would have been swelled thereby, deterred me from attempting such a task ; the numbers under and over 20, however, of each occupation are shown, in this respect the practice being followed which was introduced at the Census of 1871.

333.

All the classes and all the orders in which the occupations are grouped contain both males and females. One of the sub-orders, however, contains no male, viz., that relating to wives and widows engaged in domestic duties ; and four of them contain no female, viz., those embracing persons engaged in defence, connected with law, connected with arms, and connected with water. Of the 380 original callings, 221 were followed by both males and females, 144 were followed exclusively by males, and 15 exclusively by females. In all 365 of these callings were followed by males, and 236 by females.

334.

Males over 20 numbered 235,619. This number is distributed amongst all the headings in which males are found except three, viz., Errand boys (Order 6, Sub-order 5), Milliners and Dressmakers (Order 9, Sub-order 2), and Inmates

of Reformatories (Order 15, Sub-order 2). With the exception of 656 males over 20 returned as sons, relatives, or visitors ; 154 returned as students or scholars ; 1,221 returned as "gentlemen," "of independent means," &c.; 5,194 returned as supported by the community, including inmates of charitable institutions, paupers, prisoners, &c. ; and the unspecified, who were probably for the most part unemployed, numbering 5,216 ; the balance, 223,178, or about seventeen-eighteenths of the whole, were returned under the head of some business pursuit or calling.

335.

The number of females over 20 was 194,329. These are distributed throughout 222 of the 236 headings under which females are found. Making deductions from these in the same manner as has been done in regard to the males, viz., wives and widows of no specified occupation, numbering 100,082 ; daughters, relatives, or visitors, numbering 15,669 ; scholars, numbering 78 ; those returned as "ladies," "of independent means," &c., numbering 705 ; those supported by the community, numbering 2,585 ; and the unspecified, numbering 1,422 ; the residue, representing those following some trade or business, amounts to 73,788, or 38 per cent. of the whole.

336.

Males under 20 find a place under 311 of the headings. The total number of males at this age was 216,464. Deducting from this number those returned as sons, relatives or visitors, numbering 73,168 ; those returned as students or scholars, numbering 91,979 ; those returned as "of independent means," numbering 18 ; those returned as supported by the community, numbering 1,087 ; and the unspecified, numbering 1,214 ; there remains a total of 48,998, or about 23 per cent. of the whole, who were earning, or attempting to earn, their livelihood in the pursuit of some recognized trade or occupation.

337.

The number of females under 20 amounted to 215,934. Females at this age are found under 153 of the headings. Deducting wives and widows of no specified occupation, numbering 953 ; daughters, relatives or visitors, numbering 90,429 ; scholars numbering 92,444 ; those returned as "of independent means," numbering 35 ; those supported by the community, numbering 1,035 ; and the unspecified, numbering 60 ; the remainder is 30,978, or rather more than 14 per cent. of the total, representing those engaged in some description of business occupation.

CLASS I.—PROFESSIONAL (ANDRICI).

338.

The first class may be defined as consisting of persons engaged in the government and defence of the country, and in satisfying the intellectual, moral, and educational wants of its inhabitants. In 1871 it contained 14,131 and in 1881 18,444 persons, the increase during the interval being 4,313, or 31 per cent. At the former period it contained rather less than 2 per cent., and at the latter period rather more than 2 per cent. of the population of the colony. [Professional class.]

339.

This class is divided into two "Orders— (1) The governmental, which contained 3,524 persons in 1871, and 4,494 in 1881. (2) The professional, artistic, and scientific, which contained 10,607 persons in 1871, and 13,950 in 1881.

340.

Order 1 is divided into 3 Sub-orders—(1) Officers of general Government, which numbered 2,637 in 1871, and 3,477 in 1881. (2) Officers of local Government, which at the same periods numbered 453 and 518. (3) Persons engaged in defence, which numbered 434 and 499. [Order.]

341.

The following occupations are placed in Order 1, Sub-order 1, the numbers of either sex under and over 20 following each occupation, at the last two Censuses, being also shown :— [General Government.]

ORDER 1, SUB-ORDER 1.—MINISTERING TO GENERAL GOVERNMENT.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
The Governor11
Ministers of the Crown34
Members of Parliament158
Principal Government Officers6040
Clerks, Accountants, &c., in Government employment30615087921051
Architects, Engineers, Surveyors, Draftsmen, &c., in Government employment34142116
Intermediate and Subordinate Officers, in Government employment344540148162
Police111,0441,102
Penal2231901816
Other Government Officers6321163631626142
Total741432,5133,0972650211

342.

The numbers in the foregoing table do not embrace all persons in the Public Service, but are exclusive of the following, which are included in the Orders and Sub-orders stated :—Law Court officers (Order 2, Sub-order 2) ; mining surveyors and registrars (Order 12, Sub-order 1) ; Government short-hand writers andHansardreporters (Order 2, Sub-order 4) ; Inspectors of Stock (Order 7, Sub-order 4) ; persons employed in working (not constructing) railways (Order 6, Sub-order 1) ; Telegraph officers (Order 6, Sub-order 5) ; officers under the Education Department (Order 2, Sub-order 6) ; persons connected with ports, harbors, lighthouses, &c., (Order 6, Sub-order 3) ; officers of the Melbourne Public Library (Order 8, Sub-order 1) ; officers of the Museums or Observatory (Order 2, Sub-order 5) ; officers of Government Lunatic Asylums (Order 4, Sub-order 1 and 2, and Order 15, Sub-order 1) ; officers of Industrial Schools (Order 4, Sub-order 1) ; officers of the departments of Agriculture and Botanic Gardens (Order 7, Sub-order 1) ; officers of Water Supply (Order 12, Sub-order 4) ; pilots (Order 6, Sub-order 3) ; officers in the Royal Mint (Order 12, Sub-order 5) ; Government photographers and lithographers (Order 2, Sub-order 7, and Order 8, Sub-order 3) ; Government printers and binders (Order 8, Sub-order 1).

343.

It will be observed that only 3 Ministers of the Crown are accounted for in the returns of 1871, and 4 in those of 1881 ; and only 15 Members of Parliament are accounted for at the former, and 8 at the latter period. The reason of these numbers being so small is, that when the ordinary as well as the official occupation is given, the former is always taken in preference to the latter. The number of Ministers and of Members of the Legislature is known irrespective of the Census, but the whole number of those who follow the professions or trades to which such Ministers or Members belong can only be ascertained when a Census is taken.

344.

The principal officers, whose numbers are given in the fourth line of the table, should include the President and Chairman of Committees, Legislative Council ; the Speaker and Chairman of Committees, Legislative Assembly ; permanent heads of departments and other first-class officers not specially excepted ; the Commissioner and Examiners of Titles ; the Police Magistrates, &c. The reason of the numbers in 1881 being smaller than in 1871 probably is, that more at the latter period than at the former returned themselves indefinitely as "Civil servant," "Government officer," &c., without stating the office held. Want of precision in the original entry necessarily causes vagueness in the completed return.

345.

The intermediate and subordinate officers in the seventh line should embrace sorters, lockers, weighers, tide-waiters, nurses, cooks, Laundresses, messengers, doorkeepers, office keepers, carters, boatmen, gardeners, laborers, &c., employed under Government, not in excepted departments.

346.

The "Other Government officers," in the last line, are Coroners and Crown Prosecutors ; Postmasters and Postmistresses, not in the civil service and not otherwise described ; Deputy and Electoral Registrars, Official Assignees, &c., as well as all those returned indefinitely as "Public officer," "Civil servant," &c.

ORDER 1, SUB-ORDER 2.—MINISTERING TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Over 20.Under 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Members of municipal councils635
Magistrates (J.P.)1023
Officers of municipal bodies1912417441143
Total1912433499143

347.

Members of municipal councils are not tabulated as such if any other occupation is stated. Those included in the second line returned no regular occupation. The reason of their being placed where they are is that the letters "J.P." stood against their names in the "Householder's Schedule."

ORDER 1, SUB-ORDER 3.—MINISTERING TO DEFENCE.—ALL MALES.
Occupations.Males.
Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.
Army officers4529
Army non-commissioned officers, and soldiers1356
Navy officers313934
Navy petty officers, and sailors1217150379
Volunteers (not otherwise described)2925
Others31187
Total1819416480

348.

This table contains a statement not only of persons in the Victorian military and naval services, but persons in or retired from the Imperial service, and persons in the service of other powers. Thus in 1881, 7 of the military officers were stated to be in the Imperial service, 3 in the Indian service, 1 in the Austrian, and 2 in the Italian service, and 16 to be retired. Of the naval officers, besides 5 in the Victorian Navy, 5 were stated to be in, and 1 to have retired from the Royal Navy ; 10 were in the French, and 14 in the Italian Navy. Of the petty officers and sailors, besides 92 in the Victorian Navy, 1 was in the British, 207 were in the French, and 96 in the Italian Navy. It should be mentioned that the French transportFinistereand the Italian transportEuropa, were in the Port of Melbourne when the Census was taken.

349.

The following Sub-orders, nine in number, form the subdivisions of Order 2. The numbers in 1871 and 1881 are placed against each—(1) Clergymen and church officers, 899 and 1,237 ; (2) Law Court officers, lawyers and their subordinates, 1,152 and 1,243 ; (3) Medical practitioners, druggists, &c., 1,308 and 1,595 ; (4) Authors, literary persons, &c., 132 and 197 ; (5) Scientific persons, 232 and 300 ; (6) Teachers, 5,428 and 6,795 ; (7) Artists, 444 and 734 ; (8) Musicians, music teachers, &c., 669 and 1,289 ; (9) Actors, &c., 343 and 560 :— [Order 2.]

ORDER 2, SUB-ORDER 1.—MINISTERING TO RELIGION.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Regular clergymen2633780
Theological students14518
Irregular clergy66865
Church officers119381324
Nuns, sisters of charity2451155
Others13979614
Total288361,0442759178

350.

Of the irregular clergy in 1881, 26 were lay readers of the Church of England, and the remainder were returned as missionaries, catechists, local preachers, &c. In one instance the anomaly occurred of a person returning himself as a clergyman, and objecting to state his religion from conscientious scruples. Of those whose numbers are given in the last line as "Others," 32 were cemetery officials, gravediggers, &c., 42 were Chinese priests, or Josshouse keepers, and the remainder were persons connected with religious societies or associations. [Law.]

ORDER 2, SUB-ORDER 2.—MINISTERING TO LAW.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Judges148
Law Court officers34189139
Lawyers1432512
Law students531822
Law clerks1391763223361
Others422540
Total1511861,0001,0571

351.

One female law clerk will be noticed in the returns for 1871, but no female performing any duty connected with law appears in the returns for 1881. The numbers contained in the line "Others" at the latter period consisted of 7 law, 3 parliamentary and 2 patent agents ; 15 law stationers or writers, 2 process servers, &c.

ORDER 2, SUB-ORDER 3.—MINISTERING TO HEALTH.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Medical men434454
Medical students5232062
Irregular medical practitioners5686212
Dentists1028537711
Chemists and druggists8113249262326
Midwives130100
Others281722
Total981881,0751,2951135111

352.

With the chemists and druggists are included also their assistants, but not analytical chemists who are placed in Order 2, Sub-order 5, or manufacturing chemists who are placed in Order 8, Sub-order 15.

353.

The irregular medical practitioners and those classed under the head of "Others" in the columns for 1881, consist of 35 Chinese doctors and 1 Indian doctor, 7 hydropathists, 9 galvanists, 9 herbalists, 7 aurists or oculists, 4 chiropodists, 1 medical botanist, 1 psycopathist, 1 clairvoyante, 2 magnetists, 1 medical agent, 1 mesmerist, 1 returned as a surgeon unregistered, 1 as a quack doctor, 4 as medical or surgeons' assistants, 1 simply as "medicine," &c. [Literature.]

ORDER 2, SUB-ORDER 4.—MINISTERING TO LITERATURE.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Authors, writers224438
Reporters, shorthand writers.*11146789
University graduates22
Others112639
Total121511717438
[* Newspaper editors are included in Order 8, Sub-order 1, post.]

354.

Those placed as University graduates had no occupation specified, but had letters against their names indicating the possession of a University degree. Of those classed as "Others," 30 were interpreters (of whom 22 were Chinese), 3 were lecturers, 1 was set down as a theatrical writer, 1 as a litterateur, &c. [Science.]

ORDER 2, SUB-ORDER 5.—MINISTERING TO SCIENCE.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Civil engineers85178211
Engineers' draftsmen2259
Analytical chemists610
Others13315812
Total111022028812

355.

The civil engineers and engineers' draftsmen referred to are intended to be irrespective of those under Government. It is possible, however, that some of the latter may be included, through their having omitted to mention their connection with the Public Service. The "Others" consisted, in 1881, of the Government Astronomer and 3 observatory assistants, 6 botanists, 4 electrical engineers and 13 electricians, 4 geologists, 7 metallurgists, 11 naturalists, 7 phrenologists, 1 statistician, 1 "Philosopher," &c.

ORDER 2, SUB-ORDER 6.—MINISTERING TO EDUCATION.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
University professors34
Inspectors of schools1120
Schoolmasters, mistresses, teachers in State* Schools1622117101,2483694285881,260
Schoolmasters, mistresses, teachers in private schools20161938918246694181
Schoolmasters, mistresses, teachers in schools not stated591246286532073466571,018
Tutors, governesses3149153150153597678
Teachers of languages or accomplishments (not music)13518071353
Others11436911312
Total2463821,7232,2389099832,5503,192
[* State Schools were termed Common Schools in 1871.]

356.

The total number of school teachers was as follows, at the last two Censuses. It will be observed that the increase was between 500 and 600 in the case of both males and females :—

SCHOOLMASTERS AND MISTRESSES, 1871 AND 1881.
Schoolmasters.Schoolmistresses.
18711,7722,697
18812,3413,279
Increase569582

357.

The teachers of languages and accomplishments, in 1881, included instructors in the following branches, the number of such instructors being placed against each :—Arithmetic and bookkeeping, 1 ; classics, 9 ; dancing, 17 ; drawing, 24 ; elocution, 2 ; French, 13 ; geometry, 1 ; German, 1 ; gymnastics, 7 ; Hebrew, 3 ; kindergarten, 1 ; "languages," 43 ; Latin, 1 ; leatherwork, 1 ; literature, 4 ; mathematics, 3 ; painting 2 ; physiology, 1 ; riding, 1 ; "sciences applied to art and manufacture," 1 ; shorthand, 1 ; writing, 2, &c.

358.

Amongst the "Others" are included 85 officers of the Education Department, 9 officers or lecturers of the University, 3 teachers in training, 1 teacher of the blind, 2 teachers of the deaf and dumb, 1 superannuated teacher, &c. [Fine arts.]

ORDER 2, SUB-ORDER 7.—MINISTERING TO FINE ARTS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Artists, painters9161071537102044
Sculptors111225
Engravers133455105
Photographers, photographic artists30651631824312151
Others32725
Total53119339472114341100

359.

Those classed as "Others" were as follow, in 1881 :—9 art students, 3 enamellers, 1 heraldic artist, 1 illuminator, 2 portrait painters (should have been placed with artists in the first line), and 1 returned as "School of Design." [Music.]

ORDER 2, SUB-ORDER 8.—MINISTERING TO MUSIC.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Music masters, mistresses7511318549154170578
Musicians, vocalists212525125414214354
Others11111
Total283036545063176213633

360.

Music teachers are placed in this Sub-order instead of with teachers of accomplishments in Sub-order 6, as so many professional musicians teach music that it is found impossible to separate the two branches. The "Others" in this Sub-order embrace, in the 1881 columns, 2 music students and 11 organ grinders or organ men.

ORDER 2, SUB-ORDER 9.—MINISTERING TO GAMES AND SPORTS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Actors, actresses101112912916253572
Billiard-table keeper, marker978378
Others43151196368
Total234926340316284180

361.

The "Others" in 1881 contained the following :—2 acrobats ; 3 athletes ; 1 balletmaster ; 22 bookmakers (professional bettors) ; 8 caretakers of bowling greens or cricket grounds ; 1 clairvoyante (not medical) ; 2 officers of racing clubs ; 2 circus managers or riders ; 3 professional cricketers ; 20 managers, doorkeepers, machinists, or servants of theatres ; 2 handicappers ; 88 employes, 16 foreign commissioners, and 4 secretaries to commissioners of the Melbourne International Exhibition, 15 exhibitors, and 9 exhibitors' agents thereat ; 3 merry-go-round keepers ; 7 professional pedestrians ; 1 property-master at theatre ; 3 racecourse rangers or caretakers ; 5 scenic artists ; 1 secretary to a coursing club ; 2 keepers of shooting galleries ; 3 showmen ; 9 theatrical agents ; 1 theatrical dresser ; 2 ventriloquists, &c.

CLASS II. DOMESTIC (OIKICI.)

362.

The persons in this class are employed, if employed at all, in houses. Some supply simply service, others with it supply board and lodging. They numbered 34,349 in 1871, and 504,321 in 1881, the increase between the two periods being 69,972 or 16 per cent. They amounted to over 59 per cent. of the population in 1871, but had fallen to a little below 59 per cent. in 1881. [Domestic class.]

363.

Class II. is divided into 2 Orders, viz., (3) wives, mothers, children, and relatives performing domestic duties or being educated, which contained 398,228 persons in 1871, and 465,612 persons in 1881 ; and (4) persons engaged in entertaining and performing personal offices for man, which contained 36,121 persons at the former, and 38,709 persons at the latter period.

364.

Three Sub-orders are embraced in Order 3, the persons in which numbered as follow in 1871 and 1881 respectively :—(1) wives and widows, 82,817 and 101,035 ; (2) sons, daughters, relatives, and visitors, 172,727 and 179,922 ; (3) scholars, 142,684 and 184,655. [Order 3.]

365.

Sub-orders 1 and 2 of Order 3 admit of no subdivision. The following are the numbers of males and females under and over 20 in each in 1871 and 1881 :— [Domestic duties, &c.]

ORDER 3, SUB-ORDER 1 AND 2.—DOMESTIC DUTIES AND YOUNG CHILDREN.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
1. Wives and widows1,64795381,170100,082
2. Sons, daughters, relatives, visitors72,56673,16859565689,09490,42910,47215,669

366.

The following are the subdivisions of Sub-order 3, of Order 3, and the numbers of each for 1871 and 1881 :— [Scholars.]

ORDER 3, SUB-ORDER 3.—STUDENTS AND SCHOLARS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
University students221051340
Scholars at home8,9514,908101611,3296,6391928
Scholars at State school39,54850,36181633,44648,5061513
Scholars at private school13,2768,560183216,0469,4961225
Scholars at school not stated10,46028,04523509,48227,803612
Total72,25791,9797215470,30392,4445278

367.

The scholars in 1881 exceeded those in 1871 by nearly 42,000 ; the numbers of both sexes at the two periods may be thus summarized :—

SCHOLARS, 1871 AND 1881.
Boys.Girls.
187172,29470,355
188191,98892,522
Increase19,69422,167

368.

Order 4 contains 2 Sub-orders—(1) persons engaged in boarding and lodging, which numbered 6,120 in 1871, and 7,475 in 1881 ; (2) persons engaged in attendance, which numbered 30,001 and 31,234 at the two periods respectively. [Order 4.]

ORDER 4, SUB-ORDER 1.—ENGAGED IN BOARDING AND LODGING.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Hotelkeepers6142,8543,08816369842
Hotelkeepers' wives381,3561,835
Beer, colonial wine-sellers228314313
Beer, colonial wine-sellers' wives110
Coffee, eating-house keepers121025612613
Coffee, eating-house keepers' wives178
Boarding, lodging-house keepers316316231505457
Boarding, lodging-house keepers' wives14970
Cooks (not domestic servants)*7202574562835141
Officers of charitable institutions41938625072
Servants' registry office keepers27312844
Others45402412410
Total29443,5993,88912472,4803,495
[* This designation was intended to be applied only to professed cooks not living in service, but its object was misunderstood by the census compilers, who included under it all persons returned as cooks who appeared to be living in their own houses. Such would doubtless embrace not only the professed cooks referred to, but ordinary cooks out of place, and non-resident cooks of clubs, hotels, eating-houses, &c.]

369.

The wives of hotelkeepers, beer and colonial wine-sellers, coffee and eating-house keepers, and boarding and lodging-house keepers, referred to in the table, are believed to have been assisting in the business, and are therefore rightly placed in the same Order and Sub-order as their husbands. In cases where the entry "Domestic Duties" occurred in reference to any such wives, they were not placed here, but with the other wives in Order 3, Sub-order 1. The officers of charitable institutions referred to do not include the medical officers, who are classed with medical men in Order 2, Sub-order 3.

370.

Those under the head of "Others" embraced, in 1881, 8 hotel managers or clerks, 7 managers or caretakers of public baths, 19 officers of the Model Lodging-house and Sailors' Home, &c. [Attendance.]

ORDER 4, SUB-ORDER 2.—ENGAGED IN ATTENDANCE.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Domestic servants6321,0931,6921,78210,1519,75810,06810,757
Housekeepers22972921977
Inn, club-house, eating-house servants3232801,6521,2269931,2481,8692,035
Charitable institution servants11103012981925369322
Nurses (not domestic servants or of charitable institutions)64427601,019
Office-keepers, cleaners, porters (not Government)2212181733
Others171625166208
Total9691,3853,6643,34811,19811,15014,17015,351

371.

The persons grouped as "Others" in 1881 consisted of 5 bath attendants, 2 beadles, 167 charwomen, 3 commercial, travellers' servants, 38 lodge gatekeepers, 6 porters, &c.

372.

The increase of persons engaged in attendance during the decenniad ended with 1881 was but slight, and not nearly commensurate with that of the general

population, the increase of the males being only about 2 per cent. and that of females only about 4½ per cent. The following were the numbers at the two periods :—

MALES AND FEMALES ENGAGED IN ATTENDANCE, 1871 AND 1881.
Males.Females.
18714,63325,368
18814,73326,501
Increase1001,133

CLASS III.—COMMERCIAL (AGORICI).

373.

This class consists of those who buy, sell, carry, and store goods, but as a rule effect no change in the commodities which pass through their hands ; they also convey messages. It embraced 27,079 persons in 1871 and 35,184 in 1881, the increase in the ten years being 8,105, or 30 per cent. It amounted to rather less than 4 per cent. of the population in 1871, and rather more than 4 per cent. in 1881. [Commercial class.]

374.

Class III. is divided into two Order—(5) persons who buy and sell goods of various kinds and keep or lend money, amounting to 13,762 in 1871 and 17,616 in 1881 ; (6) persons who store goods and convey men, goods and messages amounting to 13,317 in 1871 and 17,568 in 1881.

375.

Order 5 embraces two Sub-orders—(1) mercantile persons, who numbered 7,136 in 1871, and 11,332 in 1881, and (2) other general dealers, who numbered 6,626 and 6,284 at the same periods respectively. [Order 5]

ORDER 5, SUB-ORDER 1.—MERCANTILE PERSONS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Capitalists4197374147103
Merchants311673736112
Auctioneers, appraisers, valuers441952491
Brokers (not share or stock)10111501341
Commission agents, factors9144509431
Bank officers932007091,105
Officers of public companies19341001521
Officers of benefit societies32015
Share and stock brokers1243584001
Commercial clerks7711,4001,8392,85013130
Commercial travellers, sales-men, women26786619453420281363
Others1626651913
Total9661,7866,0038,81635215132515

376.

The "Others" in the portion of the table which relates to 1881 consist of 749 accountants,

A special line ought to be devoted to accountants. This should be borne in mind when the forms are revised for another census.

5 actuaries, 2 average staters, 1 canvasser, 123 collectors, 4 commercial employes, 1 marine underwriter, 1 market lessee, 11 money brokers, 1 sampler, 11 speculators, 3 trade assignees, &c. [Other general dealers.]

ORDER 5, SUB-ORDER 2.—OTHER GENERAL DEALERS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Shopkeepers (branch undefined)5175903,3412,47582154585862
Shopkeepers' wives (assisting in business)22232352
Pawnbrokers279841043414
Hawkers, pedlers516975878712730
Others65807476691149379
Total6607484,9304,035951649411,337

377.

Of the "Others" in 1881, 65 were dealers in fancy goods, 2 in second-hand goods, 1 was a dealer in waste materials, 1 in brushware, and 1 in Indian goods, 20 were marine storekeepers, and 750 were merely set down as general dealers or dealers, &c.

378.

Five Sub-orders are embraced in Order 6—(1) carriers on railways, which numbered 745 in 1871, and 3,098 in 1881 ; (2) carriers on roads, which numbered 7,655 and 8,291 ; (3) carriers on seas and rivers, which numbered 2,974 and 3,363 ; (4) persons engaged in storage, which numbered 921 and 1,257 ; (5) messengers and porters, which numbered 1,022 and 1,559. [Order 6.]

ORDER 6, SUB-ORDER 1.—CARRIERS ON RAILWAYS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Railway officers, clerks, station-masters224618345118
Railway engine-drivers, stokers, cleaners219107321
Railway servants71303961,88211026231
Total311956862,65411027239

379.

In 1871, a certain number of the persons referred to in this table were in the employment of a private company, but in 1881, the rights of that company having been purchased by the State, they were all in the service of the Government.

ORDER 6, SUB-ORDER 2.—CARRIERS ON ROADS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Coach, omnibus, cab-proprietors1244557364
Coach, omnibus, drivers, conductors1041701,1381,5793
Draymen, carriers, carters7849574,9384,8311144
Livery stable-keepers51787811
Toll-keepers, contractors259718
Others11019661
Total9191,1506,7157,127211913

380.

In consequence of the abolition of tolls which took place at the end of 1877, toll keepers and toll contractors, which numbered 122 in 1871, were altogether absent from the returns of 1881.

381.

The "Others" in 1881 comprised 12 forwarding agents, 42 omnibus and cab cleaners, 1 omnibus office clerk (a female), 5 managers of omnibus stables, 8 timekeepers, 1 traffic superintendent, and 8 clerks of coach companies.

ORDER 6, SUB-ORDER 3.—CARRIERS ON SEAS AND RIVERS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Harbour, pier service143046
Pilots2629
Lighthouse-keepers4134
Shipowners2524
Ship masters, officers, seamen1701411,9162,030
Ship engineers, stokers, coal-trimmers1379156
Ship servants, stewards, stewardesses19221902561223
Stevedores, lumpers59182259
Watermen, boatmen, boat proprietors1513139114
Others2121211871
Total2132042,7493,1351224

382.

None of the persons to whom the table refers were in the Royal Navy, or in the Navy of any foreign power. Of those in 1881, 30 were stated to be in the employment of the Melbourne Harbor Trust. The "Others" in the same year were returned as follow :—12 ballast agents, 5 bargemen, 1 caretaker, 11 divers, 7 dock proprietors or labourers, 44 lightermen, 1 manager of the "Seamen's Home of Hope," 11 marine surveyors, 5 puntkeepers or men, 1 salvage operator, 1 sculler, 10 shipbrokers, 24 shipping agents (1 a female), 14 shipping clerks, 1 shipping master, 3 ships' clerks, 4 snagging overseers or men, 2 supercargoes, 1 tally clerk, 15 watchmen, 1 water bailiff, 7 wharfingers, and 19 wharf labourers.

ORDER 6, SUB-ORDER 4.—ENGAGED IN STORAGE.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Storekeepers (not shopkeepers)1558322
Store labourers, storemen (not shopmen)581387549361
Others932415916
Total681708501,0781722

383.

Those returned as "Others" in 1881 comprised 12 managers or clerks of free or bonded stores, 46 packers and 39 storemen (should have been included with store labourers).

ORDER 6, SUB-ORDER 5.—MESSENGERS AND PORTERS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Messengers, porters (not Government)12927621320713
Errand—boys, girls3573681
Telegraph service6122716724921843
Others52943967115
Total599965419523219252

384.

The persons engaged in the telegraph service were all in the employment of the Government. The "Others" in 1881 comprised 121 mail carriers, 36 mail contractors, &c.

CLASS IV.—AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL (GEORGICI).

385.

The fourth class consists of persons who are employed about land or animals—in owning, surveying, clearing, or tilling the former, and in breeding, keeping, or training the latter ; it embraced 85,841 persons in 1871, and 124,202 persons in 1881—the increase in the interval being 38,361 or 45 per cent. It contained 12 per cent. of the population of the colony at the former, and 15 per cent. at the latter period. [Agricultural and pastoral class.]

386.

It embraces only one Order, the 7th, which is divided into four Sub-orders—(1) persons engaged in agricultural pursuits numbering 74,150 in 1871, and 108,919 in 1881 ; (2) persons engaged in pastoral pursuits numbering 8,177 and 10,608 ; (3) persons engaged on land (not cultivating or grazing) numbering 1,062 and 1,377 ; (4) persons engaged about animals numbering 2,452 and 3,298. [Order 7]

ORDER 7, SUB-ORDER 1.—ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURAL PURSUITS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Farmers, market gardeners26350924,70334,7054116101,141
Farmers' wives assisting10721320,57722,536
Farmers' sons, daughters, relatives assisting6,92111,5093,0766,7661,2727,1433915,916
Farm bailiffs, overseers1011161108
Farm servants, labourers2,7533,28211,1479,2862701,256231978
Gardeners (not domestic servants)882231,4112,8794
Others2157132379324
Total10,05615,59140,63054,1231,6538,62621,81130,579

387.

Between 1871 and 1881 the total increase of persons of this Sub-order was 34,769 or 47 per cent. The increase, however, was almost entirely confined to the farmers themselves and their relatives. The farm servants of both sexes, other than relatives, increased by only 400, and the male farm servants over 20 years of age fell off by nearly 1,900.

388.

Those grouped as "Others" included, in 1881, 3 agricultural students, 18 persons employed in the Botanical Gardens, 13 persons cultivating hops, 139 the

vine, and 244 tobacco ; 3 sugar planters, 4 coffee and tea planters, and 2 planters undefined ; 7 florists, 1 forest inspector, 5 hop pickers, 1 secretary of a horticultural society, &c.

ORDER 7, SUB-ORDER 2.—ENGAGED IN PASTORAL PURSUITS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Squatters, graziers8391,1932,3333594
Squatters', graziers' wives assisting85211,076
Squatters', graziers' sons, daughters, relatives assisting16030516927618317410559
Station or grazing farm—managers, overseers2820626642
Station or grazing farm—servants, labourers8179143,8822,742542165651
Others116461241641
Total1,1291,3245,9946,157237461,0312,381

389.

The whole increase of this Sub-order between the censuses was about 30 per cent. A falling off of 1,000 took place in the male servants and labourers, but this was more than made up by an increase in the number of graziers and in that of their relatives and female servants.

390.

Those grouped as "Others" in 1881 comprised 177 herdsmen or boys (not on stations), 1 girl returned as "looking after cattle," 19 shearers, 4 station clerks, and 10 stock and station agents.

ORDER 7, SUB-ORDER 3.—ENGAGED ON LAND (NOT CULTIVATING OR GRAZING).
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Land proprietors22254496337138
Land, estate—agents75871031
Land surveyors1735196231
Agricultural implement—proprietors, workers644613
Grubbers, bushmen (not fencers or splitters)3429291143
Others1022701534
Total76979441,1391341138

391.

Amongst the "Others" in 1881 are included 8 drainers, 10 caretakers of public parks and gardens, 9 tree ringers, and 148 selectors (not farming or keeping stock).

ORDER 7, SUB-ORDER 4.—ENGAGED ABOUT ANIMALS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Horse proprietors, breeders, dealers5573113
Veterinary surgeons, farriers15261362061
Horsebreakers, grooms (not domestic servants or in livery stables)1954097821,103
Live stock salesmen851649821
Animal, bird—dealers, keepers62766
Game, rabbit—catchers, killers12709116013
Fishermen45734774813
Others517236739512
Total3316662,1172,622410

392.

In this table the "Others" returned in 1881 consisted of 2 bee hunters, 1 cattle classer, 1 cattle yards inspector, 1 coursing judge, 14 dog trainers, 378 drovers, 11 gamekeepers, 3 horse clippers, 2 hunters, 2 keepers of acclimatization gardens, 1 master of hounds, 8 opossum trappers, 8 pig dealers, 1 poultry farmer, 1 inspector of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 3 rabbit inspectors, 1 sericiculturist, 1 sheep classer, 12 sheep dealers, 15 stock inspectors, 1 whipper-in, and 2 yardsmen.

CLASS V.—INDUSTRIAL (TECHNICI).

393.

This class comprises persons engaged in dealing with and generally altering the form, texture, or composition of raw materials so as to make them available for the use of man. It embraced 136,012 persons in 1871, and 134,667 persons in 1881, the decrease in the decenniad being 1,345, or about 1 per cent. It contained 19 per cent. of the population at the former, and 16 per cent. at the latter period.

394.

The fifth class is divided into five Orders—(8) workers and dealers in art and mechanic productions in which matters of various kinds are used in combination, including 23,174 persons in 1871, and 28,065 in 1881 ; (9) persons engaged in working and dealing in textile fabrics, dress and fibrous materials, including 22,151 and 34,548 ; (10) persons working and dealing in food and drinks, including 14,069 and 15,277 ; (11) persons working and dealing in animal and vegetable substances, including 9,354 and 8,272 ; (12) persons working and dealing in minerals, including 67,264 and 48,505.

395.

Order 8 is divided into 15 Sub-orders—(1) engaged in books, which numbered at the two periods respectively 2,345 and 3,492 ; (2) in musical instruments, 104 and 139 ; (3) in prints and pictures, 120 and 200 ; (4) in carving and figures, 111 and 162 ; (5) in tackle for sports and games, 34 and 26 ; (6) in designs, medals, and dies, 31 and 87 ; (7) in watches and philosophical instruments, 401 and 570 ; (8) in surgical instruments, 11 and 21 ; (9) in arms, 49 and 71 ; (10) in machines and tools, 795 and 994 ; (11) in carriages, harness, and implements, 2,802 and 3,556 ; (12) in ships and boats, 548 and 608 ; (13) in houses and buildings, 14,336 and 16,162 ; (14) in furniture, 1,180 and 1,748 ; (15) in chemicals, 307 and 229. [Order.]

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 1.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN BOOKS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Booksellers and publishers*35991412792102427
Bookbinders58979012543583664
Printers, compositors5298849651,28418111
Newspaper proprietors, editors, publishers131712601
Others669117617424413
Total6891,1741,5432,122488065116
[* See also Statioers, Order 11, Sub-order 2, post.]

396.

The "Others" connected with books in 1881 included 11 advertising press agents, 20 book hawkers, 2 clerks in a printing office, 20 officers of free or public libraries, athenaeums, or mechanics' institutes, 40 librarians not otherwise described, 1 librarian to the Melbourne University, 105 news agents and venders ; 5 canvassers, 4 collectors, and 35 runners for newspapers ; 2 newspaper folders, 5 pagers, 4 printers' brokers, 1 printer's traveler, 1 printing agent, 2 dealers in printing materials, &c.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 2.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Musical instrument—makers, dealers192044601
Music—publishers, sellers1514201
Others312232
Total23268011211

397.

The "Others" in 1881 consisted chiefly of pianoforte tuners, of whom 30 were returned in that year.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 3.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN PRINTS AND PICTURES.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Lithographers, lithographic printers20547311311
Picture cleaners, dealers138
Map and print sellers311
Others4516151
Total246095137211

398.

The "Others" in 1881 included 2 artists' colormen, 1 labeller, 2 letter cutters, 1 map mounter, 1 National Gallery attendant, 1 print cutter, 3 rubber stamp makers, 7 ticket writers, &c.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 4.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN CARVING AND FIGURES.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Wood carvers243644661
Image makers231
Modellers391415
Taxidermists89
Others213744710
Total29467110045711

399.

The "Others" in 1881 included 10 artificial flower makers, 3 artists in hair, 1 artist in paper flowers, 1 flowerist in wax, 1 machine flowerist, 1 ornamental designer, 2 workers in sea-weed and shell-work, &c.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 5.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN TACKLE FOR SPORTS AND GAMES.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Toy—makers, dealers12131074
Billiard table makers195
Fishing-rod, tackle—maker1212
Others2
Total25251774
ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 6.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN DESIGNS, MEDALS, AND DIES.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Pattern designers2481614
Die sinkers, mould, medal—makers161013
Others639314414
Total3162138315418

400.

The "Others" under this head in 1881 embraced 1 designer and colorist 1 electrotyper, 29 embossers, 1 embroidery stamper, 2 silk embossers, 4 type founders' 2 typographers, &c.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 7.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN WATCHES AND PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENTS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Watch, clock—makers*53122320403123
Philosophical instrument makers2363
Opticians151017
Others2414
Total58130340437123
[* See also Goldsmiths, &c., Order 12, Sub-order 5. post.]

401.

The "Others" in 1881 contained 1 adjuster of weights, 1 air-pump and patent ventilator maker, 10 scale makers, 1 telephone fitter, and 1 weighbridge maker.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 8.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Surgical instrument makers, dealers12814111
Others112
Total12814223

402.

The "Others" in 1881 consisted of 2 surgical bandage makers, and 1 returned as "surgical trade."

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 9.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN ARMS (ALL MALES).
Occupations.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.
Gunsmiths1083741
Others5217
Total10133958

403.

The "Others" in 1881 consisted of 2 armourers, 1 cartridge maker, 2 fuse manufacturers, 2 keepers of powder magazines, 11 powder-mill workers, 1 lithofracteur manufacturer, and 3 shot makers.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 10.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN MACHINES AND TOOLS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Mechanical engineers; engine, machine—makers, agents, dealers*106130614740
Toolmakers, dealers22109
Cutlers132326
Others5213260122
Total114156679835122
[* See also Workers in Metals, Order12, Sub-order 6, post.]

404.

The "Others" in 1881 comprised 14 bellows makers, 7 gas-meter makers (should have been placed in Order 8, Sub-order 7), 9 grinders, 1 letterpress machinist, 1 machine labourer, 2 machinery yardsmen, 2 mangle makers, 9 saw makers, 10 saw sharpeners, 16 sewing machine agents, importers, or makers ; 1 waterlift maker, &c.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 11.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN CARRIAGES, HARNESS, AND IMPLEMENTS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Carriagemakers, dealers23536562998241
Perambulator, bicycle—makers, dealers3393
Saddle, harness—makers, dealers276313784939244
Whipmakers1730275611
Wheelwrights115120586579
Millwrights657563
Agricultural implement makers, dealers992352
Others276103
Total6608522,1332,6902912

405.

The "Others" in 1881 embraced 12 coach-spring makers, 5 saddlers' ironmongers, &c.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 12.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN SHIPS AND BOATS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Shipbuilders, shipwrights717371412
Shipriggers818
Shipchandlers41712
Block, oar, mast—makers167
Boat builders863440
Sailmakers8280911
Others51
Total27265215811

406.

The entry in the line "Others" for 1881 refers to 1 buoy maker.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 13.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN HOUSES AND BUILDINGS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
House proprietors4976191173283
House agents, factors, rent collectors4548411
Architects3424176237
Builders3744601667
Carpenters, joiners5277215,5805,784
Bricklayers1401809401,003
Masons, paviors1581891,7111,175
Slaters, shinglers, tilers1187480
Plasterers106148605575
Painters, paperhangers, plumbers, glaziers3835991,5582,2051
Contractors for buildings34798861,42414
Others1320354423
Total1,4472,01712,71113,85411177290

407.

The "Others" in 1881 consisted of 47 blind makers, 1 bridge builder, 4 builders' boys, 7 building overseers or foremen, 4 patent ventilator manufacturers, &c.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 14.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN FURNITURE.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Furniture, cabinet—makers, upholsterers1673137269799243855
Furniture—brokers, dealers8862851610
Picture-frame makers619929111
Carvers and gilders1718414215
Mattress, bed—makers2161933411
Others8165686131
Total2083909131,25410314973

408.

Under this head, the "Others" in 1881 consisted of 9 carpet planners, 1 carpet sewer, 2 furniture packers, 1 labeller of druggists' show bottles, 1 show-stand maker, 82 undertakers,

A special line ought to be devoted to undertakers. This should be borne in mind when the forms are revised for another census.

&c.

ORDER 8, SUB-ORDER 15.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN CHEMICALS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Manufacturing chemists1592023
Drysalters216
Dyers, scourers, calenders1396174121518
Asphalte—makers, workers21214
Others10141824041663
Total26312551545202124

409.

A falling off in 1881 as compared with 1871 will be noticed under the head of "Others," the reason being that 145 opium dealers, mostly Chinese, were classified under this head in 1871, whereas in 1881 persons of this calling have been more properly classed amongst dealers in drinks and stimulants, Order 10, Sub-order 3,post. Those under the head of "Others" in 1881 comprised 1 blacking maker, 2 Brunswick black and fire-kindler makers, 9 engaged in chemical works (should have been included with manufacturing chemists), 3 eucalyptus oil manufacturers, 1 fluid magnesia maker, 1 importer of photographic materials, 10 ink makers, 1 liquid glue and chemical cement maker, 1 non-conducting boiler composition maker, 1 packer of druggists' goods, 1 polish maker, 4 pyrotechnists, 7 engaged in salt making, 2 soda and alkali makers, 24 starch and blue manufacturers, 1 wafer maker, 1 washing solution maker, &c.

410.

Order 9 contains 3 Sub-orders—(1) engaged in textile fabrics, persons in which numbered 3,170 in 1871 and 4,642 in 1881 ; (2) in dress, numbering 18,807 and 29,599 ; (3) in fibrous materials, numbering 174 and 307. [Order 9.]

ORDER 9, SUB-ORDER 1.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN TEXTILE FABRICS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Manchester warehousemen76158299498
Drapers, mercers5417861,5891,7884557234248
Woolstaplers142115127018
Woollen manufacture50147511972413121122
Silk manufacture1
Silk dealers15
Cotton, flax manufacture2510115
Others65734613342435
Total6871,1712,1302,82973223280419

411.

The "Others" in 1881 consisted of 80 factory hands, 3 flag makers, 8 flock makers, 1 friller, 1 gold lace man, 5 knitters, 62 pressers, 1 power loom overseer, 1 stocking maker, 16 weavers, &c.

ORDER 9, SUB-ORDER 2.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN DRESS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Hairdressers, wig makers241032503451610
Hatters, cap makers, straw—hat, bonnet makers255112519154488082
Furriers4172317419
Tailors, tailoresses1823341,3281,4907061,4266071,774
Outfitters, slop sellers, clothes dealers1115458315419
Milliners, dressmakers122,4205,1804,1576,337
Clothing manufacturers172675655898941,2251,671
Hosiers, haberdashers, glovers1211161565
Shoe, boot—makers1,3221,7863,5214,6832626647181
Shoemakers' wives328506742
Shoeblacks59
Umbrella, parasol, stick—makers, menders, dealers114740135726
Washerwomen, manglers, laundry—keepers, workers141451361,3171,404
Others17814219642
Total1,5832,3545,3986,9733,8547,9607,97212,312

412.

Of the "Others" in 1881, 1 was a boot protector dealer, 2 were braiders, 16 embroiderers, 31 fancy workers, 8 straw plait workers, 12 waterproof clothing manufacturers, 1 was a gold mercer, 1 military embroiderer, 1 maker and lender of theatrical dresses, 1 scarf maker, 1 sewer, 1 trimmer, &c.

ORDER 9, SUB-ORDER 3.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN FIBROUS MATERIALS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Mat, matting—makers, dealers61221
Rope, cord—makers, dealers6988626994
Canvas, sailcloth—makers, dealers121
Tent, tarpaulin—makers, dealers282741
Sacking, sack, bag—makers, dealers14101739
Others621014217
Total7111096134133630

413.

The "Others" in 1881 consisted of 1 floorcloth printer, 37 jute factory workers, 3 net makers, &c.

414.

Order 10 contains, 3 Sub-orders—(1) workers and dealers in animal food, numbering 6,515 in 1871, and 6,693 in 1881 ; (2) in vegetable food, numbering 3,935 and 4,309 ; (3) in drinks and stimulants, 3,619 and 4,275. [Order 10.]

ORDER 10, SUB-ORDER 1.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN ANIMAL FOOD.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Cowkeepers, dairymen, milksellers2701778077098422369339
Cheesemongers46173515
Butchers, meat salesmen9059823,0463,281132340
Butchers' wives15489674
Provision curers, meat preservers59816877123
Poulterers, game dealers18166453194
Fishmongers, dealers, curers112512017963
Oyster, shellfish dealers112522
Others115201
Total1,2681,2164,2624,37687328981,069

415.

The "Others" in 1881 consisted of 7 abattoirs employes, 5 dairy produce dealers, 1 egg merchant, 1 honey gatherer, 1 meat potter, 1 milk preserver, 1 sausage maker, 1 tripeman, &c.

ORDER 10, SUB-ORDER 2.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN VEGETABLE FOOD.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Corn, flour, meal—merchants, dealers15393283292710
Millers, flour-mill workers869051446811
Bakers3814881,4291,64013223118
Confectioners, pastrycooks821092463028195061
Greengrocers, fruiterers4838400361124133161
Seed—merchants, dealers10738463
Others16205462372
Total6687913,0093,2083654222256

416.

The "Others" in 1881 comprised 2 biscuit packers, 2 farina makers, 4 grain shipping agents, 3 herb dealers, 61 jam, preserve, pickle factory workers

In future censuses it would be well to appropriate a line of the tables to this industry.

; 2 macaroni makers, 1 mushroom gatherer, 14 potato dealers, &c.

ORDER 10, SUB-ORDER 3.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN DRINKS AND STIMULANTS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Brewers6258476422112
Maltsters5447812
Wine, spirit merchants1520135128
Wine manufacture31311
Distillers, rectifiers119274
Gingerale, aerated waters, cordial manufacturers62552632476
Sugar refiners691944
Coffee, chicory—roasters, dealers8133225
Grocers, tea dealers4005491,4571,6261412161245
Tobacco, cigar, snuff—manufacturers5513710218322721
Tobacconists29311371774816
Others2060831101
Total6658772,7603,0541853176291

417.

The "Others" in 1881 consisted of 1 cider maker, 6 cocoa factory workers, 2 curry powder makers, 1 essence makers, 1 hop broker, 60 opium dealers, 2 perfumers, 7 sauce makers, 1 spice factory worker, 2 sugar sorters, 1 tobacco broker, 5 vinegar makers, 2 yeast merchants, &c.

418.

Order 11 contains two Sub-orders—(1) workers and dealers in animal substances, who numbered 1,390 in 1871 and 1,950 in 1881 ; (2) workers and dealers in vegetable substances, who numbered 7,964 in 1871 and 6,322 in 1881. [Order 11.]

ORDER 11, SUB-ORDER 1.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN ANIMAL MATTERS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Soapboilers51567771
Tallow-chandlers11305761111
Tallow-melters, boilers-down (not meat preservers)3522
Manure manufacturers, dealers42317
Hide, skin—salesmen, dealers614139
Fellmongers65612702092
Tanners601183164952
Curriers54511612883
Leather manufacture102722342
Feather dressers, glove cleaners1322413
Hair-brush, broom—makers, dealers1454118932520
Others173512015912
Total2463941,1321,483529744

419.

Under this head, the "Others" in 1881 comprised 1 bone dealer, 1 catgut maker, 1 collector of native skins, 1 comb maker, 1 coral dealer

In placing dealer in coral under "Animal Matters" the English practice has been followed.

, 9 curled hair makers, 1 fat collector, 11 glue and oil makers, dealers ; 6 ivory turners, 47 leather cutters, sellers ; 1 parchment maker ; 72 wool brokers, buyers, merchants ; 9 wool pressers, 1 wool valuer, 21 wool warehouse employes, &c.

ORDER 11, SUB-ORDER 2.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN VEGETABLE MATTERS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Oil, color—men33528
French polishers40808216221
Japanners310121035
Timber merchants413525126211
Firewood—dealers, sellers, choppers5824212,0201,3484146
Fencers, hurdle makers, splitters3132452,2251,336
Turners274081129
Coopers6053324344
Sawyers, saw-mill owners, workers1321501,1309291
Basket makers719556311
Hay and straw—salesmen, dealers1612464114
Chaffcutters982818
Paper manufacture24462454111620
Rag, waste paper—gatherers, dealers2246221
Stationers*38311268641347
Bill stickers, distributors1417211
Others2750778521451721
Total1,3251,2046,5601,97832734767
[* See also Booksellers, Order 8, Sub-order 1, ante.]

420.

The "Others" in 1881 embraced 2 band-box makers, 42 bark strippers, dealers ; 53 box makers, 1 dealer in brewers' grains, 2 broom makers, 6 cane workers, 1 clothes-prop dealer, 14 cork cutters, dealers ; 1 envelope maker, 12 fancy box makers, 2 flycatcher makers, 2 indiarubber workers, dealers ; 1 ladder maker, 2 last makers, 27 paper-bag makers, 2 sawdust venders, 1 seaweed gatherer, 1 straw presser, 3 thatchers, 4 varnish makers, 1 wood type maker, &c.

421.

Order 12 contains six Sub-orders—(1) persons engaged in mining, which numbered 53,128 in 1871 and 36,066 in 1881 ; (2) workers and dealers in coal, which numbered 321 in 1871 and 444 in 1881 ; (3) workers and dealers in stone, clay, earthenware, and glass, which numbered 7,249 in 1871 and 3,499 in 1881 ; (4) workers and dealers in water, which numbered 144 in 1871 and 124 in 1881 ; (5) workers in gold, silver, and precious stones, which numbered 300 in 1871 and 648 in 1881 ; (6) workers and dealers in metals other than gold and silver, which numbered 6,122 in 1871 and 7,724 in 1881. [Order 12.]

ORDER 12, SUB-ORDER 1.—ENGAGED IN MINING.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Goldminers (alluvial)1,47580425,44111,231125
Goldminers (quartz)5968708,2227,3651
Goldminers diggers (undescribed)1,0351,44715,05212,432242
Quartz crushing, engaged in1292644617712
Miners for minerals and metals other than gold263440
Others9412257170623
Total3,3313,51349,78132,54533135

422.

The goldminers, including those engaged in quartz crushing, were fewer in 1881 than in 1871 by 17,236, or 33 per cent. The following are the numbers at the two periods :—

GOLDMINERS, 1871 AND 1881.
187152,425
188135,189
Decrease17,236

423.

The "Others" engaged in mining in 1881 comprised 6 amalgamators, 1 student of the school of mines, 11 bracemen, 25 mining carters, 1 consulting miner, 230 engine-drivers of puddling and pumping machines, 1 gold purifier, 3 inspectors of mines, 31 legal managers and their clerks, 9 mine owners, 16 mining carpenters, 6 mining contractors, tributers ; 66 mining engineers, 268 mining managers, 4 mining board officers, 12 mining registrars, 22 mining smiths, drill sharpeners ; 10 mining surveyors, 32 pyrites workers, 1 secretary to a miners' association, 16 truckmen, 37 whim and whip drivers, 10 diamond drill workers, &c.

ORDER 12, SUB-ORDER 2.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN COAL.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Coal, coke—merchants, dealers, heavers, labourers857351
Charcoal burners, dealers1312113111
Chimney sweepers429381
Gasworks service726912171
Others1
Total284229140121

424.

The smaller number of coal merchants, coal heavers, &c., shown for 1881 as compared with 1871, does not represent the actual fact, as the numbers employed in this industry must have increased considerably between the censuses. In this, as in many other instances, persons often returned their occupations indefinitely, coal merchants simply as "merchants," or "shipowners ;" coal heavers as "labourers," &c. Hence the apparent falling off.

ORDER 12, SUB-ORDER 3.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN STONE, CLAY, EARTHENWARE, AND GLASS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Quarry owners, workers, men5658890574
Stone cutters, dressers (not masons)1357892311
Lime burners, quarriers, dealers17676451
Plaster, cement—makers, dealers34
Brick makers, dealers25414191965721
Pottery makers, dealers295945802
Glass makers, dealers4642493211
China, earthenware—makers, dealers1191511105
Road, railway—contractors108308951
Road surveyors, not under general or local government228011
Road, railway—labourers, navvies341923,9541,082
Nightmen, scavengers324548
Others8114351
Total7385006,4952,98635138

425.

The depression in the building trades which existed at the time the Census was taken is recognised by the falling off of quarrymen and brickmakers, as compared with the numbers returned in 1871. Had the Census been taken a few months later, there is no doubt the numbers employed in these trades would have considerably exceeded those shown in the returns of the previous Census.

426.

The "Others" in 1881 consisted of 22 bottle dealers and collectors, 1 crucible maker, 1 earthenware and glass packer, 1 filter agent, 1 slate enameller, 1 billiard-table slate preparer, 12 men working at stonebreaking machines, 10 stone and marble merchants, 2 stone merchants' carters, 10 stone fence builders, and 1 stone weigher.

ORDER 12, SUB-ORDER 4.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN WATER.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Waterworks service468489
Water carriers, carters, dealers21232
Ice makers, dealers214
Others128201
Total791361151

427.

The "Others" in 1881 included 12 dam and tank makers, 3 caretakers of water-race, 1 pumper, 1 water overseer, 2 well borers, sinkers, &c.

ORDER 12, SUB-ORDER 5.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN GOLD, SILVER, AND PRECIOUS STONES.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Goldsmiths, silversmiths, jewellers*6514118338862
Lapidaries, precious stone workers, dealers2410
Assayers32121
Electro-platers, platers17615
Others371640124
Total69160230474186
[* See also Watchmakers, Order 8, Sub-order 7, ante.]

428.

The "Others" in 1881 included 1 gold beater, 5 gold buyers, 6 gold chasers, 2 gold cutters, 3 gold melters, 1 gold moulder, 1 gold piercer, 1 gold refiner, 12 gold smelters, 1 jeweller's engineer, 15 officers of the Royal Mint, 1 silver plate chaser, 2 silver plate burnishers, 1 silver plater, &c.

ORDER 12, SUB-ORDER 6.—WORKERS AND DEALERS IN METALS OTHER THAN GOLD AND SILVER.*
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Copper workers, dealers21223963
Tin, zinc—workers, dealers21126548647213
Lead, antimony—workers, dealers31127
Iron founders, moulders, workers, dealers142237406693
Blacksmiths, whitesmiths8291,1342,9963,409
Ironmongers, hardware dealers1191444144651353
Brass founders, moulders, workers, dealers349765148
Locksmiths, bellhangers383127
Gasfitters16235152
Others46123189320322
Total1,4242,0544,6895,6562975
[* See also Workers in Machines and Tools, Order 8, Sub-order 10 ante.]

429.

The "Others" in 1881 comprised 318 boiler makers

In future censuses a line in the tables should be specially appropriated to this trade.

, 7 bolt makers, 5 burnishers, polishers ; 5 cage makers, 6 fireproof safe makers, 11 galvanised iron workers, 13 labourers at the Lal Lal iron works, 1 lacquerer, 3 "manufacturers of metal work," 4 metal brokers, dealers ; 1 metal packer, 1 metal refiner, 7 smelters, 6 stampers, piercers ; 1 steel manufacturer, 45 wire workers, &c.

CLASS VI.—INDEFINITE AND NON-PRODUCTIVE.

430.

In this class are placed those returned in so indefinite a manner that it is impossible to determine to which of the foregoing classes and orders they properly belong ; also those who follow no business calling, being either possessed of an independent income (not derived from land or houses

Landed proprietors are placed in Order 7 , Sub-order 3 ; house proprietors in Order 8, Sub-order 13.

) or being supported by the community. [Indefinite and non-productive class.]

431.

Class VI. is divided in three Orders—(13) labourers and others (branch undefined), which contained 17,697 persons in 1871 and 25,736 in 1881 ; (14) persons of property or rank, not returned under any office or occupation, which contained 1,116 persons in 1871 and 1,979 in 1881 ; (15) persons supported by the community and of no special occupation, which contained 10,842 persons in 1871 and 9,901 persons in 1881.

432.

Order 13 is divided into two Sub-orders—(1) labourers (branch undefined), which contained 15,289 persons in 1871 and 22,033 persons in 1881 ; (2) other indefinite occupations, which contained 2,408 persons in 1871 and 3,703 persons in 1881. [Order 13.]

ORDER 13, SUB-ORDER 1.—LABOURERS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Labourers (branch undefined)1,6243,34913,65318,68021103
ORDER 13, SUB-ORDER 2.—OTHER INDEFINITE OCCUPATIONS.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Mechanics, manufacturers (so described)142863140524
Apprentices (branch undefined)10427251110482
Engineers, engine-drivers, stokers (undefined)1101041,6081,639
Draftsmen (undefined)161755
Managers, overlookers, foremen, women (undefined)7391791217
Others57407370716127535
Total2868242,1022,7401181958

433.

The following are the indefinite occupations grouped under the head of "Others," in 1881 :—"Anything light," 1 ; assistants, 559 ; "assisting in trade," 9 ; bag holders, 2 ; barrow boy, 1 ; blocker, 1 ; blower, 1 ; boring, 2 ; "business," 14 ; caretakers, 83 ; cleaners, 3 ; correspondent, 1 ; dressers, 2 ; "employed," 15 ; "employers of labor," 4 ; "everything," 1 ; eye-opener, 1 ; factory workers undefined (not residing near a woollen mill, all males)

Female factory workers undefined would be classed under the head of Clothing Manufacture, Order 9, Sub-order 2.

, 42 ; finishers, 2 ; firemen, 3 ; flake wrapper, 1 ; forewoman (should be in fifth line of table), 1 ; general handy men, 2 ; "general work," 1 ; "general outdoor," 1 ; "goes out to work," 3 ; hooker, 1 ; house-holders, 2 ; improvers, 2 ; inspectors, 6 ; instrument makers, 2 ; "jack of all trades," 1 ; jobbing, 1 ; journeymen, journeywomen, 12 ; latchman, 1 ; "learning trade," 10 ; machine boy, 1 ; machine minder, 1 ; machine proprietor, 1 ; matron, 1 ; mudlarker, 1 ; partners, 9 ; paymaster, 1 ; professionals, 15 ; propagator, 1 ; proprietors, 5 ; reedmaker, 1 ; repairers, 8 ; representatives, 2 ; secretaries, 19 ; sorter, 1 ; speculator, 1 ; stewards, 8 ; sweeper, 1 ; ticketmen, 2 ; timekeepers, 17 ; "trade," 3 ; tradesmen, 13 ; travelers, 112 ; trimmers, 7 ; useful men, boys, 4 ; "various," 1 ; watchmen (undefined), 95 ; winder, 1 ; workmen, 56 ; yardsmen, 3, &c.

ORDER 14.—PERSONS OF PROPERTY OR RANK NOT RETURNED AS OF ANY OFFICE OR OCCUPATION.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Annuitants (including pensioners, not Victorian)51742485125237
Of independent means (income not stated to be derived from land or houses)101142044265129
Gentlemen, ladies (returned as such)1347276728150337
Others222
Total10187621,221435340705

434.

The "Others" in 1881 were 1 baronet, 1 countess, 1 marchioness, and 1 "peer of the realm."

435.

Order 15 is divided into two Sub-orders—(1) persons supported from voluntary sources and public revenue, which numbered 8,376 in 1871 and 7,924 in 1881 ; (2) criminal classes, which numbered 2,466 in 1871 and 1,977 in 1881. [Order 15.]

ORDER 15, SUB-ORDER 1.—SUPPORTED FROM VOLUNTARY SOURCES AND PUBLIC REVENUE.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Pensioners (Victorian)57885
Inmates of charitable institutions*8517423,0023,7446546461,3622,234
Inmates of industrial schools1,271104171,047302
Paupers, beggars122994
Others676321356
Total2,1288473,1583,8801,7119481,3762,249
[* For ordinary occupations of inmates of Charitable Institutions see table following paragraph 457 post.]

436.

The inmates of charitable institutions increased from 5,869 in 1871 to 7,366 in 1881, or by 26 per cent. A considerable falling off is shown in the inmates of industrial schools, which is attributable to the operation of the boarding-out system which had not been introduced in 1871. Thirty-one beggars were returned in 1871, but only 14 in 1881, the latter being in the proportion of 1 to every 61,000 of the population. Probably in no other country of the same number of inhabitants are so few mendicants to be found.

437.

The "Others" in 1881 consisted of 3 callers, 2 loafers, 13 "receiving relief," 17 swagmen, 1 tramp, &c.

ORDER 15, SUB-ORDER 2.—CRIMINAL CLASSES.
Occupations.Males.Females.
Under 20.Over 20.Under 20.Over 20.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Prisoners961041,4381,2042433286300
Inmates of reformatories13213639521
Inmates of refuges188215
Brothel keepers2
Prostitutes1029121
Others1246110
Total2292401,6841,3149187462336

438.

The prisoners in 1881 numbered 1,641, as against 1,844 in 1871, or a decrease of 11 per cent. Two brothel keepers were returned in 1871, but no person following that occupation in 1881 ; also 101 prostitutes were returned at the former and only 23 at the latter period. No doubt there were many more on both occasions, but persons following such infamous callings do not, as a rule, state the fact on the schedule. In the cases which were so returned, in all probability the schedule was filled up by the sub-enumerator, or else the person was an inmate of a watchhouse, and the entry was made by the police.

439.

Taking the numbers in the whole of Sub-order 1, and in the first three lines of Sub-order 2, it appears that 10,492 persons in 1871 and 9,768 in 1881 were supported by the community, which numbers furnish a proportion of 1 in 69 at the first and of 1 in 87 at the second period.

440.

The "Others" in Sub-order 2 in 1881 consisted of 78 gamblers, 12 lottery agents, 10 lottery-house keepers, 3 lottery ticket collectors, and 7 lottery ticket sellers. All these occupations are illegal, and the persons following them were Chinese.

441.

No occupation was stated in reference to 4,461 persons in 1871 and 7,912 persons in 1881. Of these, 675 at the former and 1,274 at the latter period were under 20 years of age ; none, however, could have been very young children, as such would have been tabulated in Order 3, Sub-order 2. [Unspecified.]

442.

To compare the various industries at the two periods, it is desirable to take advantage of the grouping in classes and orders, and to reduce the numbers to some common standard, the proportion per 100,000 being, perhaps, the most convenient, as thereby the use of decimals is avoided. Subjoined are the numbers in every 100,000 persons, males and females, living, following each "Class" of occupations in 1871 and 1881 :— [Classes, 1871 and 1881.]

OCCUPATIONS IN PROPORTION TO POPULATION, 1871 AND 1881.—CLASSES.
Class.Occupations (in Six Classes).Proportions per 100,000 living.
Persons.Males.Females.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
I.Professional1,9442,1592,5192,8401,2461,415
II.Domestic59,74059,02438,59839,18485,35980,655
III.Commercial3,7244,1186,4797,312387635
IV.Agricultural and pastoral11,80714,53615,38318,3377,47210,393
V.Industrial18,70715,76130,58524,8974,3135,801
VI.Indefinite and non-productive4,0784,4026,4367,4301,2231,101
Total100,000100,000100,000100,000100,000100,000

443.

Taking persons of both sexes into consideration, it is found that all classes of occupations increased in proportion to the population, except the domestic, which showed a slight decrease, and the industrial, in which a decrease of 3,000 occurred in the proportion per 100,000 living. The diminution in the domestic class was entirely confined to females, the numbers of which grouped in this class showed a decrease to the extent of nearly 5,000 in the proportion per 100,000, thereby showing that, relatively to their total number, more females were employed in business pursuits in 1881 than in 1871, to which cause also may be attributed that a slight decrease took place in the proportion of females grouped in the indefinite and non-productive class. The falling off in the industrial class was entirely confined to males, the reduction being as much as 6,000 in the proportion per 100,000 males living.

444.

In the following table of "Orders," the occupations being spread over a larger number of groups, those in which increase or diminution took place are more readily observed than in the table of "Classes." If still more precision is required, reference can be made to the sub-orders or to the distinct occupations, the numbers of which have been already given :— [Orders, 1871 and 1881.]

OCCUPATIONS IN PROPORTION TO POPULATION, 1871 AND 1881.—ORDERS.
Class.Order.Occupations (in Fifteen Orders).Proportions per 100,000 living.
Persons.Males.Females.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
I.1Government and defence4855268729531559
I.2Learned professions, literature, art, and science1,4591,6331,6471,8871,2311,356
II.3Domestic duties and young children54,77254,49436,52437,23976,88473,305
II.4Personal offices4,9684,5302,0741,9458,4757,350
III.5Commercial pursuits1,8932,0623,1533,452366545
III.6Carriers of men, goods, and messages1,8312,0563,3263,8602190
IV.7Agricultural and pastoral11,80714,53615,38318,3377,47210,393
V.8In Art and mechanic productions3,1873,2855,7136,137127176
V.9In Textile fabrics, dress and fibrous materials3,0474,0432,5013,0453,7075,132
V.10In Food and drinks1,9351,7883,1713,034437429
V.11In Animal and vegetable substances1,2879682,3251,8082852
V.12In Minerals9,2515,67716,87510,8731412
VI.13Labourers, &c.2,4343,0124,4355,7431035
VI.14Persons of property or rank153231194278105181
VI.15Persons supported by the community1,4911,1591,8071,4091,108885
Total100,000100,000100,000100,000100,000100,000

445.

Smaller proportions in 1881 than in 1871 of both males and females will be found under the head of personal offices, including hotel and lodging-house keepers and servants ; workers and dealers in food and drinks, including dairymen, cheesemongers, butchers, fishmongers, millers, grocers, bakers, greengrocers, brewers, wine merchants, &c. ; workers and dealers in minerals, chiefly miners ; and persons supported by the community, including inmates of charitable institutions, paupers, and prisoners. Smaller proportions of males will be found under the head of workers and dealers in animal and vegetable substances, including soapboilers, tallow chandlers, fellmongers, tanners, timber and firewood merchants, &c. ; and of females engaged in domestic duties. Large increases are found in the proportions of both sexes engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits, and considerable increases in those engaged in art and mechanic productions, textile fabrics, dress and fibrous materials, under which the principal manufacturing industries are grouped.

446.

The first Census of this colony at which any attempt was made to classify the occupations was that of 1846, when they were placed under 7 heads. This classification has been continued at subsequent enumerations for purposes of comparison, an additional head being introduced at and since the Census of 1854 for the purpose of distinguishing goldminers. The results for seven Censuses are as follow :— [Occupations under 8 heads 1846 to 1881.]

OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE UNDER EIGHT HEADS, 1846 TO 1881 (EXCLUSIVE OF CHINESE AND ABORIGINES).
Occupations.1846.1851.1854.1857.1861.1871.1881.
NUMBERS.
1. Commerce, trade, and manufacture3,3478,43552,91269,25884,941114,263139,914
2. Gold mining34,01362,42861,95539,75429,424
3. Agricultural and pastoral pursuits7,50211,64114,37738,62554,26865,056123,096
4. Labourers (branch undefined)1,9176,0268,9046,7598,09815,18122,454
5. Domestic servants2,2744,61010,44719,73923,57324,85128,517
6. Learned professions, fine arts, literature, &c.3861,2922,7095,0417,28511,91816,300
7. Maintained out of public revenue1071466,9687,0618,14314,23213,326
8. Residue17,34645,195104,031174,663265,633427,008476,407
Total32,87977,345234,361383,574513,896712,263849,438
PROPORTIONS PER CENT.
1. Commerce, trade, and manufacture10.1810.9122.5818.0616.5316.0416.47
2. Gold mining14.5116.2712.065.583.46
3. Agricultural and pastoral pursuits22.8215.056.1310.0710.569.1414.49
4. Labourers (branch undefined)5.837.793.801.761.582.132.64
5. Domestic servants6.925.964.465.154.593.493.36
6. Learned professions, fine arts, literature, &c.1.171.671.161.311.421.671.92
7. Maintained out of public revenue0.320.192.971.841.562.001.57
8. Residue52.7658.4344.3945.5451.7059.9556.09
Total100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00

447.

Between the Censuses of 1851 and 1854 the gold discoveries had taken place, and it was felt that a mode of classifying the occupations which placed those of more than half the inhabitants of the colony under the head of "Residue" was insufficient to meet the requirements of the increased population. Therefore, a new system was devised by Mr. F. A. Corbett, the officer who had charge of the Censuses of 1854, 1857, and 1861, which, although less comprehensive than that adopted in 1871 and 1881, particulars of which have already been given at length, is an accurate and scientific method, and, so far as it goes, accords closely with the English system. The following condensation of this mode of classifying the occupations brought on to the latest Census may prove useful for purposes of comparison :— [Occupations under 23 heads, 1857 to 1881.]

OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE UNDER TWENTY-THREE HEADS, 1857 TO 1881.
Occupations.1857.1861.1871.1881.
Numbers.Proportions per Cent.Numbers.Proportions per Cent.Numbers.Proportions per Cent.Numbers.Proportions per Cent.
1. Ministering to government3,9460.963,7740.704,1500.574,9550.58
2. Ministering to religion2860.074900.098990.121,2370.14
3. Ministering to health1,1110.271,6820.312,4520.343,4990.41
4. Ministering to Law7180.179180.171,1380.161,2350.14
5. Ministering to education1,7130.422,7770.525,7670.796,7950.80
6. Ministering to art, science, and literature1,2130.301,5090.281,8600.263,6680.43
7. Ministering to commerce12,7513.1215,5942.9118,2672.5123,5592.75
8. Ministering to entertaining and clothing9,3552.2912,7472.3726,8763.6941,7124.88
9. Domestic servants19,7394.8323,6954.4125,0413.4424,7232.89
10. Contractors, artisans, and mechanics25,0256.1333,7806.2942,0665.7846,8835.48
11. Miners and others engaged in mining87,42821.3983,11615.4753,1287.3036,0664.22
12. Engaged in pastoral pursuits10,1722.4911,5832.169,4791.3113,7311.61
13. Engaged in agriculture26,8386.5741,2187.6754,2887.46108,91912.73
14. Engaged in land carriage9,2892.279,7551.8112,2231.6814,7231.72
15. Engaged in sea navigation3,8670.952,4900.462,7130.373,2790.38
16. Dealing in food8,9712.2012,3802.3014,0881.9315,5961.82
17. Labourers8,3742.0510,2441.9218,2362.5023,7862.78
18. Engaged in miscellaneous pursuits7480.181,0560.203910.051,0270.12
19. Persons of independent means1,1750.291,3630.251,8590.253,5210.41
20. Wives, widows, children, relatives, &c.133,22032.60193,45136.01277,91838.18280,95732.85
21. Scholars34,4768.4461,05611.37142,68419.60184,65221.56
22. Public burden3,1150.764,5590.8510,3041.429,9011.16
23. No occupation5,1021.257,9731.482,1430.291,2240.14
Total408,632100.00537,210100.00727,970100.00855,648100.00

448.

The occupations of all the Chinese males except 147 were specified in the schedules, and as the total number of such males was 11,869, the number to be accounted for is 11,722. The occupations followed by these may be thus summarised :— [Occupations of Chinese.]

OCCUPATIONS OF CHINESE MALES, 1881.
Christian missionaries, ministers, catechists17
Josshouse keepers, priests43
Doctors, herbalists, druggists48
Interpreters23
Scholars, sons, relatives, visitors187
Hotel, boarding-house—keepers, &c.36
Servants277
Merchants, agents, clerks63
Shopkeepers352
Hawkers, pedlers, dealers231
Cab, dray—proprietors, drivers16
Sailors, ship stewards9
Farmers, marketgardeners, farm or station servants2,233
Fishermen36
Carpenters, joiners90
Furniture, cabinet—makers, carvers58
Barbers30
Tailors19
Shoemakers31
Butchers81
Poulterers, fish—mongers, curers107
Bakers, confectioners11
Greengrocers, fruiterers55
Grocers, tea dealers, tobacconists132
Opium dealers60
Wood carters, splitters, sawyers, cutters53
Rag, bone—pickers, gatherers43
Miners6,603
Blacksmiths, whitesmiths21
Labourers412
Living on charity132
Prisoners18
Gambiers, lottery ticket sellers113
Other occupations82
Unspecified147
Total11,869
[* In this statement, and the statements of the occupations of Aborigines goldminers, unemployed persons, inmates of charitable institutions, and prisoners, most of the various callings are given in a greatly condensed form. Full deatils will be found in the tables which follow this Report.]

449.

A comparison of the number of Chinese males engaged in the two principal industries followed by persons of that race in Victoria at the two last Censuses shows that, whilst Chinese miners have fallen off from 13,374 to 6,603, or by 6,771, Chinese engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits increased from 1,498 to 2,233, or by 735.

450.

The 259 Chinese females were thus returned :—Two as hotelkeepers' wives, 1 as a farmer's wife, and 32 simply as wives or widows ; 209 (mostly half-castes) as scholars or "daughters" ; 14 as domestic servants, and 1 as a hotel servant.

451.

Returns were obtained of the occupations of 78 per cent. of the male and 88 per cent. of the female aborigines. Those of whom the occupation was not specified, viz., 103 males and 40 females, were probably still leading a wandering life. The following is a summary of the occupations returned :— [Occupations of aborigines.]

OCCUPATIONS OF THE ABORIGINES, 1881.
Males.Females.
Police trackers6
Domestic duties and children56166
Scholars8582
Employed at Aboriginal station2
Domestic servants424
Farmers, farm, station—servants, labourers91
Fishermen, game, rabbit—killers171
Labourers89
Living on charity76
Prisoner1
No occupation stated10340
Total400320

452.

Of the male goldminers in Victoria, numbering 35,184, 3,428 stated the calling they had followed before they resorted to gold mining as a means of obtaining a livelihood. Only 96 of these had been originally miners, viz., 19 for copper, 1 for iron, 2 for lead, 25 for tin, and 49 for coal. The occupations returned were as follow :— [Previous occupations of gold miners.]

PREVIOUS OCCUPATIONS OF GOLDMINERS—MALES.(1)
Government and municipal officers, police20
Army and navy38
Irregular clergy2
Lawyers, law clerks6
Medical men, druggists17
Literature, science, connected with5
Schoolmasters12
Artists, engravers5
Musicians, vocalists5
Exhibitions, connected with3
Hotel, boarding-house—keepers15
Servants28
Merchants, clerks, &c.132
Shopkeepers, hawkers49
Railway servants6
Draymen, cabdrivers37
Officers, sailors, engineers (merchant service), watermen1,033
Storemen5
Telegraph service2
Farmers, squatters, and others engaged on land and about animals567
Booksellers, binders, printers31
Musical instrument dealers3
Picture dealers7
Diesinkers2
Watchmakers, opticians9
Gunsmiths2
Engine, tool, agricultural implement-makers27
Coach, harness—makers23
Shipbuilders, sailmakers46
Builders, carpenters, bricklayers, masons227
Painters, plumbers, glaziers24
Furniture makers, carvers24
Dyers, warehousemen, drapers91
Tailors, shoemakers, and others in dress113
Rope, tent—makers5
Butchers, poulterers, dairymen85
Millers, bakers, confectioners92
Workers, dealers in drinks and stimulants63
Tanners, curriers, soapboilers15
Wood merchants, fencers, coopers, sawyers53
Copper, iron, lead, tin, coal—miners96
Coalheavers, chimney sweepers4
Quarrymen, brickmakers41
Goldsmiths, jewellers14
Workers and dealers in metals (not precious)118
Labourers147
Engine-drivers46
Indefinite pursuits27
Gentlemen, independent means6
Previous occupation not stated31,756
Total45,184
[See footnote to Occupations of Chinese, paragraph 448, ante.]

453.

In tabulating the Census returns the rule adopted was to place persons under the heads of industry they usually followed, although they might, at the time the Census was taken, be out of employment ; the only exception being in the case of inmates of charitable and penal institutions, who, in the first instance, were classed as "patients," "prisoners," &c. The unemployed, however, have since been separated, and tables have been constructed showing the numbers belonging to each trade or calling. [Occupations of the unemployed.]

454.

The total number returned as out of employment was 4,478, viz. :—4,231 males and 247 females, as against 6,402 males and 657 females so returned in 1871. It thus appears that in the case of both males and females the unemployed at the time of the last Census were considerably fewer than at the former one.

455.

The total number of males, including those under and over 20, prepared to follow some trade or business was 244,880 in 1871 and 272,176 in 1881, and the total number of females in like condition was 72,001 at the former, and 104,766 at the latter period. There was thus 1 male in every 38 unemployed in 1871, but only 1 in 64 in 1881 ; 1 female in 110 unemployed in 1871, but only 1 in 424 in 1881.

456.

In the case of 1,195 of the unemployed males and 29 of the unemployed females in 1881, the occupation was not stated. The ordinary callings of the others were as follow :—

ORDINARY OCCUPATIONS OF THE UNEMPLOYED.(1)
Males.Females.
Government officers5
Soldiers4
Law clerks7
Druggists5
Reporters, journalists4
Civil engineers4
Teachers, tutors, governesses3132
Artists, photographers4
Hotel keepers, managers22
Servants30141
Merchants, shopkeepers, clerks1763
Railway servants5
Draymen, cab, omnibus—drivers, conductors41
Sailors, boatmen64
Storemen, messengers, telegraph servants25
Farmers, squatters, farm and station servants326
Booksellers and binders, printers50
Watchmakers4
Mechanical engineers42
Coachmakers, wheelwrights, saddlers40
Shipbuilders, shipwrights, sailmakers7
Carpenters, joiners79
Builders, bricklayers, masons, plasterers49
Painters, paperhangers, plumbers, glaziers33
Cabinetmakers, upholsterers13
Drapers, warehousemen50
Woolstaplers, weavers, factory hands234
Hairdressers3
Hatters, milliners416
Tailors, outfitters, dressmakers1518
Shoemakers271
Rope, tent—makers5
Butchers40
Bakers, confectioners, millers43
Grocers, brewers, maltsters36
Soap boilers, fellmongers, tanners23
Fencers, splitters, sawyers14
Paper-mill workers, paper bag makers3
Miners206
Quarrymen, brickmakers, stonecutters19
Goldsmiths, jewellers8
Tinsmiths, blacksmiths, brassfounders82
Labourers1,335
Miscellaneous pursuits33
No occupation stated1,19529
Total4,231247
[See footnote to Occupations of Chinese, paragraph 448, ante.]

457.

I have stated that inmates of charitable institutions were not at first tabulated according to the ordinary occupations pursued by them before they entered those establishments, but as inmates, patients, &c. Instructions had, however, been given to the sub-enumerators to note carefully the ordinary occupations of such persons, and these have since been extracted, with the following result :— [Occupations of inmates of charitable institutions.]

OCCUPATIONS OF INMATES OF CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS.(1)
Occupations.Hospitals.Benevolent Asylums.Other Charitable Institutions.
Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Government officers, police2
Soldiers43
Lawyers, law clerks, &c.32
Medical men, druggists3
School masters, mistresses, &c.31372
Artists3
Musicians, vocalists, actors, &c.1214
Wives, sons, daughters, relatives2430127046112
Scholars3318428406
Hotel, lodging-house—keepers1112237
Servants1491103111137
Merchants, agents, clerks2621221
Shopkeepers, hawkers, dealers12124391
Railway employes11
Cab, dray, omnibus—drivers, conductors219
Ships' officers, sailors, &c.302830
Messengers, porters, &c.443
Farmers, squatters, and others engaged on land or about animals14211532
Booksellers, printers, newspaper proprietors, &c.563
Mechanical engineers, coachbuilders, wheelwrights, &c.3125
Ship builders, sailmakers, &c.172
Builders, carpenters, bricklayers, furniture makers, &c.556338
Textile fabrics, dress and fibrous materials—workers and dealers in3832581639225
Food and drinks—dealers in4914722
Animal matters—workers, dealers in44158
Vegetable matters—workers, dealers in293225
Miners21513514
Quarrymen, brickmakers, navvies, &c.4161
Workers in metals242113
Labourers177285102
Miscellaneous pursuits1514231
No occupation stated64310116
Total1,010450947327889899

NOTE.—The occupations of inmates of lunatic asylums are included with those of lunatics and idiots under the head of Sickness and infirmitypost,and therefore are not given in this table.

[See footnote to Occupations of Chinese, paragraph 448, ante.]

458.

The sub-enumerators were indebted to the officers of the Penal Department for the subjoined particulars respecting the occupations followed by inmates of penal establishments and gaols when not in custody. It will be remarked as [Ordinary occupations of prisoners.]

extraordinary that not one of either sex was set down as belonging originally to the criminal classes, and only one female was set down as a prostitute :—

OCCUPATIONS OF PRISONERS, 1881.(1)
Males.Females.
Government officers2
Lawyers, law clerks, &c.9
Medical men, druggists6
Scientific persons4
Teachers33
Artists2
Musicians, actors6
Wives, widows, relatives114
Scholars7
Hotel, lodging-house—keepers31
Servants41249
Merchants, clerks, shopkeepers and assistants73
Draymen, carriers, cabdrivers8
Ships' officers, sailors61
Storemen, messengers3
Farmers, graziers, farm servants107
Printers, binders5
Watchmakers, medalists8
Mechanical engineers, wheelwrights8
Engineers, enginedrivers (undefined)8
Saddlers7
Shipbuilders, shipwrights, &c.3
Sailmakers6
Carpenters, joiners37
Bricklayers, masons, plasterers14
Painters, paperhangers, plumbers, glaziers25
Cabinetmakers, upholsterers4
Dyers, drapers, weavers, &c.174
Hairdressers, barbers6
Hat, bonnet—makers11
Tailors3510
Milliners, dressmakers, seamstresses8
Clothing manufacture29
Shoe, boot—makers, dealers1032
Washerwomen10
Rope, tent—makers3
Milksellers2
Butchers30
Millers2
Bakers, confectioners16
Grocers, &c.81
Tobacconists42
Fellmongers, tanners, and others in animal matters11
Sawyers, coopers, turners, and others in vegetable matters101
Goldminers32
Chimneysweeper1
Stonecutters, brickmakers22
Workers in metals59
Labourers471
Draftsmen (undefined)2
Prostitute1
No occupation stated1710
Total1,308333
[See footnote to Occupations of Chinese, paragraph 448, ante.]

459.

The sub-enumerators were directed to obtain from the employers of labour in agricultural, pastoral, and mechanical pursuits, a statement of the number of hands they employed in their respective branches of industry. This instruction was not universally attended to, but it was so far complied with that particulars were obtained from 5,850 employers of labour, who employed 23,874 hands, or an average of rather more than 4 to each employer. The following is a condensed abstract of these particulars :— [Employers and employed.]

EMPLOYERS AND HANDS EMPLOYED.
Number of Hands employed by each Master.Nature of Industry.Total.
Agriculture and Grazing (Order 7).Art and Mechanic Productions (Order 8).Textile Fabrics, Dress and Fibrous Materials (Order 9).Food and Drinks (Order 10).Animals and Vegetable Substances (Order 11).Minerals (Order 12).
Number of Masters employing Hands.
11,938141110132181272,466
29521296411024751,354
33868021621550614
41417330431435336
5 to 925318653624760661
10 to 19629032202048272
20 to 3016219462076
31 to 50412517534
51 to 75331714
76 to 1002248
Over 1003415215
Total3,7527403334351574335,850
Number of Hands employed by Masters.
11,938141110132181272,466
21,904258128220481502,708
31,15824063186451501,842
4564292120172561401,344
5 to 91,5721,1863384003103744,180
10 to 198061,1224402522396633,522
20 to 30384483191951514891,793
31 to 50143532209402721911,387
51 to 7519418570460909
76 to 100165185356706
Over 1007401,1151507902223,017
Total8,4695,3533,0841,6471,9993,32223,874

460.

The following are the average numbers of hands employed by each master or firm in the different branches of industry :— [Average Number of Hands employed.]

Average Number of Hands employed.
Workers and dealers in animal and vegetable substances (soap boilers, tallow chandlers, fellmongers, tanners, timber and firewood merchants, turners, coopers, sawyers, basket makers, &c.)12.73
Workers and dealers in textile fabrics, dress and fibrous materials (Manchester warehousemen, drapers, woollen manufacturers, clothing manufacturers, boot and shoe manufacturers, rope, canvas, matting makers, &c.)9.26
Workers and dealers in minerals (miners, quarry owners, brick and pottery makers, glass makers, &c.)7.67
Engaged in art and mechanic productions (printers, bookbinders, newspaper proprietors, musical instrument makers, mechanical engineers, tool makers, coachbuilders, saddlers, wheel wrights, millwrights, agricultural implement makers, ship builders, sail makers, builders, building contractors, carpenters, bricklayers, masons, manufacturing chemists, &c.)7.23
Workers and dealers in food and drinks (cow keepers, butchers, provision curers, meat preservers, millers, bakers, brewers, wine makers, merchants, distillers, aerated water makers, &c.)3.79
Engaged in agriculture and grazing (farmers, squatters, graziers, agricultural implement proprietors, &c.)2.26

461.

Of the 15 masters stated to be employing more than 100 hands, 1 was engaged in connexion with machines and tools, 1 with drinks and stimulants, 1 with mining, and 1 with metals other than gold and silver ; 2 were engaged in connexion with houses and buildings, 4 with dress, and 5 with vegetable matters.

462.

The following, grouped in Sub-orders, are the numbers in the various Australasian Colonies, except New South Wales, following different occupations when the Census was taken :— [Occupations in Australasian Colonies.]

OCCUPATIONS IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES.—SUB-ORDERS.
Class.Order.Sub-order.Occupations.Victoria.Queensland.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.
Total population862,346213,525279,86529,708115,705489,933
Population of specified occupations854,434211,689277,50429,612114,722488,120
I.11Officers of general government3,4771,2831,9652895931,972
I.12Officers of local government5181181421434261
I.13Engaged in defence499252218034730
I.21Clergymen, ministers, and church officers1,237374469119203747
I.22Law court officers, lawyers, and their immediate subordinates1,24328526825205844
I.23Physicians, surgeons, druggists, &c.1,59540676546170810
I.24Authors, literary persons, &c.1973997416121
I.25Scientific persons300842041926270
I.26Teachers6,7951,3651,6612508603,437
I.27Artists734104143455331
I.28Musicians, music teachers, &c.1,2891382241591447
I.29Actors, &c.5601046433256
II.31Wives and widows of no specified occupation101,03524,78243,74310,31816,62170,347
II.32Sons, daughters, relatives, visitors (not otherwise described)179,92210,09177,67525,849120,607
II.33Scholars (so described)184,65576,91242,1416,32721,215105,658
II.41Engaged in boarding and lodging7,4751,5972,0891277903,196
II.42Engaged in attendance31,2349,0569,3881,0184,48716,742
III.51Mercantile persons11,3322,0273,7952427236,770
III.52Other general dealers6,2841,8091,7742308322,907
III.61Carriers on railways (not railway construction)3,098668808552631,157
III.62Carriers on roads8,2913,1153,4665037003,574
III.63Carriers on seas and rivers3,3631,9112,5304319694,518
III.64Engaged in storage1,257342621331311,006
III.65Messengers and porters1,55987029472661,118
IV.71Engaged in agricultural pursuits108,91922,00430,3303,33617,74842,722
IV.72Engaged in pastoral pursuits10,6088,3333,6861,2888605,541
IV.73Engaged on land (not cultivating or grazing)1,3771,478738422933,924
IV.74Engaged in about animals3,2981,45266975072,260
V.81Engaged in books3,492805831672812,031
V.82Engaged in musical instruments13916251063
V.83Engaged in prints and pictures20021312758
V.84Engaged in carving and figures1621833432
V.85Engaged in tackle for sports and games2645
V.86Engaged in designs, medals, and dies871210437
V.87Engaged in watches and philosophical instruments5701001481358338
V.88Engaged in surgical instruments21453
V.89Engaged in arms7125163735
V.810Engaged in machines and tools994327537669750
V.811Engaged in carriages, harness, and implements3,5569711,5451593681,521
V.812Engaged in ships and boats60821225453188752
V.813Engaged in houses and buildings16,1623,4586,8345161,89211,947
V.814Engaged in furniture1,748358531342091,079
V.815Engaged in chemicals22912161671
V.91Engaged in textile fabrics4,642645988113902,026
V.92Engaged in dress29,5993,4855,8755152,9419,653
V.93Engaged in fibrous materials307443134251
V.101Engaged in animal food6,6931,8751,8731185863,043
V.102Engaged in vegetable food4,3098371,4051026952,305
V.103Engaged in drinks and stimulants4,2757761,065353551,715
V.111Engaged in animal matters1,950260320153274746
V.112Engaged in vegetable matters6,3222,9061,0273701,2764,126
V.121Engaged in mining36,06611,4392,1961023,09014,273
V.122Engaged in coal444339461259294
V.123Engaged in stone, clay, earthenware, and glass3,4992,0634,706887544,181
V.124Engaged in water1243886411556
V.125Engaged in gold, silver, and precious stones6488386724157
V.126Engaged in metals other than gold and silver7,7241,6342,9412339223,749
VI.131Labourers (branch undefined)22,0334,6098,6601,0033,97014,904
VI.132Other indefinite occupations3,7039243,4911085141,807
VI.14Persons of property or rank not returned under any office or occupation1,97911672996559399
VI.151Persons supported from voluntary sources and public revenue7,9241,7391,3974945162,719
VI.152Criminal classes1,977412526285105751
Occupation not stated7,9121,8362,361969831,813

463.

For the purpose of making convenient comparisons between the industries carried on in the different colonies, it is desirable to combine the occupations in

Orders. This is done in the following table, the percentage of each Order to the specified total being also shown :—

OCCUPATIONS IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES.—ORDERS., NUMBERS.
Class.Order.Occupations.Victoria.Queensland.South Australia.Western Australia.Tasmania.New Zealand.
Population of specified occupations854,434211,689277,50429,612114,722488,120
I.1Government and defence4,4941,4262,1294836612,963
I.2Learned professions, literature, science, and art13,9502,8993,8954821,6597,263
II.3Domestic duties and scholars465,612111,785163,55916,64563,685296,612
II.4Engaged in boarding, lodging, and attendance38,70910,65311,4771,1455,27719,938
III.5Traders17,6163,8365,5694721,5559,677
III.6Carriers by land and sea17,5686,9067,7191,0292,32911,373
IV.7Engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits124,20233,26734,8204,76319,40854,447
V.8Engaged in art and mechanic productions28,0656,34310,9108573,09918,692
V.9Engaged in textile fabrics, dress, and fibrous materials34,5484,1746,8945293,33511,930
V.10Engaged in food and drinks15,2773,4884,3432551,6367,063
V.11Engaged in animal and vegetable substances8,2723,1661,3475231,5504,872
V.12Engaged in minerals and metals48,50515,94610,0394434,86422,710
V.13Labourers and others (branch of labour undefined)25,7365,53312,1511,1114,48416,711
V.14Persons of property or rank1,97911672996559399
V.15Supported by the community9,9012,1511,9237796213,470
PROPORTIONS PER CENT.
Total100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00
I.1Government and defence0.530.670.771.630.570.61
I.2Learned professions, literature, science, and art1.631.371.401.631.451.49
II.3Domestic duties and scholars54.4952.8158.9456.2155.5160.77
II.4Engaged in boarding, lodging, and attendance4.535.034.133.874.604.09
III.5Traders2.061.812.011.591.361.98
III.6Carriers by land and sea2.063.262.783.482.032.33
IV.7Engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits14.5415.7212.5516.0916.9111.15
V.8Engaged in art and mechanic productions3.283.003.932.892.703.83
V.9Engaged in textile fabrics, dress, and fibrous materials4.041.972.481.792.912.44
V.10Engaged in food and drinks1.791.651.570.861.431.45
V.11Engaged in animal and vegetable substances0.971.500.491.771.351.00
V.12Engaged in minerals and metals5.687.533.621.494.244.65
V.13Labourers and others (branch of labour undefined)3.012.614.383.753.913.42
V.14Persons of property or rank0.230.050.260.320.490.08
V.15Supported by the community1.161.020.692.630.540.71

464.

It will be observed that of traders, workers and dealers in textile fabrics, dress and fibrous materials, and workers and dealers in food and drinks, Victoria had a larger proportion than any of the other colonies ; that of persons engaged in the learned professions, literature, science, and art, the proportion in Victoria was identical with that in Western Australia, and above that in any of the other colonies ; but that of persons engaged in government and defence the proportion in Victoria was smaller than that in any of the other colonies.

465.

In consequence of the peculiar manner in which the occupations in New South Wales are classified, I have found it impossible to make any regular comparison between them and the occupations pursued in the other colonies. The treatment of the subject in the mother colony is meager in the extreme, and the mode of grouping such as might perhaps have answered sufficiently well 40 or 50 years since, but is quite out of date at the present time. The survival of the old system is apparent in the fact that agricultural and pastoral pursuits, which were the only occupations of any great importance in the early days of Australian settlement, are given in considerable detail, whilst no provision is made for showing the numbers engaged on railways, in carrying otherwise than on railways or in coaching, or in telegraph service, and what is of still more importance, especially for the purpose of making comparisons with Victoria, no attempt is made to show the numbers engaged in manufacturing pursuits. The groupings are but few, as compared with those in the other colonies, and the descriptions are so indefinite that it is impossible to know what occupations the respective groups contain. Incomplete, however, as the descriptions are, incongruities appear upon the face of them, which leave room for the supposition that others exist which do not meet the eye. The following are specimens of some of the anomalies referred to :—One combination contains, with other occupations, such incongruous callings as printers and watchmakers ; another, bookbinders, barbers, [Occupations in Victoria and New South Wales.]

and upholsterers ; another, shipbuilders and wheelwrights ; another, cutlers and farriers ; nothing being stated as to how many each group contains of these, or of the followers of other trades named in the description, or of those not so named, covered by the sign "&c.," with which most of the descriptions are followed. Moreover, there is a group headed "Miscellaneous Occupations," containing 19,780 persons, of the callings pursued by whom no explanation whatever is given. The following are a few of the groups which it appears probable, although not certain, are comparable with those of Victoria, and in which, therefore, the numbers and proportions in the two colonies are shown :—

OCCUPATIONS IN VICTORIA AND NEW SOUTH WALES.
Occupations.Victoria.New South Wales.
Numbers.Proportions per Cent.Numbers.Proportions per Cent.
Total population862,346751,468
Total of specified occupations854,434100.00735,875100.00
Government and municipal officers3,9950.475,4860.75
Engaged in defence4990.061,3100.18
Clergy and others engaged in religion1,2370.147250.10
Lawyers, law court officers, &c.1,2430.159200.12
Physicians, surgeons, druggists, &c.1,5950.191,0490.14
Authors, scientific persons, artists, &c.3,0800.361,7640.24
Domestic duties (Chiefly women and children280,95732.88238109*32.36
Scholars under tuition184,65521.61154,88521.05
Engaged in boarding and lodging7,4750.874,1110.56
Engaged in attendance31,2343.6633,9134.61
Engaged in mercantile pursuits18873†2.2122,9013.11
Engaged in maritime pursuits (not Royal Navy)3,3630.394,4920.61
Engaged in agricultural pursuits and on land110,29612.9189682*12.18
Engaged in pastoral pursuits and about animals13,9061.6323110*3.14
Engaged in mining36,0664.2217,7092.41
Other occupations, which cannot be compared155,96018.25135,70918.44
Occupation not stated7,91215593‡
[* As in New South Wales the wives and daughters of farmers and squatters assisting on the farm and station were originally tabulated under the head of "Domestic duties," in which respect the practice differed from that obtaining in Victoria, 36,000 have been deducted therefrom and added to those engaged in Agricultural and Pastoral pursuits, viz., 30,000 to the former and 6,000 to the latter.] [† Including those engaged in storage.] [‡ Including 9,813 unemployed.]

466.

If the occupations in New South Wales, so far as they are named in the table, are correctly compared with those of Victoria, of which, as I have already stated, there is some doubt, the comparison being only given for what it may be worth, there were, when the Census was taken, more Government officers, more persons employed in defence, more servants, more merchants and shopkeepers, more officers and sailors of the mercantile marine, and more persons engaged in pastoral pursuits in New South Wales than in Victoria. The number of wives and widows engaged in domestic duties, and of young children, was higher in Victoria than in New South Wales ; the proportion of such persons to the total population was, however, about the same in the two colonies.

467.

It will be noticed that the persons of unstated occupations were nearly twice as numerous in New South Wales as in Victoria, which has arisen from the fact that, in the former, the occupations of persons out of work were not distinguished in the returns, whereas in this colony the unemployed were classified under their proper occupations in the general tables, after which they were separated, and their respective callings were given in another table

See table following paragraph 456ante.

. The numbers returned as unemployed in the two colonies were as follow :— [Unemployed in Victoria and New South Wales.]

UNEMPLOYED IN VICTORIA AND NEW SOUTH WALES.
Victoria.New South Wales.
Males4,2318,039
Females2471,774
Total4,4789,813

468.

It will be observed that according to the Census returns there were nearly twice as many males and more than seven times as many females out of work in New South Wales as in Victoria. In the former colony the unemployed were in the proportion of 1 in every 76 of the population, whereas in this colony they were only in the proportion of 1 in every 191.

469.

In compiling the returns of a census, it is obviously necessary that the numbers entered under the different heads of inquiry should be arranged in groups ; but the work cannot be said to be done properly unless the component parts of those groups are also shown, so that persons desiring fuller information than is conveyed by the group headings may be able to obtain it, and that those who disagree with the mode of classification adopted may have it in their power to rearrange the numbers according to some other method. This principle has been kept in view and adhered to in compiling the Victorian Census, and in no part more completely than that relating to the occupations of the people. In connexion therewith the following list has been prepared, in which the distinct calling of each individual in the colony is entered, as nearly as possible in his own words. The occupations are arranged alphabetically, the number of males and females following each trade or calling being shown, also the Order and Sub-order in which it is placed in the Census tables. Although several names are sometimes given for one occupation, the number of persons following it have only been inserted once, references to the designation under which the numbers have been given being placed against the other names :— [Occupations in alphabetical arrangement.]

OCCUPATIONS IN VICTORIA ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY.
Order.Sub-order.Occupations.Males.Females.
101Abattoirs engineer, labourer, manager7
11Aboriginal station officer11
26Accomplishments, teacher of(see Teacher).
51Accountant (not government)749
29Acrobat2
29Actor, actress14097
51Actuary5
87Adjuster of weights1
81Advertising agent11
103Aerated waters, cordials, &c., manufacture, engaged in302
Agent (see Advertising, Commission, Forwarding, News, &c.—agent).
811Agricultural implement maker, dealer61
73Agricultural implement proprietor, worker17
71Agricultural labourer (see Farm).
71Agricultural student3
11Aide-de-camp1
87Air-pump maker1
151Almshouse, inmate of (see Inmate).
121Amalgamator (see Gold).
25Analytical chemist (see Chemist).
74Animal, bird—dealer, keeper72
14Annuitant (including pensioner, not Victorian)253242
121Antimony miner13
126Antimony worker, dealer (see Lead, antimony).
132Anything light1
51Appraiser (see Auctioneer, &c.).
132Apprentice (branch undefined)28350
11Architect, government (not education department)2
813Architect, not government261
89Armourer2
13Army officer, Imperial service6
13Army officer, Imperial service retired16
13Army officer, Indian service4
13Army officer, Austrian service1
13Army officer, Italian service2
13Army officer non-commissioned officer, soldier6
27Art student45
22Articled clerk84
84Artificial flower maker310
27Artist, painter16954
27Artist, heraldic1
84Artist, in hair12
27Artist, photographic (see Photographer).
29Artist, scenic5
83Artists' colourman2
815Asphalte maker, worker15
125Assayer24
Assignee (see Official, Trade—assignee).
132Assistant (not otherwise described)54613
132Assisting in trade (so described)9
25Astronomer (government)1
29Athlete3
41Attendant, charitable institution (see Charitable).
83Attendant, national gallery (see also Libraries, &c.)1
22Attorney, solicitor382
51Auctioneer, appraiser, valuer2531
11Audit commissioner2
23Aurist, not qualified medical man3
23Aurist, and oculist, medical man.1
24Author, writer448
51Average stater2
132Bag holder2
93Bag maker, dealer (see Sacking, &c.)
11Bailiff, crown lands36
71Bailiff, farm (see Farm bailiff).
22Bailiff, law court38
63Bailiff, water (see Water bailiff).
102Baker and assistants2,12840
63Ballast agent, man12
29Ballet master1
88Bandage maker (see Surgical, &c.).
112Band-box maker2
51Bank officer, clerk1,305
63Bargeman5
112Bark stripper, dealer42
42Bar man, maid (see Hotel sercvice).
14Baronet1
22Barrister118
132Barrow boy1
112Basket maker822
42Beadle2
814Bedding maker (see Mattress).
74Beehunter2
41Beer, colonial wine—seller163
151Beggar (see Pauper).
126Bellhanger (see Locksmith).
810Bellows maker14
51Benefit society, officer of15
151Benevolent asylum, inmate of (see Inmate).
29Better, professional (see Bookmaker).
21Bible carrier1
21Bible woman9
29Billiard-table keeper, marker85
85Billiard-table maker6
112Bill sticker, distributor251
74Bird dealer, keeper (see Animal, bird).
102Biscuit packer2
815Blacking maker (see also Starch maker)1
126Blacksmith, whitesmith4,543
121Blanket washer (see Quartz crushing).
11IllegibleBleacher, paper1
151Blind asylum, inmate of (see Inmate).
28Blind asylum, teacher in (see Teacher).
813Blindmaker461
132Blocker (undescribed)1
812Block, mast, oar—maker8
132Blower (undescribed)1
815Blue manufacturer (see Strach).
41Boarding, lodging house—keeper162458
41Boarding lodging house—keeper wife of assisting70
41Boarding and lodging, others engaged in2211
812Boatbuilder46
63Boatman, boat owner (see Waterman, &c).
126Boilermaker318
125Boltmaker7
64Bonded store keeper (see Storekeeper).
111Bone dealer1
81Book folder, pager, ruler, sewer570
81Book hawker, dealer20
81Book binder21252
29Book maker (professional bettor)22
81Book seller, publisher, and assistants (see also Stationer)37837
92Boot maker, dealer,' and wife assisting (see Shoe, boot—maker).
92Boot-protector dealer1
42Boots—inn, club, eating-house (see Hotel service).
OCCUPATIONS IN VICTORIA ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY—continued.
Order.Sub-order.Occupations.Males.Females.
132Boring, engaged in2
810Boring machinist1
71Botanic gardens, engaged in18
25Botanist6
123Bottle dealer, collector22
72Boundary rider420
112Boxmaker449
121Braceman11
92Braider2
126Brass founder, moulder, worker, dealer245
103Brewers and others engaged in brewing4802
112Brewers' grains dealer1
813Bricklayer1,183
123Brick maker, dealer7981
813Bridge builder1
51Broker (see Money, Stock and share—broker, &c.).
51Broker not money, stock, share, &c.129
111Broker wool (see Wool).
112Broom maker (see also Hair brush, broom)2
815Brunswick-black and fire-kindler maker2
52Brushware, dealer in1
813Builder711
813Builder's boy4
813Building overseer, foreman7
71Bullock driver on farm (see Farm).
72Bullock driver on station (see Grazing farm).
812Buoymaker1
91Burler (see Woollen mill).
126Burnisher, polisher, metal23
72Burr cutter2
132Business (undescribed)59
101Butcher, meat salesman, and assistants4,26343
101Butcher's wife assisting in business679
42Butler (see Domestic service).
92Button-hole maker (clothing factory)1
814Cabinetmaker (see Furniture).
62Cab proprietor, driver (see Coach, omnibus—proprietor, &c.).
41Cafe manager1
126Cage maker, iron5
815Calendrer (see Dyer, &c.).
91Calico printer1
151Caller3
112Caneworker6
93Canvas, sail-cloth—maker, dealer31
51Capitalist378103
92Capmaker (see Hatter, &c.).
91Carder, card cleaner, fetler (see Woollen mill).
91Carding engineer, foreman, overseer (see Woollen mill).
132Caretaker (undefined)7310
813Carpenter, joiner6,505
121Carpenter, mining16
29Carpenter, stage (see Theatre).
814Carpet planner, sewer91
811Carriage, coach—maker, dealer1,3471
62Carrier, carter on roads (see Dayman, &c.).
121Carter, mining241
72Carter, on grazing farm10
89Cartridge maker1
814Carver, gilder606
112Casemaker (see Boxmaker).
21Catechist, free church of Scotland1
21Catechist, Chinese3
111Catgut maker1
74Cattle classer1
74Cattle-yar inspector1
123Cement, plaster—maker, dealer (see Plaster).
21Cemetery, connected with (see also Gravedigger)19
112Chaffcutter26
122Charcoal burner, dealer123
151Charitable institution, inmate of (see Inmate).
41Charitable institution officer—
Clerk, collector25
Master, instructor55
Matron63
Secretary12
Steward10
Superintendent10
Other officers246
42Charitable institution servant—
Attendant8112
Cook, kitchen-maid, baker1930
Gardener10
Gatekeeper, messenger, porter20
General servant22
Laundress33
Nurse15134
Storeman5
Wardsman, wardswoman1993
Other servants3213
42Charwoman167
125Chaser (see Gold chaser, &c.).
101Cheesemaker (see Cowkeeper, &c.).
101Cheesemonger and assistants416
815Chemicals, manufacturing72
25Chemist, analytical10
23Chemist, druggist, and assistants7556
815Chemist, manufacturing255
103Chicory roaster, dealer (see Coffee).
121Chilian mill attendant1
122Chimney sweeper42
123China, earthenware—maker, dealer156
23Chinese doctor35
23Chiropodist4
21Church officer827
103Cider maker1
103Cigar, cigarette, manufacture, engaged in (see Tobacco).
29Circus manager, rider2
11Civil engineer (government)7
25Civil engineer (not government)216
29Clairvoyante1
23Clairvoyante medical1
26Classics, professor of (see Teacher).
132Cleaner (undescribed)3
21Clergyman—
Baptist50
Bible christian19
Catholic apostolic3
Church of Christ8
Church of England187
Free church of England2
Freethinker1
Independent congregationalist49
Jewish8
Lutheran9
Methodist calvinistic1
Methodist new connexion1
Methodist primitive30
Methodist united free21
Methodist wesleyan103
Moravian3
New church1
Presbyterian67
Presbyterian church of Victoria95
Presbyterian free church of Victoria5
Presbyterian reformed church1
Roman catholic109
Undefined1
Unitarian1
41Clerk, charitable institution (see Charitable).
51Clerk, Commercial (see Commercial clerk).
11Clerk, government (see Government clerk).
22Clerk, law (see Law, Articled clerk).
13Clerk, military2
51Clerk, of bank (see Bank officer, &c.).
22Clerk, of courts, petty sessions, &c.69
72Clerk, on squatting station (see Grazing).
65Clerk, telegraph (see Telegraph service).
87Clockmaker (see Watch, &c., maker).
92Clothes dealer, outfitter, slopseller, and assistant9824
112Clothes prop dealer1
92Clothing manufacture (see also Tailor, Milliner)—
Factory proprietor22
Sewing machinist11,363
Shirtmaker, seamstress1,106
Other factory hands6996
62Coach company, traffic superintendent1
62Coach company, clerk to8
811Coach carriage—maker, dealer (see Carriage).
62Coach omnibus, cab—proprietor5854
62Coach, omnibus, can—driver, conductor1,7493
811Coach, spring maker12
42Coachman, domestic servant (see Domestic service).
122Coal, coke—merchant, dealer, assistant351
103Cocoa manufacturer, worker6
41Coffee-house keeper, and wife assisting (see Eating-house).
71Coffe planter2
103Coffe-chicory—roaster, dealer38
122Coke merchant, dealer (see Coal, &c.).
111Collector of native skins1
813Collector rent (see House agent, &c.).
51Collector undefined123
41Colonial wineseller(see Beer, &c.,seller).
112Colourman (see Oil, colourman).
111Combmaker1
51Commercial clerk4,25043
51Commercial employe (so described)4
51Commercial traveller, salesman, saleswoman1,023565
42Commercial traveller's servant3
OCCUPATIONS IN VICTORIA ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY—continued.
Order.Sub-order.Occupations.Males.Females.
51Commission agent, factor9571
11Commissioner of audit (see Audit).
81Compositor (see Printer).
102Confectioner, pastrycook41180
11Consul9
11Consul secretary to1
121Consulting miner1
813Contractor, assistant, clerk1,5034
123Contractor, for roads or railways1031
22Conveyancer3
42Cook at inn, club, eating-house (see Hotel service).
42Cook charitable institution (see Charitable).
42Cook domestic servant (see Domestic service).
41Cook not domestic servant(1)476169
71Cook on farm6550
72Cook on station or grazing farm146103
112Cooper397
121Copper miner5
126Copper worker, dealer85
111Coral dealer1
103Cordial maker, bottler, traveller, &c. (see Aerated waters).
93Cord maker, dealer (see Rope).
112Cork cutter, merchant14
102Corn, flour, meal—merchant, dealer, and assistant36812
11Coroner2
132Correspondent (undescribed)1
14Countess (so described)1
29Coursing club official (see Racing, &c.).
22Court keeper, crier, messenger7
72Cowherd, cowboy33
101Cowkeeper, cheesemaker, dairyman, milkseller886361
29Cricket-ground, bowling-green—keeper71
29Cricketer, professional3
123Crucible maker1
11Crown lands bailiff (see Bailiff).
22Crown prosecutor4
121Crushing-plant manager, owner (see Quartz crushing).
111Curled hair maker9
111Currier3393
103Curry powder maker2
51Custom-house agent12
11Customs, excise—officer71
810Cutler29
92Cutter (clothing factory)61
101Dairy produce dealer41
71Dairy man, maid, cheesemaker, on farm318
72Dairy man, maid, cheesemaker, on station3
101Dairy man, milkseller(see Cowkeeper, &c.).
124Dam and tank maker12
26Dancing, teacher of (see Teacher).
32Daughter, not otherwise described (see Son, daughter, &c.).
71Daughter, of farmer, market gardener (see Farmer).
72Daughter, of grazier, squatter, &c. (see Grazier).
151Deaf and dumb asylum, inmate of (see Inmate).
26Deaf and dumb teacher of (see Teacher).
52Dealer, general (so described)11
52Dealer, in fancy goods2936
52Dealer, in Indian goods1
52Dealer, in second-hand goods, waste materials3
52Dealer, not otherwise described68645
23Dentist1052
11Department, government, head of (see Government).
86Designer and colourist1
121Diamond drill worker10
86Die sinker, mould maker, medal maker19
103Distiller, rectifier284
63Diver11
63Dock hand, owner7
23Doctor(see Medical man, Physician, Surgeon).
74Dog trainer14
42Domestic service (see also Farm, Grazing farm, Hotel, Club-house, &c., service)—
Butler, valet29
Coachman, groom, stable boy, &c.696
Cook, kitchenmaid1971,400
Domestic, general servant(so described)1,67016,383
Footman, page20
Gardener235
Housekeeper21,049
House, parlour maid1,231
Lady's maid21
Laundress134
Nursemaid1,266
Others engaged in2870
25Draftsman, engineer's (not government)11
132Draftsman, (not otherwise described)61
73Drainer8
91Draper, linendraper, mercer, and assistants2,574305
26Drawing, teacher of (see Teacher)
62Drayman, carrier, carter5,7885
132Dresser (undescribed)2
92Dressmaker (see Milliner).
13Drill instructor (see Volunteer).
810Driller1
74Drover378
23Druggist (see Chemist).
815Drysalter8
815Dyer, scourer, calendrer8320
123Earthenware and glass—maker, dealer (see China, &c.).
123Earthenware and glass packer1
41Eating-house, coffee-house—keeper5813
41Eating-house, coffee-housewife of, assisting8
81Editor (see Newspaper, &c.).
26Education department—
Caretaker school buildings, messenger181
Clerk38
Truant officer21
Other officers connected with7
101Egg merchant1
11Electoral registrar (see Registrar).
25Electrical engineer (see Engineer).
25Electrician (not medical)13
125Electroplater, plater22
86Electrotyper1
26Elocution, teacher of (see Teacher).
86Embosser328
86Embroidery stamper1
92Embroiderer116
132Employed (so described)15
132Employer of labour (not described)4
27Enameller3
810Engine, machine—fitter323
121Engine-driver at quartz mill, alluvial mine, &c. (see Mining).
132Engine-driver undefined (see Engineer, &c.).
25Engineer, civil (see Civil engineer).
25Engineer, electrical4
132Engineer, engine driver, stoker, fireman (undefined)1,743
810Engineer, mechanical (see also Machinist)380
121Engineer, mining (see Mining).
63Engineer, steamer, merchant service67
810Engineering agent1
27Engraver139
112Envelope maker1
65Errand boy, girl3681
103Essence maker1
73Estate agent (see Land agent).
815Eucalyptus oil manufacturer3
132Everything1
11Examiner of titles6
11Excise officer (see Customs).
132Eye-opener1
51Factor (see Commission agent, &c.).
132Factory (undescribed), working in42
112Fancy box maker12
84Fancy flower maker (see Artificial).
52Fancy goods dealer (see Dealer).
112Fancy leather dresser7
91Fancy needle worker, knitter427
71Farm bailiff, overseer119
71Farm bullock-driver on34
71Farm horse-driver on34
71Farm labourer, living on farm3,503
71Farm labourer, not living on farm2,845
71Farm ploughman on300
71Farm servant (see also Grazing farm)5,3942,160
71Farm shepherd on37
71Farmer, market gardener35,2141,152
71Farmer's wife, living on farm22,749
71Farmer's son, daughter, or relative of, assisting18,27513,059
102Farina maker2
74Farrier, veterinary surgeon2321
111Fat collector1
111Feather dresser, cleaner, dealer, glove cleaner315
111Fellmonger2702
112Fencer, hurdle maker, splitter1,581
123Filter agent1
132Finisher (undescribed)2
126Fireproof safemaker6
61Fireman, railway (see Railway).
63Fireman, steamer merchant service91
132Fireman, (undefined)3
112Firewood, dealer, seller, chopper1,7696
74Fisherman, woman5543
85Fishing rod, tackle—maker4
101Fish monger, dealer, curer2043
810Fitter (see Engine, &c., fitter).
91Flagmaker3
132Flake wrapper1
91Flax dresser, spinner, weaver31
[(1)See footnote to table following paragraph 368 ante.]
OCCUPATIONS IN VICTORIA ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY—contineud.
Order.Sub-order.Occupations.Males.Females.
91Flock maker, sorter (see Textile).
93Floorcloth printer1
71Florist7
102Flour merchant (see Corn, &c., merchant, &c.).
102Flour-mill worker (see Miller, &c.).
84Flower maker (see Artificial).
815Fluid magnesia maker1
112Fly-catcher maker2
81Folder, newspaper (see Newspaper).
132Foreman, woman, undefined (see Manager, &c., undefined).
71Forest inspector1
62Forwarding agent12
64Free store keeper (see Storekeeper).
26French, teacher of (see Teacher).
112Frenchpolisher2421
91Friller1
102Fruiterer (see Greengrocer).
814Furniture maker, cabinet maker, upholsterer1,29279
814Furniture broker, dealer9311
92Furrier2726
89Fuse manufacturer2
23Galvanist (medical)9
126Galvanized iron worker11
152Gambler (Chinese)78
74Game catcher, killer (see Rabbit catcher, &c.).
101Game dealer (see Poulterer).
74Gamekeeper11
61Ganger, railway (see Railway servant).
42Gardener, charitable institution (see Charitable).
42Gardener, domestic servan (see Domestic service).
71Gardener, farm servant239
42Gardener, inn, club, eating-house (see Hotel, &c., service).
71Gardener, (not domestic, hotel, &c., servant).3,1024
126Gasfitter75
87Gas-meter maker7
122Gasworks service, engaged in243
42Gatekeeper, lodge38
61Gatekeeper, railway (see Railway servant).
52General dealer (see Dealer).
132General out-door work25
23General practitioner (see Medical).
42General servant (see Domestic, Hotel, Charitable institution, Farm, Grazing farm—service).
2General storekeeper (not bonded or free)(see Shopkeeper, &c.).
14Gentleman780
25Geological staff assistant, N. S. Wales1
25Geologist3
814Gilder (see Carver, &c.).
103Gingerbeer manufacture (see Aerated waters).
123Glass maker, dealer1573
813Glazier, (see Painter, &c.).
111Glove cleaner (see Feather dresser, &c.).
92Glover (see Hosier, &c.).
111Glue and oil maker, dealer11
121Gold amalgamator, purifier23
125Gold beater1
125Gold buyer5
125Gold chaser, cutter, piercer63
91Gold laceman, mercer11
121Gold miner (alluvial)12,0352
121Gold miner (quartz)8,2351
121Gold miner (undefined)13,8792
121Gold smelter, refiner17
125Goldsmith, silversmith, jeweller (see also Watchmaker)5298
11Government clerk, accountant85361
11Government department, head of17
11Government draftsman58
11Government mechanic, gardener, labourer25
11Government messenger, caretaker371
11Government officer (not otherwise described)28010
26Governess831
11Governor, The1
24Graduate of university (see University).
102Grain—shipping agent, broker4
21Grave decorator1
21Grave digger12
72Grazier, squatter2,37294
72Grazier, squatter wife of1,084
72Grazier, squatter son, daughter, or relation of, assisting581876
72Grazing farm or station, bullock-driver on36
72Grazing farm or station, clerk4
72Grazing farm or station, manager, overseer, superintendent662
72Grazing farm or station, horse driver on12
72Grazing farm or station, labourer366
72Grazing farm or station, lamb marker on10
72Grazing farm or station, ploughman on31
72Grazing farm or station, servant (see also Farm servant)1,857965
72Grazing farm or station, shepherd, shepherdess on5101
72Grazing farm or station, stable boy on9
72Grazing farm or station, stockman on169
102Greengrocer, fruiterer, and assistants399165
810Grinder9
143Grocer, teadealer, and assistants2,175257
42Groom, domestic servant (see Domestic service).
71Groom, farm servant57
42Groom, hotel (see Hotel, &c., service).
74Groom, horsebreaker (not domestic or hotel service)1,512
73Grubber, bushman (not fencer or splitter)172
61Guard, railway (see Railway servant).
89Gunpowder maker (see Powder).
89Gunsmith49
92Haberdasher (see Hosier, &c.).
111Hair brush, broom—maker, dealer14345
92Hairdresser, wigmaker44811
42Hall, office—keeper, cleaner (not government)2033
29Handicapper2
63Harbor, pier—service50
51Hardware broker1
126Hardware dealer (see Ironmonger).
811Harness maker, dealer (see Saddle).
92Hatter, cap, bonnet—maker and assistants242130
52Hawker, pedler85631
112Hay, straw—dealer, salesman534
11Head of department (see Government).
27Heraldic artist (see Artist).
23Herbalist9
102Herb dealer3
72Herdsman, boy (undefined)177
111Hide, skin—salesman, dealer40
23Homeopathist1
102Honey gatherer1
132Hooker1
71Hop cultivator13
71Hop picker5
103Hop broker1
74Horse breaker, groom (see Groom).
74Horse breeder, dealer, proprietor118
74Horse clipper3
92Hosier, haberdasher, glover, and assistants2820
42Hotel, club-house, eating-house, service (see also Domestic, Farm, Grazing farm service)—
Bar man, maid238357
Boots68
Cook, kitchen-man, maid151407
Gardener15
Groom, ostler, stableman294
Housekeeper45
Housemaid, parlourmaid323
Laundress65
Servant (so described)3381,694
Waiter, waitress325233
Others engaged in77159
41Hotel keeper3,102848
41Hotel keeper wife of, assisting1,843
41Hotel manager7
813House agent, factor, rent collector46
132House holder2
42House keeper (see Domestic, Hotel, &c., service).
42House maid (see Domestic, Hotel, &c., service).
813House proprietor619284
74Hunter2
112Hurdle maker (see Fencer, &c.).
72Hutkeeper on station3
23Hydropathist41
23Hydropathist and galvanist2
124Ice maker, dealer6
27Illuminator1
84Image maker31
151Immigrants' home, inmate of (see Inmate).
132Improver (undefined)2
14Independent means (source of income undescribed)204131
23Indian doctor1
52Indian goods dealer (see Dealer).
112Indianrubber worker, dealer2
151Industrial home, school, inmate of (see Inmate).
815Inkmaker91
151Inmate of benevolent asylum947322
151Inmate of blind asylum4944
15Inmate of deaf and dumb asylum4133
151Inmate of hospital1,010459
OCCUPATIONS IN VICTORIA ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY—continued.
Order.Sub-order.Occupations.Males.Females.
151Inmate of immigrants' home411215
151Inmate of industrial home, servants' home, &c.46
151Inmate of industrial school111302
151Inmate of Jewish almshouse1
151Inmate of lunatic asylum1,6401,216
151Inmate of Magdalen asylum183
151Inmate of old colonists' home4
151Inmate of orphanage379357
152Inmate of reformatory13652
152Inmate of refuge15
41Innkeeper and wife assisting (see Hotel).
42Inn servant (see Hotel, &c., service).
12Inspector, city, town, borough, shire, &c. (see Municipal).
74Inspector, live stock (see Live stock).
121Inspector, of mines3
74Inspector, prevention of cruelty to animals society1
11Inspector, public works7
74Inspector, rabbit3
61Inspector, railway (see Railway officer).
26Inspector, schools20
132Inspector, (undefined)6
132Instrument maker (undefined)2
51Insurance broker4
29International exhibition, persons connected with1275
24Interpreter, including 22 Chinese30
126Iron founder, moulder, worker, dealer930
121Iron miner1
126Ironmonger, hardware dealer6096
111Ivory turner6
132Jack of all trades1
102Jam, preserve, pickle—maker, worker565
112Japanner208
125Jeweller (see Goldsmith, &c.).
125Jeweller's engineer1
151Jewish almshouse, inmate of (see Inmate).
132Jobbing work (undescribed)1
72Jockey5
813Joiner (see Carpenter).
21Josshouse keeper, priest42
132Journeyman, woman111
22Judge8
22Judge's associate2
93Jute factory worker631
42Kitchen-maid (see Domestic, Hotel, &c., service).
91Knitter5
83Labeller of druggists' bottles1
101Labourer at abattoirs (see Abattoirs).
71Labourer at farm (see Farm labourer).
11Labourer government (see Government).
126Labourer Ironworks13
89Labourer powder mill5
61Labourer railway (see Railway servant).
72Labourer station (see Grazing farm).
64Labourer store (see Store).
131Labourer undefined22,0294
91Lace dealer, dresser, maker, worker45
126Lacquerer1
112Ladder maker1
14Lady365
73Land, estate—agent, clerk108
73Land, proprietor498141
73Land surveyor and assistant (see Surveyor).
26Languages, teacher of (see Teacher).
125Lapidary, precious stones worker, dealer12
132Latchman1
112Lastmaker2
42Laundress, charitable institution (see Charitable).
42Laundress, domestic servant (see Domestic service).
42Laundress, inn, club, eating-house (see Hotel, &c., service).
92Laundry keeper, worker (see Washer-woman).
22Law agent7
22Law clerk (see also Articled clerk)428
22Law stationer8
22Law student25
22Law writer7
22Lawyer (see Attorney, &c., Barrister).
21Lay reader, church of England26
126Lead, antimony—worker, dealer8
132Learning a trade10
72Learning sheep farming2
111Leather belt, case, satchel — maker, worker, japanner52
111Leather cutter, seller47
24Lecturer3
26Lecturer university (see University).
121Legal manager and assistant31
103Lemonade manufacture, engaged in (see Aerated waters).
11Letter carrier, mail-guard220
83Letter cutter2
810Letter press machinist1
81Library, athenaeum, mechanics' institute, connected with537
63Lighterman40
63Lighthouse-keeper34
123Lime burner, quarrier, dealer511
91Linen-draper (see Draper, &c.).
61Line repairer (see Railway servant).
815Liquid glue, cement, chemical soap—maker1
24Litterateur1
89Lithofracteur manufacturer1
83Lithographer, lithographic printer1672
62Livery-stable keeper and assistant791
72Live stock and station agent10
74Live stock salesman, saleswoman1031
74Live stock inspector15
151Loafer2
12Local body, officer of (see Municipal).
21Local preacher2
126Locksmith, bellhanger35
42Lodgekeeper (see Gatekeeper).
41Lodging-house keeper and wife assisting (see Boarding).
152Lottery-ticket agent, collector, lottery-house keeper, Chinese (see also Gambler).32
63Lumper (see Stevedore).
151Lunatic asylum, inmate of (see Inmate).
102Macaroni maker2
132Machine boy, minder, proprietor3
810Machinery merchant5
810Machinist (see also Engineer)80
92Machinist sewing (see Clothing manufacture).
29Machinist stage (see Theatre).
89Magazine, powder—keeper (see Powder).
151Magdalen asylum, inmate of (see Inmate).
11Magistrate (no other occupation stated)23
12Magistrate police (see Police).
23Magnetist (medical)11
65Mail carrier, mailman1201
65Mail contractor333
102Maizena maker (see Farina).
103Maltster852
11Manager aboriginal station (see Aboriginal).
132Manager overlooker, foreman, forewoman (undefined)18618
63Manager seamen's home of hope1
91Manager woollen mill (see Woollen mill).
810Mangle maker2
92Mangler (see Washerwoman).
92Mantle maker5
132Manufacturer, not otherwise described (see Mechanic).
126Manufacturer, of metal work3
815Manufacturing chemist (see Chemist).
111Manure manufacturer, dealer9
83Map and print seller11
83Map mounter1
123Marble merchant and assistant12
14Marchioness (so described)1
52Marine storekeeper182
63Marine surveyor (see Surveyor).
51Marine underwriter1
13Marker at rifle-butts1
12Market clerk, collector, keeper9
71Market gardener and wife, son, daughter, or relative (see Farmer).
51Market lessee of1
813Mason, pavior1,364
41Master charitable institution (see Charitable)3
63Master merchant service (see Ship master).
74Master of hounds1
812Mastmaker (see Block, &c., maker).
93Mat, matting—maker, dealer82
41Matron charitable institution (see Charitable).
132Matron undefined1
814Mattress, bed—maker495
101Meat preserver, potter, curer864
132Mechanic, manufacturer (not otherwise described)1689
810Mechanical engineer (see Engineer).
81Mechanics' institution, connected with (see Libary, &c.).
86Medal maker (see Diesinker, &c.).
23Medical agent1
23Medical assistant4
23Medical botanist1
23Medical galvanist (see Galvanist).
23Medical herbalist (see Herbalist).
OCCUPATIONS IN VICTORIA ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY—continued.
Order.Sub-order.Occupations.Males.Females.
23Medical man (not otherwise described, see also Physician, Surgeon)17
23Medical practitioner, general (see also Physician, Surgeon)162
23Medical psychopathist1
23Medical student85
12Member of local council (not otherwise described)35
11Member of Parliament (not otherwise described)8
91Mercer (see Draper, &c.).
51Merchant74712
29Merry-go-round keeper, assistant3
23Mesmerist1
11Messenger, government (see Government).
65Messenger, porter (not government or railway)4833
65Messenger, telegraph (see Telegraph).
25Metallurgist7
126Metal broker, packer5
23Midwife100
71Milk man, maid, on farm536
72Milk man, maid, station35
101Milk seller (see Cowkeeper, &c.).
101Milk preserver1
102Miller, flour-mill worker5581
92Milliner, dressmaker111,517
811Millwright68
121Miner (see Antimony, Copper, Gold, Quicksilver, Tin, &c.—miner).
121Mine owner81
103Mineral waters manufacture, engaged in (see Aerated, &c., waters).
121Mining board officer4
121Mining carpenter (see Carpenter).
121Mining carter (see Carter).
121Mining contractor, tributer6
121Mining engine-driver, alluvial230
121Mining engine-driver, at quartz-mill816
121Mining engineer66
121Mining manager, secretary269
121Mining registrar12
121Mining smith22
121Mining surveyor10
121Mining watchman5
21Minister of religion (see Clergyman).
11Minister of the crown4
125Mint officer, employe15
21Missionary, evangelist, &c.555
84Modeller24
51Money broker, lender11
111Morocco case and fancy leather goods manufacturer2
12Municipal inspector42
12Municipal labourer25
12Municipal officer (undefined, see also Town clerk, Shire secretary).312
12Municipal rate collector70
12Municipal subordinate officer583
12Municipal surveyor, engineer30
12Municipal treasurer3
12Municipal valuator3
132Mudlarker1
102Mushroom gatherer1
28Music master, mistress190732
82Music publisher, seller251
28Music student2
82Musical instrument manufacture, connected with80
28Musician, vocalist27975
91Muslin stamper1
25Naturalist11
123Navvy (see Road, &c.).
13Navy officer, British6
13Navy officer, French10
13Navy officer, Italian14
13Navy officer, Victorian5
13Navy petty officer, seamen, British1
13Navy petty officer, seamen, French207
13Navy petty officer, seamen, Italian96
13Navy petty officer, seamen, Victorian92
93Netmaker3
81News agent, vendor1032
81Newspaper canvasser, collector, runner44
81Newspaper folder2
81Newspaper proprietor, editor, publisher2631
123Nightman, scavenger (see Scavenger).
13Non-commissioned officer (see Army).
815Non-conducting boiler composition maker1
22Notary public5
21Nun, sister of charity159
42Nurse, charitable institution (see Charitable).
42Nurse, monthly981
42Nurse, sick674
42Nurse, wet6
42Nursemaid (see Domestic, Hotel service).
812Oarmaker (see Block, oar, mast—maker).
25Observatory, assistant at3
23Oculist3
42Office keeper, cleaner (see Hall, officekeeper).
13Officer, army (see Army).
63Officer, merchant service (see Ship's officer).
13Officer, navy (see Navy).
51Officer, of bank (see Bank officer, &c.).
51Officer, of benefit society (see Benefit).
41Officer, of charitable institution (see Charitable).
12Officer, of local government (see Municipal).
51Officer, of public company (see Public).
11Official assignee12
112Oil, colourman, and assistants28
151Old colonists' asylum, inmate of (see Inmate).
62Omnibus proprietor, driver, conductor (see Coach, &c.).
62Omnibus and cab cleaner42
62Omnibus office clerk1
62Omnibus stables, manager of5
62Omnibus timekeeper8
65Operator, telegraphic (see Telegraph).
103Opium seller, dealer591
74Opium traper8
87Optician22
13Orderly-room caretaker1
28Organ-grinding man11
84Ornamental designer1
151Orphan asylum, orphanage, inmate of (see Inmate).
42Ostler (see Hotel, &c., service).
92Outfitter (see Clothes dealer, &c.).
71Overseer, farm (see Farm).
72Overseer, station, grazing farm (see Grazing).
65Overseer, telegraph lines (see Telegraph).
101Oyster, shellfish—dealer23
64Packer in a store (see Store).
814Packer of furniture2
815Packer to druggist1
42Page (see Domestic service).
813Painter, paperhanger, plumber, glazier2,804
27Painter artist (see Artist).
112Paper-bag maker423
84Paper flower maker (see Artificial).
112Paper manufacture, engaged in10031
813Paperhanger (see Painter, paperhanger, &c.).
92Parasol maker, mender, dealer (see Umbrella, &c.).
111Parchment maker1
22Parliamentary agent3
42Parlormaid (see Domestic service).
132Partner72
102Pastrycook (see Confectioner).
22Patent agent2
813Patent ventilator maker4
86Pattern designer205
151Pauper, beggar104
813Pavior (see Mason).
52Pawnbroker11317
132Paymaster (undefined)1
29Pedestrain7
52Pedler (see Hawker).
14Peer of the realm (so described)1
11Penal service, connected with19016
14Pensioner, not Victorian (see Annuitant).
151Pensioner, Victorian885
811Perambulator, wheelchair, bicycle—maker, dealer123
103Perfumer2
22Petty sessions, clerk of (see Clerk).
25Philosopher1
87Philosophical instrument maker6
27Photographer, photographic artist24782
815Photographic materials importer1
25Phrenologist7
23Physician (see also Medical man, practitioner)66
23Physician and surgeon59
82Pianoforte tuner30
102Pickle maker (see Jam, &c.).
83Picture cleaner, dealer9
814Picture frame maker481
125Piercer, gold (see Gold).
74Pig dealer8
71Pig feeder, minder, on farm2
63Pilot29
71Planter (undefined)2
123Plaster, cement—maker, dealer4
813Plasterer723
61Platelayer, railway (see Railway servant).
125Plater (see Electroplater).
71Ploughman on farm (see Farm).
OCCUPATIONS IN VICTORIA ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY—continued.
Order.Sub-order.Occupations.Males.Females.
72Ploughman on station (see Grazing farm).
813Plumber (see Painter, Paperhanger, &c.).
81Pocket-book maker3
61Pointsman (see Railway servant).
11Police (all ranks)1,103
11Police magistrate15
815Polish maker1
65Porter, not government, railway, or office (see Messenger).
61Porter, railway (see Railway).
26Porter, university (see University).
111Portmanteau maker47
27Portrait painter2
11Post and telegraph master, mistress67139
11Post-office sorter, stamper(see Sorter, &c.).
102Potato dealer, salesman14
123Pottery maker, dealer139
101Poulterer, game dealer694
74Poultry farmer1
12Poundkeeper672
89Powder magazine keeper2
89Powder manufacturer6
125Precious stone worker, dealer (see Lapidary).
92Presser (see Textile fabrics).
83Print cutter1
81Printer, compositor2,16819
83Printer, lithographic (see Lithographer).
81Printers' agent, broker, traveller6
81Printing materials maker, dealer2
81Printing office, clerk in2
152Prisoner1,308333
11Private secretary (Government officer)2
22Process server2
132Professional (undescribed)96
26Professor of classics (see Teacher).
26Professor university (see University).
132Propagator (undefined)1
29Property master, theatre (see Theatre).
132Proprietor (undefined)41
152Prostitute23
101Provision curer, dealer (see Meat preserver).
51Public company, officer of1871
73Public gardens, park caretaker10
41Public house keeper, and wife assisting (see Hotel).
42Public house servant (see Hotel service).
81Publisher (see Bookseller, &c., and Newspaper, &c.).
82Publisher music (see Music).
124Pumper1
63Punt man, owner5
121Pyrites worker32
815Pyrotechnist4
23Quack doctor1
123Quarry owner, worker632
121Quartz crushing mill owner, manager17
121Quartz crushing mill battery feeder, &c.155
121Quartz crushing mill blanket washer11
121Quartz crushing mill copperplate cleaner8
121Quartz crushing mill employed at80
121Quartz miner (see Gold miner).
22Queen's counsel4
121Quicksilver miner4
74Rabbit catcher, killer2303
74Rabbit inspector (see Inspector).
29Racecourse ranger, caretaker3
29Racing, coursing—club official, clerk5
112Rag, waste paper— gatherer, dealer62
123Railway contractor (see Contractor).
61Railway engine cleaner65
61Railway engine driver135
61Railway engine fireman, stoker128
61Railway locomotive employe (so described)6
61Railway locomotive foreman6
61Railway officer—
Clerk237
Inspector32
Locomotive superintendent2
Manager6
Station master, mistress1706
Other railway officers502
61Railway servant—
Carriage cleaner11
Examiner of carriages11
Foreman29
Ganger50
Gatekeeper235232
Guard117
Labourer428
Line repairer137
Platelayer186
Pointsman47
Porter285
Railway employe (so described)357
Shunter19
Signalman40
Storeman12
61Railway servant—
Watchman18
Other railway servants309
12Rate collector of local body (see Municipal)
151Receiving relief76
103Rectifier (see Distiller).
132Reedmaker1
125Refiner, gold (see Gold).
152Reformatory, inmate of (see Inmate).
152Refuge, inmate of (see Inmate).
11Registrar, electoral6
121Registrar, mining (see Mining).
11Registrar, of births and deaths128
41Registry-office keeper (see Servant's registry-office keeper).
813Rent collector (see House agent, &c.).
132Repairer, undefined8
24Reporter, shorthand writer103
132Representative (undefined)2
41Restaurant keeper, (see Eating-house).
102Rice dresser, miller (see Miller, &c.).
26Riding, teacher of (see Teacher).
13Rifle butts marker1
123Road contractor (see Contractor).
123Road railway—labourer, navvy, excavator1,174
123Road surveyor (not government or local government)13
62Roads, carrier on (see Drayman, &c.).
93Rope, cord—maker, dealer15713
125Royal mint, officer of (see Mint).
83Rubber-stamp maker3
93Sacking, sack, bag—maker, dealer1116
811Saddle, harness—maker, dealer1,2526
811Saddlers' ironmonger5
812Sailmaker931
63Sailor, merchant service1,767
51Salesman, saleswoman (see Commercial traveller, &c.).
74Salesman, live stock (see Live stock).
815Salt manufacturer7
63Salvage operator1
51Sampler1
103Sauce maker7
101Sausage maker1
112Sawdust vendor2
810Saw maker, sharpener19
112Sawyer, saw-mill owner, worker1,079
87Scale maker10
71Scarecrow, farm1
92Scarf maker1
123Scavenger, nightman50
29Scenic artist (see Artist).
33Scholar at home4,9246,667
33Scholar at state school50,37748,519
33Scholar at private school8,5929,521
33Scholar mode of education not stated28,09827,815
27School of design, student at1
121School of mines student at1
26School master, mistress, teacher (see also Tutor, Governess)—
State school1,4591,688
Private school105227
School not stated7771,364
815Scourer (see Dyer, &c.).
21Scripture reader, lay (see Lay reader).
27Sculptor26
63Seaman, merchant service (see Sailor).
112Seaweed gatherer1
84Seaweed shell—fancy worker2
41Secretary charitable institution (see Charitable).
29Secretary racing, coursing club (see Racing).
71Secretary horticultural society1
11Secretary private (see Private secretary).
132Secretary (undefined)19
102Seed merchant, dealer, and assistants533
73Selector (not otherwise described)148
11Sergeant-at-arms1
22Sergeant-at-law1
74Sericiculturist1
42Servant, domestic (see Domestic service).
42Servant, of inn, club, eating-house (see Hotel, &c., service).
63Servant, of ship, steamer (see Ship).
71Servant, on farm (see Farm).
61Servant, on railway (see Railway servant).
41Servants' registry-office keeper344
810Sewing machine agent, maker, dealer133
92Sewing machinist (see Clothing manufacture).
51Share broker, dealer, jobber (see Stock and share broker, &c.).
74Sheep classer1
74Sheep dealer12
74Sheep inspector (see Live stock).
72Sheep shearer19
101Shellfish dealer (see Oyster, &c.).
OCCUPATIONS IN VICTORIA ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY—continued.
Order.Sub-order.Occupations.Males.Females.
71Shepherd on farm (see Farm).
72Shepherd shepherdess on station (see Grazing farm).
22Sheriff4
22Sheriff under1
22Sheriff's clerk5
22Sheriff's messenger1
22Sheriff's officer12
813Shingler (see Slater, &c.).
63Ship boy13
63Ship broker10
812Ship builder, wright429
812Ship chandler12
812Ship rigger18
63Ship clerk3
63Ship master277
63Ship officer109
63Ship owner24
63Ship servant, steward, stewardess27823
63Ship watchman16
63Shipping agent, clerk, master381
12Shire secretary66
92Shirt maker (see Clothing).
92Shoeblack9
92Shoe, boot—maker, dealer, and assistants6,469447
92Shoe, boot—maker's wife770
29Shooting gallery, keeper of2
52Shop keeper, man, woman, storekeeper (branch undefined)3,0651,016
52Shop keeper, wife of assisting (branch undefined)354
24Shorthand writer (see Reporter, shorthand writer).
89Shotmaker3
29Showman3
814Show-stand maker1
61Shunter (see Railway servant).
42Sick nurse (see Nurse).
61Signalman (see Railway servant).
91Silk dealer5
91Silk manufacture1
125Silver plate chaser, burnisher, polisher3
125Silver-plater1
125Silversmith (see Goldsmith, &c.).
21Sister of charity (see Nun).
111Skin salesman, dealer (see Hide, &c.).
123Slate enameller, preparer for billiard tables2
813Slater, shingler, tiler88
92Slopseller (see Clothes dealer, &c.).
126Smelter7
63Snagging overseer, man4
103Snuff manufacture, engaged in (see Tobacco, &c.).
111Soapboiler921
815Soda, alkali—maker2
103Sodawater manufacture, connected with (see Aerated waters).
22Solicitor (see Attorney).
32Son, daughter, relative, visitor (not otherwise described)73,824106,098
71Son of farmer, market-gardener (see Farmer's son, &c.).
72Son of squatter, grazier (see Grazier).
11Sorter, stamper, post-office1371
103Sorter, sugar (see Sugar).
132Sorter (undefined)1
51Speculator (commercial)11
132Speculator (undefined)1
103Spice factory worker1
91Spinner (see Woollen mill).
103Spirit merchant (see Wine).
112Splitter (see Fencer, &c.).
811Springmaker (see Coach-spring).
72Squatter, and wife, son, daughter, or relative of, assisting (see Grazier).
72Stable boy on station (see Grazing farm).
42Stable man (see Groom, &c.).
13Staff officer, volunteer (see Volunteer).
29Stage carpenter, machinist (see Theatre).
121Stamp feeder, man (see Quartz crushing).
810Stamper-grating maker24
126Stamper and piercer (metal)6
815Starch, blacking, blue—manufacturer, worker1014
72Station agent (see Live stock, &c.).
72Station labourer, servant(see Grazing farm).
72Station overseer, superintendent (see Grazing farm).
61Station-master (see Railway officer).
112Stationer and assistants (see also Bookseller)11720
22Stationer law (see Law stationer).
25Statistician1
92Staymaker7
126Steel manufacturer1
63Stevedore, lumper268
41Steward charitable institution (see Charitable).
63Steward, stewardess(see Shipservant,&c.).
132Steward, (undefined)8
51Stock and share broker, dealer, jobber4044
72Stock agent (see Live stock).
74Stock inspector (see Live stock).
72Stockman on station (see Grazing farm).
63Stoker, merchant steamer (see Fireman).
132Stoker, undefined (see Engineer, &c.).
123Stone breaker at machine12
123Stone cutter, dresser (not mason)2881
813Stone fence builder10
123Stone marble—merchant (see Marble).
123Stone weigher1
64Storekeeper (bonded or free, not shopkeeper)832
64Store labourer, storeman (not shopman)1,1131
64Store manager, clerk (bonded or freestore)12
64Store packer in406
61Storeman on railway (see Railway servant).
112Straw presser1
92Straw plait worker
22Student, law (see Law student).
23Student, medical (see Medical student).
21Student, theological (see Theological).
33Student, university (not law or medical, see University).
71Sugar planter3
103Sugar refiner53
103Sugar sorter2
63Supercargo2
41Superintendent, charitable institution (see Charitable).
72Superintendent of station (see Grazing farm).
23Surgeon (see also Medical practitioner, Physician).141
23Surgeon and oculist1
23Surgeon charitable institution8
63Surgeon ship3
23Surgeon not registered1
23Surgeon's assistant (see Medical assistant).
88Surgical instrument maker, dealer163
88Surgical bandage maker2
12Surveyor, city, town, borough, or shire (see Municipal).
11Surveyor, Government42
11Surveyor, Government pupil of4
73Surveyor, land, and assistant266
63Surveyor, marine11
121Surveyor, mining (see Mining).
151Swagman17
132Sweeper (undefined)1
92Tailor, tailoress (see also Clothing manufacture)1,8243,200
111Tallow chandler912
111Tallow melter, boiler-down (not meat preserving)22
64Tally clerk1
124Tankmaker (see Dam).
111Tanner6132
93Tarpaulin maker, dealer (see Tent, &c.).
84Taxidermist9
26Teacher (see also School master, mistress, Tutor, and Governess).
41Teacher charitable institution (see Charitable institution officer).
26Teacher in training3
26Teacher of accomplishments (undefined)417
26Teacher of algebra, arithmetic, and book-keeping1
26Teacher of classics3
26Teacher of classics and mathematics51
26Teacher of dancing116
26Teacher of drawing1212
26Teacher of elocution2
26Teacher of French58
26Teacher of geometry1
26Teacher of German1
26Teacher of gymnastics52
26Teacher of Hebrew3
26Teacher of kindergarten1
26Teacher of languages (undefined)1725
26Teacher of languages and drawing1
26Teacher of Latin1
26Teacher of leatherwork1
26Teacher of lip reading and articulation1
26Teacher of literature1
26Teacher of literature and mathematics1
26Teacher of literature and music2
26Teacher of mathematics1
26Teacher of mathematics and history1
26Teacher of mathematics and natural sciences1
28Teacher of music (see Music master, mistress).
26Teacher of painting2
26Teacher of physiology1
26Teacher of riding1
OCCUPATIONS IN VICTORIA ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY—continued.
Order.Sub-order.Occupations.Males.Females.
26Teacher of sciences applied to art and manufacture1
26Teacher of shorthand1
26Teacher of the blind1
26Teacher of the deaf and dumb2
26Teacher of writing11
26Teacher (superannuated)1
103Tea dealer (see Grocer, &c.).
71Tea planter2
65Telegraph service—
Clerk132
Instrument fitter2
Line repairer38
11Master, mistress (see Post, &c.).
5Messenger182
Operator23046
Overseer of lines3
Others connected with telegraph service813
87Telephone fitter1
93Tent, tarpaulin-maker, dealer49
91Textile fabrics, connected with (see also Woollen mill)—
Factory hand, worker3346
Flock maker8
Presser62
Weaver97
Others working in27
112Thatcher3
29Theatre doorkeeper, ticket-taker3
29Theatre property-master1
29Theatre servant3
29Theatre stage carpenter, machinist6
29Theatrical agent9
29Theatrical dresser1
92Theatrical dressmaker1
29Theatrical manager8
24Theatrical writer1
21Theological student22
132Ticket man (undescribed)2
29Ticket taker at theatre (see Theatre).
83Ticket writer7
813Tiler (see Slater).
112Timber merchant, dealer2971
62Timekeeper, omnibus (see Omnibus).
132Timekeeper, (undefined)17
121Tin miner23
126Tin zinc—worker, dealer7373
103Tobacco broker1
71Tobacco grower244
103Tobacco cigar, snuff manufacture, engaged in32048
103Tobacconist20820
810Tool maker, dealer11
12Town clerk49
85Toy maker, dealer124
21Tract, Bible—depot officer, assistant31
51Trade assignee3
132Tradesman, tradeswoman (undefined)133
62Traffic superintendent, coach company (see Coach).
151Tramp1
51Traveller, commercial (see Commercial).
132Traveller, (undefined)1093
73Tree ringer9
132Trimmer (undefined)7
101Tripe dealer, dresser1
26Truant officer (see Education).
121Truck man (mining)16
112Turner169
26Tutor, governess (see also Teacher, School master, mistress)67831
86Type-founder4
86Typographer2
92Umbrella, parasol, stick—maker, mender, dealer5461
92Under-clothing maker12
22Under-sheriff (see Sheriff).
814Undertaker82
26University—dean of faculty of laws1
24University graduate (not otherwise described)2
26University lecturer5
81University librarian1
26University porter3
26University professor4
33University student (not law or medical)145
814Upholsterer (see Furniture maker, &c.).
132Useful man, boy4
51Valuator (see Auctioneer, &c.).
12Valuator borough or shire (see Municipal).
132Valuator general1
112Varnish maker4
81Vellum binder, sewer(see also Bookbinder)10
813Venetian-blind maker (see Blind maker).
813Ventilator maker (see Patent ventilator).
29Ventriloquist11
74Veterinary surgeon (see Farrier).
71Vine dresser, grower139
103Vinegar maker5
32Visitor, not otherwise described (see Son, daughter, relative visitor).
28Vocalist (see Musician).
13Volunteer drill instructor16
13Volunteer officer4
13Volunteer staff officer5
815Wafer maker1
42Waiter, waitress—inn, club, eating-house (see Hotel, &c., service).
92Walking-stick maker, dealer (see Umbrella).
42Wardsman, wardswoman (see Charitable institution).
91Warehouseman, manchester, and assistants656
91Warper (see Woollen mill).
92Washerwoman, mangler, laundry keeper, worker151,440
815Washing powder, solution—maker1
87Watch, clock—maker and assistants5253
132Watchman (undefined)95
63Water bailiff1
124Water carrier, carter, dealer3
63Waterman, boatman, boat proprietor128
810Water-lift maker1
92Waterproof clothing maker12
124Waterworks service99
84Wax flower maker (see Artificial).
91Weaver (see Woollen mill and Textile fabrics).
87Weighbridge maker1
87Weighing machine maker (see Scale).
87Weight adjuster (see Adjuster).
124Well sinker, borer2
42Wet-nurse (see Nurse).
63Wharf labourer, wharfinger26
811Wheelwright699
121Whimdriver, mining37
811Whipmaker861
74Whipper-in1
126Whitesmith (see Blacksmith).
31Wife, widow (no specified occupation)101,035
41Wife of boarding, lodging house—keeper (see Boarding).
101Wife of butcher (see Butcher's wife).
41Wife of coffee, eating-house—keeper (see Eating-house).
71Wife of farmer, market gardener (see Farmer).
72Wife of squatter, grazier (see Grazier).
41Wife of hotelkeeper (see Hotel).
92Wife of shoe,boot—maker(see Shoemaker).
52Wife of shopkeeper (branch undefined, see Shopkeeper).
92Wigmaker (see Hairdresser).
132Winder1
103Wine manufacture, engaged in11
103Wine spirit merchant, and assistant148
126Wireworker45
84Wood carver1021
112Wood type maker1
111Wool broker40
111Wool buyer, valuer8
111Wool merchant25
111Wool presser9
91Wool stapler2918
111Wool warehouse keeper and assistants21
91Woollen mill (see also Textile fabrics)—
Woollen mill burler9
Woollen mill carder, fetler211
Woollen mill carding engineer, foreman, overseer4
Woollen mill cloth finisher, miller32
Woollen mill factory hand, worker, apprentice12661
Woollen mill loom-tuner11
Woollen mill manager, secretary, owner7
Woollen mill piecer63
Woollen mill spinner41
Woollen mill warper55
Woollen mill weaver79153
Woollen mill others engaged in1221
132Workman (undescribed)56
22Writer, law (see Law).
24Writer, literary (see Author).
24Writer, theatrical (see Theatrical).
74Yardsman at cattle sale-yard2
810Yardsman at machinery yard3
132Yardsman (undefined)3
103Yeast dealer2
21Young men's Christian association secretary1
126Zinc worker, dealer (see Tin, zinc—worker).
74Zoological gardens keeper2

SICKNESS AND INFIRMITY.

470.

The Census Schedule contained a column headed "Health," respecting which an instruction was given to the effect that, if any person was unable to follow his usual occupation by reason of illness or accident, or was afflicted with deafmuteism, blindness, lunacy, idiocy,

I have grave doubts as to whether this affliction ought not to be termed "Idiotcy" instead of the more popular "idiocy."

epilepsy, or leprosy,

No case of leprosy was returned either in 1871 or 1881. It is known that this infirmity existed at both periods, to a small extent, amongst the Chinese ; but the sub-enumerators did not distinguish it from ordinary sickness,

the name of such infirmity should be entered. As the result of this inquiry, the following information was obtained :— [Sick and infirm.]

Males.Females.Total.
Suffering from sickness7,3815,82213,203
Suffering from accident1,1622021,364
Suffering from deafmuteism168119287
Suffering from blindness502240742
Suffering from lunacy1,5901,2432,833
Suffering from idiocy10853161
Suffering from epilepsy176114290
Suffering from lameness, mutilation, deformity, &c.*8349132
Total11,1707,84219,012
[* The information in this line was not asked for, and is no doubt incomplete.]

471.

The total numbers furnish a proportion of 221 persons suffering from infirmity in every 10,000 of the population, of 247 infirm males in every 10,000 males, of 191 infirm females in every 10,000 females.

472.

The sick were in the proportion of 153, and those laid up in consequence of accidents, were in that of 16 to every 10,000 of the population. The two combined, representing those entirely disabled for the time being, but not as a rule permanently affected, were thus in the proportion of 169 to every 10,000 living, or 1 in 59. A similar combination gives a proportion of 189 disabled males in every 10,000 males living, or 1 in 53 ; of 147 disabled females in every 10,000 females living, or 1 in 68. [Sickness and accidents.]

473.

All the Australasian colonies except New South Wales have obtained returns of sickness and accidents, those for New Zealand, however, applying only to persons over 15 years of age, and therefore not comparable with the others. Omitting the two colonies named, Queensland shows the smallest proportion of persons laid up from these causes and South Australia and Tasmania the largest, next to which comes Victoria. The following are the proportions, the colonies being arranged in order, the one with the lowest ratio of disablement being placed first, and that with the highest last :— [Disablement in Australasian colonies.]

SICKNESS AND ACCIDENTS IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
1. Queensland had 1 person disabled from sickness or accident in every211 persons.
2. Western Australia had 1 person disabled from sickness or accident in every68 persons.
3. Victoria had 1 person disabled from sickness or accident in every59 persons.
4. South Australia had 1 person disabled from sickness or accident in every58 persons.
4. Tasmania had 1 person disabled from sickness or accident in every58 persons.

474.

New Zealand, as has been just stated, returned those disabled persons only who were over 15 years of age. These were in the very low proportion of 1 in 89 of the population at the same period of life. A proportion calculated upon the Victorian returns at a similar age gives 1 disabled person in 42.

475.

The loss suffered by the community in consequence of physical disablement is probably realized by few. Taking the sick and those suffering from accidents together, there were in Victoria, on the Census day, 14,567 persons—viz., 8,543 males and 6,024 females—in a disabled condition ; which means that the children were obliged to discontinue their studies, the men their work or business, and the women their household or other duties for that day on account of illness or bodily injury. Supposing the Census day to have been an average one as regards the amount of infirmity prevailing, which there is no reason to believe it was not, there would obviously in one year be an amount of work lost from this cause equal to that of 1 person for 14,567 years, or of 1 male for 8,543 years, and of 1 female for 6,024 years. Or putting it in other words, there would, if Sundays be included, be 5,316,955 days' work lost on account of illness in the year, viz., 3,118,195 by males, and 2,198,760 by females ; or, if Sundays be not included, there would be 4,559,471 days' work lost, viz., 2,673,959 by males and 1,885,512 by females. This is altogether irrespective of the loss occasioned by illnesses of a slight or partial character, not [Loss by physical disablement.]

serious enough to cause work to be altogether discontinued, which according to instructions would not be returned, or of the loss to others occasioned by attendance on such persons, or by reason of deafmuteism, blindness, lunacy, &c.

476.

According to the figures, the average number of days' disabling infirmity in the course of one year experienced by each person in the community is 6.2, or 6.9 days by each male, and 5.3 days by each female. If working days only be considered, each person on the average loses by this 5.3 such days, each male losing 5.9 such days, and each female 4.6 such days.

477.

The variation in the liability to sickness and accident at different ages may be traced in the following table, which shows the proportion of males and females rendered non-effective by these causes at each quinquennial age-period :— [Disablement at different ages.]

SICKNESS AND ACCIDENTS AT EACH AGE, 1881.
Ages.Number per 10,000 living at each Age Disabled fro—
Sickness.Accidents.Both.
Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Under 5 years61.6951.661.911.7863.6053.44
5 to 10 years57.7452.357.883.1365.6255.48
10 to 15 years62.5564.6014.434.2876.9868.88
15 to 20 years66.2781.1520.535.4986.8086.64
20 to 25 years69.83110.9423.273.2493.10114.18
25 to 30 years89.24123.7824.872.60114.11126.38
30 to 35 years113.25145.7925.313.20138.56148.99
35 to 40 years144.55165.5932.602.79177.15168.38
40 to 45 years171.61213.0231.387.09202.99220.11
45 to 50 years229.36234.8538.996.19268.35241.04
50 to 55 years273.37314.8650.195.25323.56320.11
55 to 60 years438.76379.6466.7311.00505.49390.64
60 to 65 years613.38548.8670.9414.33684.32563.19
65 to 70 years922.90760.32104.5421.121027.44781.44
70 to 75 years1374.401069.1699.1535.771473.551104.93
75 to 80 years1918.621420.3156.4374.321975.051494.63
80 and upwards2468.011811.7291.4195.352559.421907.07
All Ages163.27141.9125.704.92188.97146.83

478.

It will be observed that the amount of sickness experienced by males increased at every period of age after 10 years, and that by females at every period of age, the increases at the later periods being very striking ; cases of accident also increased very steadily amongst males up to 75 years of age, and increased amongst females, although not quite so steadily, to the end of life. As the chance of meeting with an accident is not so great in old age as in middle age and youth, it is probable that many of the accidents from which old people were reported to be suffering were received by them at earlier periods of life, the effects being still felt in old age.

479.

Members of Friendly Societies, noting the increased tendency to illness as age advances, will recognize the desirability of encouraging young men to join their ranks, and the absolute necessity, if they are to remain solvent, of accumulating funds before the members advance in life. The Census day being accepted as a normal one in point of the illness prevailing, the figures show that in this colony men between 20 and 25 years of age are liable to be laid up by reason of sickness or accident for about 3 working days in the year, men between 25 and 30 for 3such days, and men between 30 and 35 for 4such days ; whereas men between 55 and 60 would probably be laid up for 16 working days in the year, men between 60 and 65 for 21½ such days, and men between 65 and 70 for 32 such days. [Friendly Societies.]

480.

In most Friendly Societies, 18 years of age is the youngest period at which members can be admitted, but in practice few join before 20. Assuming, as before, the Census day to have been a normal one in point of the prevalence of illness, the Census figures give an experience for males of 20 years of age and upwards of 9.3 days' disablement during the year. It seems to argue well for the effectiveness of the medical examination to which candidates for membership of these bodies are subjected, and of the supervision exercised over members claiming sick pay, that the last returns of Friendly Societies show that in 1881 the average amount of sickness for which payment was claimed in the year was only 7.8 working days per member, or 11/2 days less than the average shown by the Census. It must, however, be borne in mind that

the mean age of members of Friendly Societies is in all probability younger than that of the general population over 20 ; also, that as some members do not draw their sick allowance, the sickness for which payment is made is less than that actually experienced ; and, moreover, that members of Friendly Societies are, as a rule, above the average of the population in point of provident habits and regularity of conduct, and that the medical examination which, as has been stated, they are obliged to undergo prior to their being admitted, affords a guarantee that, at that time at any rate, they are also above the average in regard to soundness of health.

481.

In proportion to their respective numbers more boys than girls were sick up to 10 years of age, but from 10 to 55 more females were sick than males. At every period of life, the proportion of males suffering from accidents was much larger than that of females. [Disablement of males and females.]

482.

In proportion to the total population, sickness was not so rife, but disablement from accidents was more rife in 1871 than it was found to be in 1881, resulting, however, in a greater amount of disablement from the two causes combined at the latter period than at the former. This applies both to males and females, the increased sickness being naturally due to the larger proportion of old people in the community, whilst the diminished disablement from accidents may be set down to the smaller proportion of persons following mining pursuits. The following are the proportions at the two periods :— [Disablement 1871 and 1881.]

SICKNESS AND ACCIDENTS, 1871 AND 1881.
Sex.Number per 10000 living Disabled by—
Sickness.Accidents.Both.
1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Males122.55163.2728.6525.70151.20188.97
Females112.69141.915.174.92117.86146.83
Both Sexes118.10153.1118.0415.82136.14168.93

483.

Persons laid up by sickness and accidents are less numerous in proportion to population in rural than in urban districts, which is no doubt partly attributable to the fact that the hospitals situated in the latter receive the disabled residents of the former as well as those whose ordinary abode is within their own limits. The goldfields are scattered over these two divisions, and in point of liability to sickness occupy a position between them, the proportion of sufferers being greater than in the rural, but smaller than in the urban districts. Cases of accident amongst males are, however as may be supposed, more common on the gold-fields than in either of those districts taken as a whole. The following are the proportions in town, country, and on goldfields :— [Disablement in different districts.]

SICKNESS AND ACCIDENTS IN URBAN AND RURAL DISTRICTS, AND ON GOLD-FIELDS,* 1881.
Sex.Number per 10,000 living Disabled by—
Sickness.Accidents.Both.
Cities, Towns, and Boroughs.Shires.Gold-fields.Cities, Towns, and Boroughs.Shires.Gold-fields.Cities, Towns, and Boroughs.Shires.Gold-fields.
Males221.86111.70198.3130.7721.3131.86252.63133.01230.17
Females170.07109.20156.325.154.644.28175.22113.84160.60
Both Sexes195.55110.58178.7517.7513.8919.01213.30124.47197.76
[* The infirmity in the urban and rural districts iincludes that on the gold-fields, which, however, is also shown separately. The gold-fields are scattered over the urban and rural districts.]

484.

As many as 292 of those returned as sick, viz., 198 males and 94 females, were stated to be suffering from paralysis, as also was one of those laid up from the effects of accidents. When another Census is taken it would be desirable to procure a complete return of paralysed persons by giving a special instruction to enter their numbers in the " Health " column.

See paragraph 540post.

[Paralysls.]

485.

The following are the numbers of each occupation who were laid up by sickness or accidents on the Census day, also their respective proportions to the total numbers of the same occupation :— [Occupation of the disabled.]

OCCUPATIONS OF PERSONS DISABLED BY SICKNESS AND ACCIDENTS.
Order.Sub-Order.Occupations.Numbers of each Occupation living.Numbers Disabled from—Proportion Disabled per 1,000 living.
Sickness.Accidents.Total.
11 & 2Government and local government officers3,9956066616.52
13Army and navy (officers, soldiers, sailors)499121224.05
21Clergy, church officers, &c.1,237212116.98
22Lawyers, law clerks, &c.1,243161612.88
23Medical men, druggists, midwives1,5953213320.69
24 & 5Literary and scientific persons4971531836.22
26Teachers6,7959229413.83
27, 8, & 9Artists, musicians, actors2,5835045420.91
31 & 2Wives, sons, daughters, relatives280,9574,9422195,16118.37
33Scholars184,655733828154.41
41Engaged in boarding and lodging7,4751911720827.83
42Engaged in attendance31,2343012332410.37
51 & 2Merchants, clerks, shopkeepers17,6163394538421.80
61Railway service (not construction)3,09835155016.14
62Carriers on roads (cab, omnibus, dray, &c.)8,2911104015018.09
63Carriers on seas and rivers (ships, boats, &c.)3,3631402616649.36
64 & 5Messengers, porters, storemen, telegraph service2,8163233512.43
71, 2, 3, & 4Engaged in agricultural and pastoral pursuits124,2021,7622131,97515.90
81, 2, & 3Engaged in books, musical instruments, prints3,8313964511.75
84, 5, & 6Engaged in carving, toys, designs, &c.27561725.45
87, 8, & 9Engaged in watches, instruments, arms, &c.66262812.08
810Engaged in machines and tools9944334646.28
811Engaged in carriages, harness, and implements3,5565676317.72
812Engaged in ships and boats (builders, repairers, &c.)6082242642.76
813Engaged in houses and buildings16,1624546351731.99
814Engaged in furniture1,748434324.60
815Engaged in dyes, textile fabrics, dress, and fibrous materials34,7775964263818.35
91, 2, & 3
101Engaged in animal food6,6931252314822.11
102Engaged in vegetable food4,309981411225.99
103Engaged in drinks and stimulants4,275841710123.63
111Engaged in animal matters1,9503153618.46
112Engaged in vegetable matters6,3221243215624.68
121Engaged in mining36,06677811289024.68
122 & 3Engaged in coal, stone, clay, earthenware, and glass3,94358116917.50
124, 5, & 6Engaged in metals and water8,4961402016018.83
131Labourers22,0339741711,14551.97
132Indefinite occupations3,70331275815.66
141Of independent means1,979951210754.07
151Paupers, mendicants, &c.*7,92435136
152Prisoners, criminal classes1,9774414522.77
Occupation not stated7,9124389152966.86
Total862,34613,2031,36414,56716.89
[* In this line the numbers of the population include patients in hospitals, but the disabled persons are exclusive of these, they having been distributed throughout the table according to the occupations they followed when not in hospital. The numbers, therefore, are not comparable, and no proportion has been shown.]

486.

It will be observed that the highest proportion of disabled persons is to be found amongst those whose occupation was not stated, the inference being that their disablement prevented them from pursuing any occupation. The next highest proportion was amongst persons of independent means, the next amongst labourers, the next amongst sailors, the next amongst mechanical engineers, cutlers, &c., and the next amongst shipwrights, shipbuilders, &c. After scholars, who were almost all children, the calling which showed the smallest proportion of disablement was that of domestic servants ; the next booksellers, bookbinders, lithographers, and print and picture sellers ; the next watchmakers, philosophical and surgical instrument makers and gunsmiths ; the next messengers, porters, and telegraph employes ; and the next lawyers, who were much more free from disabling illness than clergymen, who again were much more free than medical men. The disablement amongst miners, although much above the average, was not so great as that in many of the other callings.

487.

The deafmutes, the blind, the lunatics, the idiots, and the crippled, maimed, and deformed persons represent those having some defect or injury which is generally permanent, but which often does not disable them from following some description of labour, and does not always prevent them from earning their own livelihood, although no doubt in most cases it seriously affects their usefulness to the community. These numbered 4,445, viz., 2,627 males and 1,818 females, or 1 person in every 194, 1 male in every 172, and 1 female in every 226. [Permanent infirmities.]

488.

The deaf and dumb were in the proportion of 3.33 per 10,000 persons living ; of 3.72 deaf and dumb males per 10,000 males, and of 2.90 deaf and dumb [Deafmuteism.]

females per 10,000 females. These proportions, stated in other words, are 1 deafmute in 3,005 of the total population, 1 in 2,691 of the males, and 1 in 3,448 of the females.

489.

Deafmuteism is increasing in Victoria, which is only natural, considering that the population was formerly, much more than at present, made up of immigrants of whom probably few or none would be deaf and dumb. The increase was much greater between 1861 and 1871 than between 1871 and 1881, as will be seen by the following figures :— [Increase of deafmuteism.]

DEAFMUTEISM AT THE LAST THREE censusES.
In 1861 there was 1 deafmute in every9,005 persons.
In 1871 there was 1 deafmute in every3,621 persons.
In 1881 there was 1 deafmute in every3,005 persons.

490.

The proportion even now is not nearly so high as that obtaining in England and Wales, where according to the returns of the Census of 1871 (the returns of 1881 not having yet reached this colony) there was 1 deafmute in every 1972 of the population ; which proportion, however, was not so high as that in 1861, when 1 in every 1640 of the population of England and Wales was a deaf mute. [Deafmuteism in England and Wales.]

See General Report on the Census of England and Wales, 1871, p. lix., London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1873.

[Deafmuteism in England and Wales.]

491.

Five of the colonies of this group have obtained returns of deafmuteism, those which have not done so being New South Wales and Queensland. In proportion to population, this affliction is found to be more common in Victoria than in New Zealand, Western Australia, or South Australia, but much less so than in Tasmania, in which the proportion was higher than it was in England and Wales in 1871. The following are the proportions in the five colonies named, which are arranged in order, the colony in which deafmuteism is least prevalent being placed first, and the others in succession :— [Deafmuteism in Australasian colonies.]

DEAFMUTEISM IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
1. New Zealand had 1 deafmute in every4,298 persons.
2. Western Australia had 1 deafmute in every4,244 persons.
3. South Australia had 1 deafmute in every3,448 persons.
4. Victoria had 1 deafmute in every3,005 persons.
5. Tasmania had 1 deafmute in every1,837 persons

492.

Deafmuteism being generally congenital, and the numbers of the deaf and dumb becoming reduced by death as time advances, the numbers at the later ages are but small. As many as 240 out of the 287 deafmutes returned in Victoria were under 30 years of age. [Deafmuteism at different ages.]

493.

Although in proportion to the total population, deaf and dumb males were more numerous than deaf and dumb females, by nearly 1 per 10,000, the latter were the more numerous at from 15 to 20, 25 to 40, 45 to 55, and 60 to 65. Most of the numbers at these ages, however, being very small, the excess of females may have been only accidental. [Male and female deafmutes.]

494.

I may mention that many of those tabulated as deaf and dumb were set down in the schedules simply as "dumb." Besides these, 1 male and 2 females were entered as partially dumb, 1 male as dumb, and epileptic, 2 males as dumb and paralytic, 3 males as dumb and sick, 1 male and 1 female as dumb and lunatic, and 2 females as dumb and lame. In addition, and not included in the tables, 140 males and 126 females were returned as deaf. [Deafmuteism and other infirmities.]

495.

Occupations suitable to the deaf and dumb are necessarily limited in number. At the Victorian Deaf and Dumb Institution, the males are habitually instructed in bootmaking, tailoring, and gardening, and the females in household duties, and fancy and other needle work, and as a result of this teaching many of them are able to earn a livelihood after they leave the institution. Subjoined is a statement of the various callings the deaf and dumb throughout the colony were said to be following when the Census was taken :— [Occupations of deafmutes.]

OCCUPATIONS OF THE DEAF AND DUMB, 1881.
Males.Females.
Engraver1
Domestic duties and young children5266
Scholars636
Officers of Deaf and Dumb Asylum2
Servants35
Clerk1
Shopkeeper1
Drayman1
Farmers, farm servants17
Compositor1
Mechanical engineer1
Carpenters2
Bricklayer1
Carver and gilder1
Tailors5
Milliners, dressmakers, seamstresses12
Shoemakers11
Butcher1
Fellmonger1
Wood-choppers, splitters3
Goldminers5
Blacksmith1
Labourers2
Annuitant1
Inmates of charitable institutions42
Prisoner1
No occupation stated5
Total168119

496.

Blind persons were in the proportion of 8.60 per 10,000 persons living ; blind males in that of 11.10 to every 10,000 males ; blind females in that of 5.85 to every 10,000 females. There was thus 1 blind person in every 1,162 of mixed sexes, or 1 blind male in every 901 males, and 1 blind female in every 1,709 females. [Blindness.]

497.

According to the Census figures, blindness is increasing in Victoria, the reason probably being similar to that mentioned as having, perhaps, led to the increase of deafmuteism. As in the case of the latter affliction, the increase was much smaller between 1871 and 1881 than between 1861 and 1871. The proportions at the three periods are subjoined :— [Increase of blindness.]

BLINDNESS AT THE LAST THREE censusES.
In 1861 there was 1 blind person in every4288 persons.
In 1871 there was 1 blind person in every1457 persons.
In 1881 there was 1 blind person in every1162 persons.

498.

The latest return at hand of blindness in England and Wales is that of 1871, when the proportion to the population was 1 in 1,052, or higher than it has ever been in Victoria, not, however, so high as the proportion obtaining in England and Wales in 1861 (1 in 1,037), and not nearly so high as that in 1851 (1 in 979).

See General Report on the Census of England and Wales, 1871, p. lv.

[Blindness in England and Wales.]

499.

Returns of blindness were obtained by the same five colonies which obtained returns of deafmuteism. It is found that in New Zealand the proportion of blind persons was extremely low, and in South Australia it was lower than in Victoria, but in Western Australia and Tasmania it was enormously high, much higher than in England and Wales. The following are the proportions in these colonies ; the colony in which the proportion was lowest being placed first, and the rest in order :— [Blindness in Australasian Colonies.]

BLINDNESS IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
1. New Zealand had 1 blind person in every3,550 persons.
2. South Australia had 1 blind person in every1,417 persons.
3. Victoria had 1 blind person in every1,162 persons.
4. Western Australia had 1 blind person in every725 persons.
5. Tasmania had 1 blind person in every625 persons.

500.

Unlike the deaf and dumb, the proportion of blind persons in the population is much higher at the later than at the earlier ages. This will be at once seen by the following figures :— [Blindness at different ages.]

BLINDNESS IN VICTORIA AT DIFFERENT AGES, 1881.
Under 20 years 1 person in every3,809 was blind.
20 to 40 years 1 person in every1,760 was blind.
40 to 60 years 1 person in every683 was blind.
60 and upwards 1 person in every151 was blind.

501.

Blindness at every period of life is much more common amongst males than amongst females. A slight and no doubt accidental exception to this occurs in the returns of 1881, in which, at from 20 to 25, the proportion of blind females is slightly higher than that of blind males. [Blind males and females.]

502.

Of the blind, 1 male and 2 females were stated to be also deaf, 1 male and 1 female to be also paralytic, and 7 males to be also epileptic. [Blindness with other infirmities.]

503.

Besides the numbers set down as blind, 31 males and 17 females were returned as partially blind, and 7 males as blind of one eye. These have not been included in the tables. [Partially blind.]

504.

As a result of many of the blind having become so after they had reached a mature age, the occupations set down to them are of a much more varied character than those of the deaf and dumb. The young are educated at the Victorian Institution and School for the Blind, and are taught not only to read and write (in Braille), but receive instruction in vocal and instrumental music and such industrial pursuits as the blind are capable of learning. The trades most commonly taught are basket making, brush making, and mat making, the females learning also to perform household duties and to assist in the laundry, as well as to knit and sew. The following are the occupations returned at the Census as being those of the blind. Some of these callings were, no doubt, being practiced by them at the time the Census [Occupations of the blind.]

was taken, whilst others were their former occupations or those they had followed before they lost their sight :—

OCCUPATIONS OF THE BLIND, 1881.
Males.Females.
Medical man1
Musicians, vocalists16
Domestic duties and young children53145
Scholars317
Hotel, lodging-house—keepers83
Domestic servants2
Capitalists3
Agents, clerks, &c.3
Shopkeepers, hawkers, &c.91
Drayman1
Officer of merchant ship1
Porter1
Farmers, farm servants29
Land proprietors2
Book agent1
Saddler1
Shipwright1
House proprietors4
Carpenters4
Bricklayers, masons, plasterers9
Painter1
Cabinetmakers, upholsterers3
Manchester warehouseman1
Engaged in dress (chiefly knitters)22
Outfitter1
Shoemakers31
Cowkeeper1
Butchers2
Bakers2
Tobacconist1
Tanner1
Hair-broom makers8
Firewood—dealer, chopper1
Sawyer1
Basket maker1
Hay and straw dealer1
Goldminers6
Quarry, road—labourers2
Blacksmiths2
Ironmonger1
Labourers28
Engineer1
Annuitants24
Gentlemen2
Inmates of charitable institutions22936
Supported by charity1
Prisoners41
No occupation stated54
Total502240

505.

Lunatics were in the proportion of 32.85 per 10,000 of the population, viz., 35.17 male lunatics per 10,000 males living and 30.30 female lunatics per 10,000 females living. Thus 1 person in every 304, 1 male in every 284, 1 female in every 330 was a lunatic. [Lunacy.]

506.

According to the following proportions, lunacy, like deafmuteism and blindness, is increasing in Victoria :— [Increase of lunacy.]

LUNACY AT THE LAST THREE censusES.
In 1861 there was 1 lunatic in every819 persons.
In 1871 there was 1 lunatic in every392 persons.
In 1881 there was 1 lunatic in every304 persons.

507.

From whatever cause, lunacy appears to be much more rife in Victoria than in England and Wales. When the Census of 1871 was taken the proportion in the latter was 1 lunatic in every 574 of the population, which is a much lower proportion than that found to exist in Victoria either at that Census or at the Census of 1881.

See General Report on the Census of England and Wales, 1871, p. lxiv.

[Lunacy in England and Wales.]

508.

The only Australasian colonies besides Victoria which have collected complete returns of lunacy apart from idiocy are New Zealand, South Australia, and Tasmania, in all of which the proportion is lower than in this colony, as will be seen by the following figures :— [Lunacy in Australasian colonies.]

LUNACY IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
1. New Zealand had 1 lunatic in every437 persons.
2. South Australia had 1 lunatic in every436 persons.
3. Tasmania had 1 lunatic in every334 persons.
4. Victoria had 1 lunatic in every304 persons.

509.

The Census returns of Queensland contain a return of the number of lunatics in asylums, but give no account of those in private houses, gaols, &c. The number was 563, or 1 in 379 of the population, which is a higher proportion than that which the total number of lunatics bore to the population of New Zealand or South Australia, but not so high as that which obtained in the other two colonies furnishing returns.

510.

Lunacy in early life is comparatively rare, only 170 of the lunatics returned at the Census of Victoria being under 25 years of age, whilst as many as 2,566 were over that age. Under 25, the proportion of lunatics to the population was 1 in every 3,024 ; from 25 upwards the proportion was 1 in 134. [Lunacy at different ages.]

511.

Up to the age of 25, and between the ages of 40 and 45, and 50 and 75, the proportions of female lunatics to the female population were higher than those of male lunatics to the male population. The reverse was the case at all other periods of life. [Males and female lunatics.]

512.

Persons returned as idiots were in the proportion of 1.87 per 10,000 of the population ; 2.38 idiot males per 10,000 males, 1.29 idiot females per 10,000 females. These proportions may be otherwise stated as 1 idiot in every 5,356 persons, 1 idiot male in every 4,186 males, 1 idiot female in every 7,741 females. [Idiocy.]

513.

The Census of 1871 was the first at which returns of idiocy were obtained in this colony. The proportion then was 1 idiot in every 6773 persons, or not so high a proportion as that found to exist at the Census under review. [Increase of idiocy.]

514.

In England and Wales idiots were combined with imbeciles

It is suggested that in future Censuses of Victoria, imbecility should be noted as well as idiocy, so as to assimilate the returns with those of England and Wales. The old legal definition of an idiot is " one who cannot measure a yard of cloth, number twenty correctly, and tell the days of the week ;" the definition of an idiot in Scotch law is "one entirely deprived of the faculty of reason, having an uniform stupidity and inattention in his manner, and a childishness in speech which distinguishes him from other men." There are, no doubt, many persons weak of intellect without being sufficiently so to warrant their being classed as idiots. Such might properly be set down as "innocents" or imbeciles.

at the Census of 1871, therefore comparison with Victoria, where idiots alone were returned, may not be fair. The proportion of idiots and imbeciles to the population of England and Wales was a very high one, viz., 1 person so afflicted in every 771 persons living.

See General Report of the Census of England and Wales, 1871, p.lxiii.

[Idiocy in England and Wales.]

515.

Idiocy as distinguished from lunacy was not returned in any colony of the group except Victoria, New Zealand, and Tasmania. In the second of these it was much less prevalent, but in the third much more so than in this colony, as is shown by the following proportions :— [Idiocy in Australasian colonies.]

IDIOTS IN AUSTRALIASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
1. New Zealand had 1 idiot in every8447 persons.
2. Victoria had 1 idiot in every5,356 persons.
3. Tasmania had 1 idiot in every1522 persons.

516.

Idiots are found at all ages. Two were returned under 5, and the same number over 80 years of age. Under 25 years of age there was 1 idiot in every 5,299 of the population, and over that age there was 1 in every 5,557 of the population. [Idiocy at different ages.]

517.

Under 10 years of age the proportions of idiot boys and girls to their respective numbers in the population were about equal. From 30 to 35, 55 to 65, and at 70 and upwards, the proportion of idiot females was greater than that of idiot males. The proportion of idiot males, however, was higher than that of idiot females at all other ages. [Idiot males and females.]

518.

One male and 3 female idiots were stated to be also dumb, and 1 male idiot was stated to be also epileptic. [Idiocy and other infirmities.]

519.

If idiots be combined with lunatics, the proportion would be 1 in every 288 of the population as against 1 in every 370 of the population in 1871. [Idiocy and lunacy.] .

520.

In England and Wales, according to the Census of 1871, the proportion of idiots, imbeciles, and lunatics to the general population was 1 in 331 ; this, it will be observed, is higher than the ratio which idiots and lunatics bore to the population of Victoria in the same year, although not so high as the ratio in 1881. [Idiocy and lunacy in England and Wales.]

521.

The idiots combined with the lunatics give the following results for four of the Australasian colonies, being all those which obtained the information at the Census of 1881 :— [Idiots and lunatics in Australasian colonies.]

IDIOCY AND LUNACY IN AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES, 1881.
1. New Zealand had 1 idiot or lunatic in every416 persons.
2. Victoria had 1 idiot or lunatic in every288 persons.
3. Tasmania had 1 idiot or lunatic in every274 persons.
4. Western Australia had 1 idiot or lunatic in every259 persons.

522.

All the lunatics and idiots in Victoria except 138, viz., 58 males and 80 females, were in the Government asylums when the Census was taken, where they were following no occupation except such light duties in connexion with the asylum and its surrounding grounds as some of them were capable of performing. Their occupations, however, before they lost their reason were, in many instances, noted on the schedules, with the following result :— [Occupations of lunatics and idiots.]

OCCUPATIONS OF LUNATICS AND IDIOTS, 1881.
Males.Females.
Government officers, police151
Soldiers6
Clergyman1
Lawyers, law clerks4
Medical men, druggists10
Schoolmasters, mistresses1110
Artists4
Musicians, actors41
Domestic duties, and children75511
Scholars21
Hotel, lodging-house—keepers132
Servants9252
Merchants, agents, clerks34
Shopkeepers, hawkers161
Railway officials2
Dray, cab, omnibus-drivers, conductors16
Ships' officers, sailors44
Errand boy1
Farmers, squatters, farm servants, &c.2152
Booksellers, printers, &c.4
Watchmaker1
Philosophical instrument-maker1
Mechanical engineers, coachbuilders71
Shipbuilders, sailmakers4
Builders, carpenters, cabinet-makers69
Workers and dealers in textile fabrics, dress and fibrous materials58121
Dealers in food and drinks391
Fellmongers, curriers, &c.7
Wood-dealers, splitters, sawyers151
Goldminers134
Quarrymen, brickmakers, &c.15
Workers in metals45
Labourers489
Gentleman1
Inmate of Industrial School1
Prisoners42
Miscellaneous pursuits111
No occupation stated312387
Total1,6981,296

523.

Epileptic persons were in the proportion of 3.36 per 10,000 of the population of Victoria, of 3.89 per 10,000 males, and of 2.78 per 10,000 females ; or in other words, 1 person in every 2,974, 1 male in every 2,569, 1 female in every 3,599 was subject to attacks of epilepsy. [Epllepsy.]

524.

Statistics of epilepsy were first obtained in this colony in 1871, when the proportion was 1 in every 3,310 of the population, or a lower proportion than that shown in the present returns.

525.

The Census of England and Wales does not supply any information on the subject of epilepsy, and the only Australasian colony, except Victoria, which collects such information appears to be New Zealand, in which, according to the Census of 1881, the proportion of epileptic persons was 1 in every 2,525 of the population, thereby showing a higher ratio of epilepsy than that found to prevail in Victoria. [Epllepsy in New Zealand.]

526.

Epileptic persons are to be found in every age-group up to that ended with 75 years, but no such person appears in any older group. Up to a certain point the tendency to epilepsy seems to increase with age ; under 60 there was 1 epileptic person in every 3,089 of the population, whilst from 60 to 75 there was 1 in every 1,402 of the population. [Epllepsy at different ages.]

527.

Males appear to be more subject to epilepsy than females at almost every period of life. The only ages at which the proportion of epileptic females to the female population was found to exceed that of epileptic males to the male population were under 5, 35 to 40, 55 to 65, and 70 to 75. [Eplleptic males and females.]

528.

Of the epileptic subjects, 3 males were stated to be also sick, and 1 male to be epileptic in consequence of accident ; 32 of the males and 7 of the females were inmates of lunatic asylums, but only 1 of these was stated to be insane. [Epllepsy and other infirmities.]

529.

The following are the callings returned as being those practiced by persons subject to attacks of epilepsy :— [Occupations of epilleptic persons.]

OCCUPATIONS OF EPILEPTIC PERSONS, 1881.
Males.Females.
Druggists2
Schoolmasters2
Wives, widows, relatives5981
Scholars118
Hotelkeepers, &c.2
Servants4
Clerks3
Hawker1
Carriers2
Farmers, farm servants17
Printer1
Mechanical engineer, wheelwright2
Carpenters, bricklayers7
Working or dealing in dress12
Butchers, bakers, &c.4
Goldminers3
Stonecutters, brickmakers3
Labourers3
Gentlemen2
Inmates of charitable institutions4417
Prisoners2
No occupation stated52
Total176114

530.

No instruction was given the sub-enumerators to obtain returns of mutilated, crippled, and deformed persons, either in 1871 or 1881, but the schedules contained particulars respecting 205 such persons at the former, and 132 at the latter period. It may be supposed that all were not returned on either occasion, therefore no comparisons with the numbers of the population will be quoted here ; it is, however, suggested that at future Censuses of this colony an attempt should be made to obtain complete returns of the numbers affected in this manner.

See paragraph 540post.

. [Lameness, mutilation, deformity, &c.]

531.

Of those returned upon the present occasion, 5 males were set down as having lost an arm, and 7 a leg ; 1 male and 1 female as having lost a hand, 5 males as lame, 4 as cripples from birth, 1 as crippled through spine affection 2 as having a crippled hand, 4 as crippled and sick, and 1 as crippled through accident ; 1 female was returned as having lost the use of her hands by lead poisoning, 1 as deformed in the left foot, 1 simply as deformed, and 1 as crippled and paralysed. The remainder, both males and females, were entered merely as crippled.

532.

The Chinese returned as suffering from infirmity numbered 251, viz., 248 males and 3 females. Of these, 138 were disabled by sickness and 12 by accidents ; 2 were deaf mutes, 12 were blind, and 87 were insane. The whole number of Chinese being 12,128, it follows that 1 in 48 was suffering from some description of infirmity, 1 in 81 was disabled from sickness or accident, 1 in about 6,000 was deaf and dumb, 1 in about 1,000 was blind, and 1 in 140 was lunatic. These figures, as compared with previous ones, show that the Chinese suffered less than the general population from each description of infirmity except insanity, but of that the proportion (1 in 140) was much higher than that obtaining in the general population (1 in 304). It must, however, be remembered that a very large majority of the Chinese were adults, and lunacy is not as a rule developed until after the period of puberty is reached. [Infirmity amongst Chinese.]

533.

Thirty Aborigines, viz., 10 males and 20 females, were set down as suffering from some description of infirmity. These numbers furnish a proportion of 1 infirm Aboriginal in 26 Aborigines of both sexes, or 1 in 46 of the males and 1 in 16 of the females. The disablement of 8 of the males and 18 of the females was referred to sickness or accidents ; 1 male and 1 female were set down as blind, 1 male as a lunatic, and 1 female as epileptic. [infirmity amongst Aborigines.]

REMARKS AND SUGGESTIONS.

534.

The Census which is the subject of this Report is the fourth enumeration of the population of this colony with which I have been connected, and the second of which I have had the management. In the course of nature it is not likely I shall take part in any such operation in future, which being the case I deem it right to embody the result of my experience in a few suggestions for the improvement of the system I have followed, which, if adopted will, I believe, lighten the labours of my successor, and contribute to the success of the Census of 1891, when the time arrives for giving effect to that undertaking. [Remarks and suggestions.]

535.

The country is now almost entirely divided into municipal districts, and will doubtless be quite so divided by 1891. I would recommend that these districts, whether large (shires) or small (cities, towns, and boroughs), be made the Census districts ; for which they are admirably adapted, their boundaries being well known to the residents and easily discoverable upon the ground ; and as they have been made the basis of the electoral districts and divisions, much trouble will be saved in the arrangement and classification of the schedules after the Census has been taken. [Census districts.]

536.

I would further strongly recommend that the council of each municipality be asked to nominate a suitable person to be the enumerator, with a suggestion that, unless some good reason should exist to the contrary, he should be the shire secretary, town clerk, or one of the other municipal officers. By this means an enumerator would be secured, generally a capable man, and almost invariably well acquainted with the district and with the most suitable persons to act as sub-enumerators, who should, as at present, be appointed by the enumerator. The enumerator should be paid according to a fixed scale, based upon the area of the district and the number of persons enumerated, such scale being higher in country than in urban municipalities. [Enumerators.]

537.

In an early portion of this Report I mentioned the trouble I had had in settling the payments of the sub-enumerators after the Census was taken, in consequence of the attempts made by many of those officers to impose upon the Government by endeavouring to obtain payment for more time than they actually worked, and I suggested that the number of days' pay to be allowed for the enumeration of each sub-district should be arranged beforehand between the enumerator and the sub-enumerator. I lay great stress upon this suggestion, and to carry it into effect would recommend that agreements in duplicate be duly signed and witnessed—one copy to be kept by the enumerator and one by the sub-enumerator—in which the number of days allowed and the other day should be distinctly stated, the sub-enumerator being given to understand that the amount promised would not be reduced if he did the work in a shorter time, or increased should be take longer ; at the same time he should be under a penalty, to be prescribed by the Census Act, if he left the work unfinished, whether he could do it in the allotted time or not. The municipal officer who, according to the system I have proposed, would generally be the enumerator, would, from his knowledge of the district, be the best possible person to make these agreements with the sub-enumerators, and indeed in many cases, would be the only one who could do so without risk of injustice either to the sub-enumerator or to the Government. [Sub-enumerators.]

538.

On the present occasion the sub-enumerators were burdened with a great deal more work than had been allotted to their predecessors at former Censuses, which did not conduce to the success of the operation. Besides the householder's schedule, they had educational, agricultural, manufacturing, mining, and school schedules to deal with, or six schedules in all. To procure the information sought to be obtained in the last five schedules, it was necessary to take much more time than the sub-enumerator could well afford to devote to that work, or than was compatible with his more legitimate duties in connexion with the enumeration of the population which, as people are always moving from place to place, ought to be completed as speedily as possible. I would still propose to embody in the householder's schedule a provision for enumerating the live stock in the colony, as that can be correctly done only when a [Extra schedules objectionable.]

Census is taken ; but information as to agriculture, school attendance, manufactures, and mining can be secured with more accuracy by the ordinary municipal collectors, than by the sub-enumerators. However tempting it may be when a Census is taken to endeavour to obtain information on a variety of interesting topics not immediately connected with the work on hand, it should be borne in mind that anything which tends to complicate the duties of the sub-enumerators cannot fail to act prejudicially on the correctness of the particulars they are specially appointed to obtain.

539.

Much evil has been found to result from the householder's schedule being attached to the Census Act. I would recommend that, in future, only the heads of inquiry should be embodied in the Act, on which a schedule, to be approved by the Governor in Council and gazetted, should afterwards be based. There are matters of detail in this schedule which it is sometimes desirable to vary even at the last moment, and this could be done if the schedule were, within certain limits, merely a matter of regulation ; whereas, hitherto, the Act once passed, however desirable it might be to effect changes, it has been impossible to alter the form of the schedule in the slightest degree. [Householdesr's Schedule.]

540.

The inquiries under the column in the householder's schedule headed "Health" I think might with advantage be extended so as to embrace some matters respecting which particulars are not now supplied. The column contains provision for obtaining the numbers sick, suffering from accidents, deaf and dumb, blind, lunatic, idiotic, epileptic, and leprous. I would suggest that inquiry should also be made as to the number of cripples ; of humpbacked, clubfooted, or otherwise deformed persons ; of paralysed persons ; of those who have lost a limb or an eye ; of those who are partially blind or color-blind ; of those who are deaf without being dumb ; and of imbecile persons not strictly speaking idiots. Information on all these points might be obtained without additional trouble or expense by merely altering the instruction at the head of the column so as to state what is required. This column, instead of "Health" as at present, might with greater propriety be headed "Infirmity. ["Health" column.]

541.

It is incumbent upon me in this place to say a word respecting the class of officers who are usually appointed to compile the Census, a matter to which I have already referred in a previous paragraph.

See paragraph 44 ante.

As, however, the subject is a delicate one, and the Government have expressed their intention to abolish political patronage throughout the Public Service, whereby the evil complained of will probably be reduced to a minimum in future, I shall touch upon it but lightly. Suffice it to say that it is a mistake to suppose that incapable persons can be made useful in the compilation of a Census. All the work in connexion with that operation is of a more intricate and difficult character than that which occurs in the routine of most Government departments ; to the bulk of those appointed it is necessarily entirely novel, it is therefore desirable that they should have had a good plain education, and that they should possess quickness of comprehension, aptitude for grasping fresh subjects, as well as a fair share of ordinary intelligence. As it is impossible to judge accurately of a man's capabilities beforehand, it is not to be supposed that all appointed will possess the requisite qualifications, but when it is discovered that such qualities are absent in an officer, or when his conduct is such as to be subversive of the discipline of the office, the head of the Census Department ought to have the power to dispense with his services. [Census office staff.]

542.

Following the practice which had prevailed at a former Census, the Census vote on the present occasion was set down on the Estimates in the division of the Chief Secretary, instead of that of the Government Statist, and much inconvenience was experienced in consequence. The effect of this peculiar disposition of the Census vote was that all the accounts of the Census had to be passed through the books of the two departments, and signed by the Under Secretary as well as by the Government Statist, for which there was no necessity whatever, and from which no good resulted. Moreover, the Government Statist was in the position that, although he had the expenditure of the money, he never knew exactly how the Census vote stood, and what balance remained to its credit. So much evil was found to arise from the arrangement that when, at the beginning of the next financial year, a further vote, was required for the compilation of the Census, there was no hesitation whatever in placing the amount in the Government Statist's division of the Estimates. I strongly recommend that, in future, the money for taking as well as for compiling the Census be placed directly under the department by which it is to be expended. [Census vote.]

543.

It being important to know the number of natives of Victoria settled in the different Australasian colonies, so as to arrive as nearly as possible at the whole number of Victorians living, it is desirable that the other colonies of the group should be asked to tabulate their returns of birthplaces in such a manner that Victorians may be shown. This request should be made some time before the Census is taken, in order that it may reach the respective colonies before their compilation forms are prepared. On the occasion of the Census of 1881, three of the colonies

South Australia, Western Australia, and New Zealand ; the returns of which, especially those of the last-named, were, with this exception, compiled in an exceedingly creditable manner.

were unable to give the number of natives of Victoria living within their borders, although the numbers born in some of the least important foreign countries and British Possessions out of Australasia were shown in their tables with the greatest minuteness. I need scarcely say that the Victorian Census returns contain a statement of the number of natives of each of the other Australasian colonies found to be resident in this colony. [Victorians in other colonies.]

544.

Every colony of the group except New South Wales is at one with Victoria in regard to the general principles of tabulating the Census returns. It is in the highest degree desirable that an endeavour should be made to induce the non-accordant colony to assimilate her forms, especially those relating to the occupations of the people, with the forms used by her neighbours ; also that an understanding should be arrived at in regard to minor points of difference which still exist between Victoria and those colonies which are in the main in unison with her. One of the most important of these is in reference to the treatment of the indefinite groups which exist under most of the heads of inquiry, the component parts of which ought always to be separately shown. Thus, in the return of Religions there are groups styled "Other Presbyterians," "Other Wesleyans," "Other Protestants," "Other Religions;" in that of Birthplaces there are "Other British Possessions," "Other Countries;" and in that of Occupations there are over 60 such groups, as, for instance, "Others" connected with "Government," "Defence," "Religion," "Law," "Medicine," &c., the composition of each of which is shown in the returns of Victoria and New Zealand, but to a less perfect extent, or not at all, in those of the other colonies; New South Wales making no attempt whatever to show anything beyond the very incomplete and indefinite particulars appearing upon the face of her tables. It is desirable to arrange that in all the colonies the same exactness of detail as in the two colonies named should in this respect be followed. The Chinese and Aborigines also should be tabulated separately under all the heads of inquiry, so as to allow of their being separated if desired. It will readily be understood that a large number of Pagans (Chinese) or of persons of no religion (Aborigines) lowers the proportion to the total population of each of the religions of persons of European birth and extraction, respecting whom it is especially intended that the Census shall supply exact information. The returns of education and conjugal condition are also much disturbed by the presence of these two races, and the other inquiries in a less degree. In many respects it is desirable that it should be possible to eliminate them from the remainder of the population, which in several of the colonies cannot now be done. A Census being so expensive, difficult, and infrequent an operation, it is obviously desirable that all possible details that can be obtained without too great an expenditure of time and labour should be got from the returns, and that everything should be done to make the published information as accurate and complete as possible. All these matters, as well as some other points of less importance, ought to be discussed and settled at a conference to be held about twelve months before the next Census is taken, so as to allow sufficient time for making the preparations necessary to give effect to such principles as might be agreed upon. [Uniformity of compilation desirable in Australasian colonies.]

545.

I would strongly advise that the system of compiling the Census by means of cards should be continued, as I believe it to be more accurate as well as more convenient than any other method. I have, in an early portion of this Report,

See paragraphs 49 to 53ante.

given information as to the way in which the cards should be used, and have mentioned that a fuller account containing further details, together with particulars of improvements in the manner of working the cards which experience had suggested, had been written out and was kept for record in this office. I also recommended that, besides the white and pink cards used for tabulating the results of the principal inquiries, cards of another color should be provided for duplicating the information relating to classes of persons respecting whom special information might be required. [Compilation by cards.]

About 100,000 of these duplicate cards would probably be wanted, three-fourths of which should be of one color, say blue or green for males, and one-fourth of another color, say yellow or drab for females.

546.

It would much simplify the compilation by cards if provision were made for tabulating the results of the six principal inquiries, viz., Birthplace, Religion, Age, Education, Conjugal Condition, and Occupation upon one sheet, in which case a single sheet for males and another sheet for females would be devoted to each place it might be desired to keep separate. The entries of the cards relating to that place might then all be made by the same officer, after which those particular cards would be entirely done with. Before parting with the sheet, it would be incumbent upon this officer to see that the totals under all the heads of inquiry balanced with each other and with the correct total of the place, which would be known beforehand by means of the first tabulation (Inhabitants and Houses), and perfect accuracy would thus be secured. Such a sheet could be constructed without difficulty, and it need not be of a very large size. [Single sheet for tabulating results.]

547.

I have caused several complete sets of the forms used at the Census of 1881 to be carefully put away for the benefit of my successor, but they ought to be all intelligently revised before being made to serve as patterns in connexion with another Census. The occupation forms especially should be thoroughly examined and compared with the occupation tables of England and Wales 1881 (not yet published), with the view of adopting changes which may have been made therein since the previous decennial Census, so far as such alterations may be deemed suitable to the circumstances of this colony. Moreover, some instances will be discovered in the present forms, of industries being of such trifling importance in Victoria that their names may, with advantage, be removed from the general tables of occupations, and the small number of persons following them be grouped in the line "Others" and described in footnotes ; whilst, on the other hand, a few cases will be found of occupations now grouped with "Others," and mentioned only in footnotes, being of sufficient importance to be assigned lines in the tables. In revising the forms for tabulating the Religions, it would be well to appropriate a line to the Bible Christians under the general head of Methodists, of which body they are a branch, instead of placing them under "Other Protestants" as at present, which, although done at the request of one of the Bible Christian ministers who, at the time, was supposed to have sufficient authority for his action, has been the cause of some dissatisfaction. [Revision of forms necessary.]

STATISTICS OF VICTORIA, 1871 AND 1881.

548.

Before bringing this Report to a close, I take leave to quote a few items of statistical information relating to the last two Census years, in order to show in what respects the colony has progressed, remained stationary, or retrograded during the interval between those periods. [Statistics, 1871 and 1881.]

549.

In previous pages I have more than once mentioned that the population increased by nearly 18 (17.88) per cent. in the ten years. The figures at the commencement and end of the decenniad were as follow :—

POPULATION.
1871731,528
1881862,346
Increase130,818

550.

A comparison of the returns of births and deaths at the two periods is the reverse of satisfactory, the former being fewer and the latter more numerous in 1881 than in 1871.

BIRTHS AND DEATHS.
1871.1881.
Births27,38227,145
Deaths9918(1)12,302
Excess of Births over Deaths17,46414,843
[1 It should be mentioned that the mortality in 1871 was exceptionally low. In 1870 and 1872 the deaths averaged 10,500.]

551.

The marriages, however, were more numerous at the second than at the first period by 1,203, or 26 per cent.

MARRIAGES.
18714,693
18815,896
Increase1,203

552.

A great many more persons arrived in the colony by sea in 1881 than in 1871, but, in consequence of the larger proportion which departed, the balance in favour of the colony was not so great as in 1871.

IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION.
1871.1881.
Arrivals by sea28,33359,066
Departures by sea19,95151,744
Excess of arrivals over departures8,3827,322

553.

The public revenue in 1881-2 was above that in 1871-2 by £1,857,940, or 50 per cent.

PUBLIC REVENUE.
1871-2£3734422
1881-25,592,362
Increase£1857940

554.

The public debt at the end of 1871 was equal to about 3times the revenue of the same year, and at the end of 1881 it was equal to about 4 times the revenue.

PUBLIC DEBT.
1871£11994800
188122,426,502
Increase£10431702

555.

The value of external trade as expressed by the sum of the imports and exports was higher in 1881 by 6 millions sterling than it was in 1871.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.
1871.1881.
Imports£12341995£16718521
Exports14,557,82016,252,103
Total trade£26899815£32970624

556.

In 1871 the imports exceeded the exports of wheat, flour, and biscuit by 1,180,000 bushels ; but in 1881 the exports exceeded the imports of those articles by 3,890,000 bushels.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF BREADSTUFFS.
1871 bushels.1881. bushels.
Imports1,295,015157,334
Exports115,4324,050,308
Imports in excess of Exports1,179,583
Exports in excess of Imports3,892,974

557.

In 1881 the number of vessels entering and leaving Victorian ports was less than in 1871 by 146, but the burden of such vessels was greater than in 1871 by 1,056,877 tons, or 78 per cent.

SHIPPING INWARDS AND OUTWARDS.
Vessels.Tons.
18714,3941,355,025
18814,2482,411,902
Increase1,056,877
Decrease146

558.

In 1881 the post-offices were more numerous by 452, or 64 per cent. ; the letters which passed through them were more numerous by 14,592,181, or 124 per cent. ; and the newspapers which passed through them were more numerous by 6,267,762, or 121 per cent., than they were in 1871.

POSTAL RETURNS.
Post Offices.Letters.Newspapers.
187170611,716,1665,172,970
18811,15826,308,34711,440,732
Increase45214,592,1816,267,762

559.

A comparison of the returns of the two Census years shows very large increases in the facilities for telegraphic communication, and in the amount of business done.

ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS.
Stations.Miles of Wire.Telegrams.
1871963,472537,398
18813026,6261,281,749
Increase2063,154744,351

560.

The miles of railway open and the train miles travelled in the year have more than trebled, and the railway receipts of the year have considerably more than doubled in the interval between the Censuses.

RAILWAYS.
Miles open.Train miles travelled.Receipts.
18713011,533,701£734406
18811,2474,633,2671,665,209
Increase9463,099,566£930803

561.

The value of rateable property in municipalities increased 75 per cent. between the Censuses ; that in cities, towns, and boroughs increased 39 per cent. ; and that in shires increased 106 per cent.

VALUE OF RATEABLE PROPERTY.
Cities, Towns, and Boroughs.Shires.Both.
1871£23268410£26897668£50166078
188132,308,79455,333,66587,642,459
Increase£9040384£28435997£37476381

562.

The financial position of the Banks of Issue as indicated by their paid-up capital, assets, and liabilities at the two periods was as follows :—

BANKS OF ISSUE.
Capital.Assets.Liabilities.
1871£8276250£17222093£12862650
18819,143,12227,173,80922,902,017
Increase£866872£9951716£10039367

563.

The number of depositors in Savings Banks and the amount of their balances more than doubled in the interval between the Censuses. Seventy-eight new Savings Banks were opened in the same period.

SAVINGS BANKS.
Savings Banks.Depositors.Balances.
187113445,819£1117761
1881212101,8292,569,438
Increase7856,010£1451677

564.

The number of Friendly Societies increased by considerably more than a fourth, and the number of members of Friendly Societies increased by over a third between 1871 and 1881.

FRIENDLY SOCIETIES.
Friendly Societies.Members.
187159035,706
188175948,060
Increase16912,354

565.

The manufacturing establishments increased 56 per cent. between the Censuses ; whilst the hands employed and the value of lands, buildings, machinery, and plant more than doubled.

MANUFACTORIES, WORKS, ETC.
Establishments.Hands employed.Value of Land, Buildings, and Plant.
18711,57817,630£3543431
18812,46938,1417,465,328
Increase89120,511£3921897

566.

More than twice as much land was in cultivation in 1881 as in 1871 ; the wheat crop also more than doubled, but the increase in the other principal crops was not so satisfactory.

AGRICULTURE.
1871.1881.Increase.
Cultivation—acres909,0151,997,9431,088,928
Wheat—bushels2870409*9,727,3696,856,960
Oats—bushels2,237,0102,362,425125,415
Potatoes—tons127,579129,2621,683
Hay—tons183,708300,581116,873
[* The wheat crop in 1871 was an exceptionally bad one. As many as 4,500,795 bushels were raised in the following year.]

567.

In the ten years which elapsed between the Censuses a slight falling off took place in the number of sheep, which, however, was very much more than made up by a large increase in the number of cattle. Considerable increases also took place in the numbers of horses and pigs.

LIVE STOCK.
1871.1881.Increase.
Horses209,025275,51666,491
Cattle776,7271,286,267509,540
Sheep10,477,97610,360,285-117,691
Pigs180,109241,93661,827

NOTE.—The minus sign (-) indicates decrease.

568.

The gold raised was less in quantity by nearly 500,000 ounces, and in value by nearly 2 millions sterling in 1881 than in 1871.

GOLD RAISED.
Quantity.Value.
18711355477 oz.£5421908
1881858850 oz.3,435,400
Decrease496627 oz.£1986508

569.

Between the Censuses the churches and other edifices used for public worship increased 56 per cent., and the sitting accommodation contained therein increased 27 per cent. ; the religious services performed in 1881 exceeded by 65 per cent. those performed in 1871.

CHURCHES, SERVICES, ETC.
Churches and Chapels.Persons accommodated.Services.
18712,210346,861175,935
18813,456439,947291,017
Increase1,24693,086115,082

570.

In the interval between 1871 and 1881 schools increased 17 per cent., and the scholars on the rolls increased 61 per cent.

SCHOOLS.
Schools.Scholars.
18712,050165,276
18812,402265,485
Increase352100,209

571.

Crime, as indicated by the records of arrests in 1871 and 1881, is on the decrease, the persons taken in to custody being only 11 per cent. more numerous in the latter than in the former year, whereas the total population increased 18 per cent. The diminution in the number of serious offences is strikingly illustrated by the fact that commitments for trial were fewer by 24 per cent., and convictions thereafter were fewer by 35 per cent. in 1881, than in 1871.

CRIME.
Arrests.Commitments.Convictions.
187122,800781511
188125,346591332
Increase2,546
Decrease190179

CONCLUSION.

572.

In concluding this Report, I desire to acknowledge the ready assistance I received from other Government departments in many of the operations connected with the Census. Amongst these I would especially mention the Crown Lands Office, on which I made large and constant demands for maps, which were always responded to with an alacrity which left nothing to be desired ; also the Post and Telegraph Office, which, by prompt delivery of letters, parcels, and telegrams to the Census office

in Melbourne and to its subordinates in country districts, often at other times than the regular deliveries, contributed much to the convenience of those engaged ; also the Police Department, which, by posting notices respecting the Census throughout the length and breadth of the colony, protecting the sub-enumerators when visiting places frequented by the criminal classes, and, in many instances, reporting cases of omission, rendered efficient help ; also the Government Printing Office, on which a large amount of extra labour was imposed by the ruling and printing of the hundreds of thousands of forms and other documents used at different stages of the work.

573.

Finally, it is only right I should give credit to those who have been intimately associated with me in carrying out the important national undertaking which the Parliament of this colony entrusted to my charge. And first, I would refer to Mr. Joseph Hart, whose name I have already mentioned as having had the immediate supervision of the large extra staff employed to compile the Census, and whose zeal and assiduity have been beyond all praise. I would also refer to Mr. H. A. Hendren, the senior clerk and accountant of the Department, whose ordinary duties were much added to for many months by the care of the Census accounts and the payment of the indoor and outdoor staff, and all other claims arising out of the Census, a service which from first to last he conducted without any hitch or difficulty whatever ; also to Mr. John Mathewson, who often assisted in the work of supervision, and was of much use in constructing tables, computing averages, percentages, &c., and many other ways ; also to Mr. Charles Farmer, a draftsman temporarily transferred to the Census office from the Crown Lands Department, who proved himself to be possessed of more than ordinary skill and intelligence. Other members of the permanent and temporary staffs also rendered good service, and heartily co-operated with me and with each other in bringing the work of the Census to a successful termination.

I have the honour to be,

Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

HENRY HEYLYN HAYTER,

Government Statist.

NOTE.—The facts and figures in this Report have been checked and verified by Mr. J. J. Fenton, of this Department, who, as he had not previously been called upon to take any part in connexion with the Census, was able to approach the subject with a perfectly unbiased mind. This officer has exercised much throughtful care in the checking and verification referred to, and I do not think it probable that any important error has escaped observation. Should, however, a mistake be discovered, I shall feel obliged for information as to its nature and position.

LETTER RESPECTING THE BELIEF OF THE CHINESE IN GOD, ADDRESSED BY MR. C. P. HODGES, CHINESE INTERPRETER, MELBOURNE, TO THE GOVERNMENT STATIST.

To H. H. HAYTER, Esq., C.M.G., Government Statist.

DEAR SIR,

I observe that in the Census returns the Chinese have been again put down "Pagans," a term which is objectionable, inasmuch as it conveys the idea that to each may be applied the words "The fool hath said in his heart there is no God." Indeed it seems to be almost everywhere accepted that the Chinese, as a nation, are Atheists. If any difference of opinion exists, it is as to the way by which they have sunk into that state, whether by reasoning themselves into Atheism, or through incapacity to conceive the initiatory idea necessary to a discussion of the question. Both sections, however, are persuaded that they have changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image like unto corruptible man. In many things the Chinese are misunderstood—therefore misjudged—but in few more than on the subject specially referred to. It is not my infention in writing you to attempt to go fully into Chinese faiths. It would take more time than I could well spare, and may prove tedious to you. I do, however, hope that you will not allow your Report on the last Census to issue without, as a mild protest, expressing a doubt that the Chinese are a nation of fools, according to David's description of one. So far as my own experience enables me to form a judgment, the Chinese ideas of God may be thus epitomised :— " A spirit almighty, omnipresent, omniscient, benevolent, perfectly just, and good, the rewarder of good and punisher of evil, exercising as minutely observant and far extending a providence as that expressed in the words 'Verily I say unto you, but the very hairs of your head are all numbered.'" The difficulty which besets the inquirer is the use in the canonical books of Confucius, their great teacher and master,

of the word "Heaven" for " God." At first sight it would appear of small moment by what name the Supreme was called if the attributes of Deity are ascribed to the object. It will, however, be presently seen that the effect on the Chinese has been to lead them far astray. In almost any Chinese store may be purchased for a shilling a book entitled, "Meng slim po kawm "—(The preciously valuable mirror for seeing and trying the heart.) No unprejudiced person could read through that work and then not hesitate to pronounce the Chinese to be pagans in the usual acceptation of that word. It contains extracts from the classics and noted ethical writers. A few unselected sentences will, I venture to think, convince you that such a result would be highly probable. To give the names of the authors would not further my purpose. I therefore omit them in the following extracts :—" If good or evil be done there must be the due recompense." "He who is virtuous Heaven rewards with blessings and happiness." "He who is not virtuous is visited with calamity." "The door of evil might fly high or run far, but escape is very difficult." " The rewarding of good and the punishment of evil is only a question of time, whether it shall be soon or late." "Every aspiration for good is known to Heaven." "Those who obey the commands of Heaven are preserved, the disobedient and rebellious are destroyed." "Heaven hears, though there is not the faintest sound." "Where does Heaven make its inquisition, not high, not far, but only in the hearts of men." "The most secretly uttered words Heaven hears as thunder ; the small defects of the heart, though a person be in the sacredly secret chamber, are seen by the spirit with eyes of lightning." Does not this last quotation call to mind the opening sentences of the most solemn prayer in the Church of England liturgy, "Almighty God unto whom all hearts are open, all desires known, and from whom no secrets are hid." Many more translations could be given demonstrating that the belief in this "Heaven" is a belief in "God." But, as it would manifestly be more fair to judge from the sacred writings, I will do so. The well known Revd. Dr. Legge, perhaps the first Chinese scholar of the day, thus gives the meaning of "Heaven" as used in the books of Confucius, "the material heaven and firmament,more commonlythe character (Teen), stands for the Supreme Governing Power, the author of man's nature and orderer of his lot." The language of the Chinese sages does not approach the sublimity of the Hebrew prophets, but often the same current of thought can be distinctly traced. For instance, "What Heaven has conferred is called the Nature. Thus it is that Heaven, in the production of things, is surely bountiful to them according to their qualities." ("Thine hands have made me and fashioned me together round about"—Job.) ("He fashioned their hearts alike"—Psalms.) Speaking of the Emperor Shun, it is said, "He received from Heaven the emoluments of dignity. It protected him, assisted him, decreed him the throne, sending from Heaven those favours, as it were, repeatedly. Oh ! you Shun, the Heaven determined succession now rests in your person, sincerely hold fast the mean." ("By me kings reign and princes decree justice"—Prov.) "The doings of the Supreme Heaven have neither sound nor smell. The ordinances of Heaven, how profound are they and unceasing." ("God doeth great things and unsearchable. Lo, he goeth by me, and I see him not ; he passeth on also, but I perceive him not"—Job.) "Heaven is going to use your Master as a bell with its wooden tongue to call the people to hear the truth." ("Now then we are ambassadors"—Paul.) "Heaven produced the virtue that is in me." ("Every good and perfect gift is from above"—Jas.) If Heaven had wished the cause of truth to perish, then I, a future mortal should not have got such a relation to that cause. While Heaven does not let the cause of truth perish, what can the people of Kwang do to me? ("If God be for us, who can be against us?"—Paul.) "Tsze does not acquiesee in the judgment of Heaven, and his goods are increased by him." ("I have seen the wicked flourish like a green bay tree "—Psalms.) "Death and life have their determined appointment—riches and honour depend on Heaven." ("My times are in Thy hand"—Psalms.) ("Both riches and honour come of Thee, and Thou reignest over all"—Jer.) "The superior man stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, therefore does not stand in awe of them." ("The law of his God is in his heart"—Psalms.) ("But fools despise wisdom"—Prov.) "Does Heaven speak ? The four seasons pursue their course, all things are continually being produced, but does Heaven say anything?" ("To everything there is a season"—Eccle.) ("Thou sendest forth Thy spirit, they are created, and Thou renewest the face of the earth"—Psalms.) Against such quotations as these it is urged that the Chinese do not invest heaven with a personality, that they do not individualise it. Dr. Moorhouse recently said at Castlemaine that "God cannot be understood," and the Chinese do not presume to comprehend him. The language we use they adopt—"To whom then will ye liken God, or what likeness will ye compare unto him?" A Chinese writer says, "Had Heaven no designing mind, then it must happen that a cow might bring forth a horse, and on the peach tree be produced the blossoms of the pear." By another, Heaven is explained as the lofty One who is on high, language closely like that of Isaiah, who speaks of "the high and lofty One." If there is a personality and individuality expressed by the latter, why not by the former? In the works of the old writers, before Mencius or Confucius, the word "Te" or "Shang Te" is undoubtedly used for a personal being, the supreme ruler in heaven and on earth. In the books of Confucius the word "Te" only occurs once in this sense, and in that instance in a quotation made up of sentences from the Shoo King. The passage is a rather remarkable one, "I, the child Le, presume to use a dark-coloured victim, and I presume to announce to Thee, O most great and sovereign God, that the sinners I dare not pardon, and thy ministers I do not keep in obscurity. The examination of them is in thy mind, O God. If in my person I commit offences they are not to be attributed to you, the people of the myriad regions. If you in the myriad regions commit offences, those offences must rest on my person.' I may remark in passing, that a portion of this paragraph was inserted in the proclamation issued by the Emperor during the last famine. In the works of Mencius the word occurs once in a quotation from the She King, and once in a sentence taken from the Shoo King, and once he himself uses it instead of the generally used word "Heaven." That taken from the She king, or book of poetry, speaks of "God having passed his decree." The Shoo King, a book of history, asserts that Heaven having produced the inferior people, appointed for them rulers and teachers, with the purpose that they should be assisting to God ; and, therefore, distinguished them throughout the four quarters of the empire—a passage an equivalent to which can be found in Romans—" For there is no power but of God, the powers that be are ordained of God (the power) is the minister of God to thee for good, the minister of God to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil." Where Mencius uses the word "Te," the sentence enjoins penitence, penance, and purity as the three necessary conditions upon which a man may approach the Deity. Further, the language without undue straining may be taken to affirm the

necessity which exists for a means to propitiate the Deity. Though a man, he says, may be wicked, yet if he adjust his thoughts, fast, and bathe, he may sacrifice to God. At the same time, man is warned that though he be virtuous all his life his goodness is neither perfect nor sufficient. In a Chinese commentary on the word prayer as used in the Confucian Analects it is defined "as the expression of repentance, and promise of amendment ; without these, prayer is useless." It is, I am sure, a work of supererogation to remind you of the frequent use of the words "clean hands," and "clean heart," in the Biblical writings. It should be mentioned that at no time, from the earliest history of the Chinese, whether authenticated or palpably fabulous, down to the present moment, can there be found anything to convey the slightest idea that they have thought of fashioning a likeness of Shang Te the Supreme. The learned Dr. Morrison thus sums up his views on the Chinese ideas of God: "The philosophers of China have groped as men in the dark in their reasoning respecting the Deity, but they can scarcely be said to have found him. They have come to the conclusion that every chain must have a first link, every consecutive series must have a beginning, every produced being seems to imply one original and unproduced ; but of that self-existent cause or Being they have attained a very imperfect knowledge." Without stopping to answer the question—how much more would we have known than they without that revelation which has brought life and immortality to light ?—Dr. Morrison certainly acquits the Chinese from the charge of being a people to whom God is unknown or being known is unrecognized. The Chinese set up images, and bow down before them, but there are people not described as Pagans who do much the same thing. "Logicians," to quote Macaulay, "may reason about abstractions, but the great mass of men must have images. The strong tendency of the multitude in all ages and nations to idolatry can be explained on no other principle. The first inhabitants of Greece, there is reason to believe, worshipped one invisible Deity. But the necessity of having something more definite to adore produced in a few centuries the innumerable crowd of gods and goddesses***. Reformers have often made a stand against these feelings, but never with more than apparent and partial success. The men who demolished images in cathedrals have not always been able to demolish those which were enshrined in their minds." So much by way of reasonable apology for an infirmity which under pecular circumstances has been more fully developed in the Chinese than it otherwise would have been. The substitution of the word "Heaven" for "God," and their joint use by Confucius and Mencius, has produced confusion in the Chinese mind, giving it no settled point on which to fix its attention. Neither of the sages wished in this respect to alter the religion of their country, but they did, as Dr. Legge affirms, "make way for the grosser conceptions of the modern literati, who would often seem to deny the divine personality altogether, and substitute for both God and Heaven a new principle of order or fitness of things." It is by writers of the latter class that much of western opinion has been formed, so that the allegation that the Chinese believe in God is come to be deemed a myth. During my intercourse with the Chinese, I have again and again discovered the difficulty they have in maintaining the mind in that state of fixity which Confucius compares to the north polar star which keeps its place, and all the stars turn towards it. The duality of supremes—supreme heaven and supreme earth—has left "the people in the mass to become an easy prey to the idolatrous fooleries of Buddhism." A Chinaman on one occasion said to me, "Shang Te, the Supreme God over all, is in Heaven ; without him there would be no (non-physical) Heaven." He averred that Shang Te was Supreme, but his language conveyed to me neither a clear uniting or disseverance of the two objects. This mischief has been caused by transferring to Heaven all the attributes of Shang Te, and yet not detracting from the power and authority of the latter and true Deity. Although Confucius adopted so exclusively the use of the word "Heaven" to represent the Supreme Governing Power, yet the fact of his quoting the Shoo is substantially an adoption of the writings. He declared himself to be a transmitter, not an inventor or maker. To him has been ascribed, with much disputation, the compilation of the books which compose the Shoo, and the authorship of the preface ; but whether he wrote the one or did the other, or neither, there is ample reason otherwise for saying that he stamped them with his authority, and that by so doing he caused them to be classed as canonical. This is all the more noteworthy, because those chronicles mention not only Shang Te as God, but Heaven also as the hall of God, and the happy abode of good spirits with him. I have not been able to find any competent authority on the five canonical books which encourages the idea that the Chinese had any knowledge of the coming of Christ and his mission. But on one point, and up to a certain point, the language of Confucius and Job are alike. "He who offends against Heaven," says the former, "has none to whom he can pray." "Neither is there any daysman betwixt us, that might lay his hand on us both," is the language of Job. I venture to entertain the thought that in the tone of lament in which the Chinese sage gives utterance, there may be heard also the expression of a desire, and an admission of the necessity for a mediator of no common sort to reconcile man to God. Such an idea is in no way antagonistic, but rather in harmony with the precepts he taught. Idolatry he nowhere inculcated. It is recorded of him that he sacrificed to the Spirits as though they were present. An expression, it is fair to say, has exposed him to the charge of preaching a Sadducean philosophy, but which I fail to find justification for. Men and women whose virtues during life, whether of patriotism and valour, honour to parents, or works of benevolence have been considered sufficient to entitle them to that honour have had the dignity of gods and goddesses conferred on them. This act of deification, performed by the Emperor who claims to be the son of Heaven or Heaven's vicegerent on earth, would, with us, be called canonization. Around those, and others, there is often a thick cloud of silly fable. And what calendar of saints is free from the ridiculous ? Kwan Kung, the person to whose honour and worship the temple at Emerald Hill is erected, is a deified warrior and patriot—a Chinese Wellington—invested with an intercessory office. A few translations of the illuminated writings suspended from the walls may possibly take away from the place a little of the pagan character you have doubtless considered attaches to it :—"It is only virtue which can help." "Assist all the nations to live in harmony." "Great righteousness, pure faithfulness." "Examine the heart." "Be pure and reverential." "In aiming at truthfulness and faithfulness, remember the brilliancy of the sun and moon ; those virtues will make your heart as lustrous." "In aiming at righteousness, remember the clouds of heaven ; the influence of righteousness is as extensive as they, and as harmonizing as the colours of the rainbow." But the day is coming when the Chinese shall cast their idols to the moles and to the bats. I know they are considered an unimpressionable people. It is a mistake to think so. When the door of China was forced open, it was thought most certainly that the population would still remain within. What has been the result of breaking down her isolation ? Her people have spread over

the face of the earth, penetrating every land. Their love of country leads very many of them back, but each one takes with him new ideas, especially so on the administration of the law and the government of the people. The very cause which takes them home seems to be a providential ordering, so that by the continual dropping the hard stone of prejudice might be worn away. There is a healthy restlessness in the hearts of thousands which will not be quieted until great changes are accomplished. They have had little encouragement from other nations to effect the religious and political reform of their country. The first is an essential forerunner of the second. The teachings of her sages go so far parallel with those of Christ that it could be said of those of Mencius, "There is enough in them if the conscience be but quickened by the spirit of God to make the haughtiest scholar cry out 'O, wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from this body of death?" The principle of universal love is inculcated in the all-embracing expression, "Benevolence is the wide house of the world for man to dwell in." The golden maxim, "Do ye unto others as ye would that others should do unto you," is three times preached by Confucius in almost the same words. The question whether man is by nature evil or good has not escaped the attention of Chinese philosophers, some, like Mencius, advocating the goodness of man, others his evil nature. The Chinese scholar, to whom I have frequently referred, remarks that "The constitution of man's nature, and how far it supplies to him a rule of conduct and a law of duty, are inquiries than which there can hardly be any others of more importance." They were largely discussed in the schools of Greece ; a hundred vigorous and acute minds of modern Europe have occupied themselves with them. It will hardly be questioned in England that the place for clear and just thinking on the subject belongs to Bishop Butler ; but his views and those of Mencius are as nearly as possible identical. There is a difference of nomenclature and a combination of parts in which the advantage is with the Christian prelate. Felicity of expression and charm of style belong to the Chinese philosopher, than whom never did Christian priest lift up his mitred front or show his Geneva gown more loftily in courts and palaces than Mencius, the teacher, demeaned himself. The first twenty-three years of his life synchronized with the last twenty-three of Plato's. Aristotle, Zeno, Epicurus, Demosthenes, and other great men of the west, were also his contemporaries, When we place Mencius among them, he can look them in the face ; he does not need to hide a diminished head. Let it not be thought that either the ancient writings or the books of Confucius are as scaled to the masses ; they are the fountains of honour and emolument. The books and the standard commentaries are universally studied.

If I have apparently departed from my first intention to confine my remarks strictly to the subject of the Chinese belief in the existence of God, it has been only in the hope of showing that when we endeavour to teach the Chinese of God we should not go to them with the charge of David on our tongue, but that with propriety we could follow the example of St. Paul at Athens, and say, "Whom ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you."

I am, dear Sir,

Yours very truly,

C.P. HODGES.

Melbourne, 1st July, 1883.

SUMMARY TABLES.

POPULATION, 1836-1881., TABLE I.—Showing the Total Population of Victoria, also the Number of Chinese and Aborigines, at successive Censuses.
Date of Enumeration.Total Population.Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines.Chinese.Aborigines.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
25th May, 1836177142355000(1)
8th November, 183622418638
12th September, 18383,5113,080431
2nd March, 184111,7388,2743,464
2nd March, 184632,87920,18412,695
2nd March, 185177,34546,20231,143
26th April, 1854236,798155,88780,911231,925151,91480,0112,3732,3732500(2)1600(2)900(2)
29th March, 1857410,766264,334146,432383,574237,761145,81325,42425,42131,7681,152616
7th April, 1861540,322328,651211,671513,896302,881211,01524,73224,72481,6941,046648
2nd April, 1871731,528401,050330,478712,263382,367329,89617,93517,899361,330784546
3rd April, 1881862,346452,083410,263849,438439,754409,68412,12811,869259780460320
[1 Estimated.] [2 Partly estimated.]
DWELLINGS, 1841-1881., TABLE II.—Showing the Number of Dwellings in Victoria, classified according to Occupation, Materials, and Number of Rooms, at successive Censuses.
Date of Enumeration.Total Number of Dwellings.Occupation.Materials.Dwellings having—Total Number of Rooms.
Dwellings, exclusive of Stores, Tents, &c.Inhabited Stores, Offices, and Public Buildings.Inhabited Tents and Dwellings with Canvas Roofs.Brick or Stone.Wood, Iron, or Lath and Plaster.Slabs, Bark, Mud, &c.Canvas, Linen, Calico, &c.Not Specified.One Room.Two Rooms.Three and Four Rooms.Five and Six Rooms.More than Six Rooms.Number of Rooms not specified.
Occupied.Unoccupied.Being Built.
2nd March, 18411,4901,465254501,040
2nd March, 18465,1985,0701281,8353,363
2nd March, 185110,93510,866694,8356,100
29th March, 1857102,00151,5014,72461545,16112,61242,59445,1611,63436,08027,92219,9095,0743,6689,348246,900
7th April, 1861134,33285,8675,01711957942,75018,99059,3469,28042,7503,96640,16234,50934,8179,7727,5177,555375,103
2nd April, 1871158,481145,6006,9978663624,65633,461101,63516,4994,6562,23020,73833,22362,84521,92815,3654,382598,923
3rd April, 1881179,816166,9899,0496814652,63245,615115,14312,6042,6323,82213,85024,61571,78537,68724,5147,365765,339
PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES, DENSITY OF POPULATION, DWELLINGS AND ROOMS, 1836-1881., TABLE III.—Showing the Number of Females to 100 Males, of Persons and Dwellings to the Square Mile, of Persons and Rooms to a Dwelling, and of Persons to a Room, at successive Censuses.
Date of Enumeration.Females to 100 Males.Persons to the Square Mile.Dwellings to the Square Mile (Inhabited and Uninhabited).(1)Persons to the Inhabited Dwelling (exclusive of Persons in Ships).Rooms to a Dwelling (Inhabited and Uninhabited).Persons to a Room (exclusive of Persons in Ships).
25th May, 183624.650.002
8th November, 183620.430.003
12th September, 183814.000.040
2nd March, 184141.870.1340.0178.01
2nd March, 184662.880.3740.0596.49
2nd March, 185167.400.8800.1247.12
26th April, 185451.902.638
29th March, 185755.394.6311.1614.212.421.65
7th April, 186164.416.1261.5294.162.791.44
2nd April, 187182.408.2981.8034.843.781.22
3rd April, 188190.759.7912.0465.064.261.12
[1 The inhabited dwellings to the square mile numbered 1.1 in 1857 ; 1.47 in 1861 ; 1.714 in 1871 ; and 1.935 in 1881.]
INHABITANTS AND DWELLINGS.—NUMBERS, 1857-1881., TABLE IV.—Showing the manner in which the Inhabitants of Victoria (distinguishing Chinese and Aborigines) were Housed at the last Four Censuses.
Date of Enumeration.Race.Dwellers in—Persons Camping Out.Persons in Ships or Hulks.Not stated whether Housed or not.Total.
Brick, Stone, Wood, Iron, or Lath and Plaster Houses.Slab, Bark, and Mud Huts.Houses of Unstated Materials.Tents and Dwellings with Canvas roofs.
29th March, 1857Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines259,785112,8925,0263,7192,152383,574
Chinese44222,974541,95425,424
Aborigines1,7681,768
Total Population260,227135,8665,0263,7735,874410,766
7th April, 1861Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines364,81732,6147,785100,8492,5751,9153,341513,896
Chinese1,80283322,0284632024,732
Aborigines1,6941,694
Total Population366,61932,6148,618122,8772,6211,9185,055540,322
2nd April, 1871Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines656,71636,3666,8167,5121,8792,232742712,263
Chinese6,6449,6214591,148432017,935
Aborigines591(1)7391,330
Total Population663,36045,9877,8668,6602,6612,252742731,523
3rd April, 1881Exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines797,88028,73613,4514,5071,0751,8381,951849,438
Chinese6,5795,12225315412812,128
Aborigines680(1)100780
Total Population804,45933,85814,3844,6611,1871,8461,951862,346
[1 The greater part of these were probably living in slab, bark, or mud huts, not in houses properly so called.]
INHABITANTS AND DWELLINGS.—PROPORTIONS, 1857-1881., TABLE V.—Showing the Proportions of the Population, exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines, also of the Chinese and Aborigines, living in Habitations of various descriptions and Camping out at the last Four Censuses.
Date of Enumeration.Proportions per Cent. of the—
Population exclusive of Chinese and Aborigines.Chinese.Aborigines.
Living in—Camping out.Living in—Camping out.Living in Houses, Huts, &c.Camping out.
Houses.Huts.Tents.Houses.Huts.Tents.
29th March, 185768.7829.891.331.8998.11
7th April, 186173.256.4119.830.5110.6689.150.19
2nd April, 187193.555.131.060.2639.6553.706.410.2444.4455.56
3rd April, 188195.943.400.530.1356.3742.261.270.1087.1812.82
INCREASE OF POPULATION., TABLE VI.—Showing the Population of Victoria at the period of each Enumeration from 1838 to 1881, and the Numerical and Centesimal Increase during the period between each Enumeration and that preceding it ; also the Numerical and Centesimal Increase between 1851 and 1881.
Population, 1838.Increase from 1838 to 1841.Population, 1841.Increase from 1841 to 1846.Population, 1846.Increase from 1846 to 1851.Population, 1851.Increase from 1851 to 1854.Population, 1854.Increase from 1854 to 1857.Population, 1857.Increase from 1857 to 1861Population, 1861.Increase from 1861 to 1871.Population, 1871.Increase from 1871 to 1881.Population, 1881.Increase from 1851 to 1881.
Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.Numerical.Centesimal.
Total3,5118,227234.3211,73821,141180.1132,87944,466135.2477,345159,453206.16236,798173,96873.46410,766129,55631.54540,322191,20635.39731,528130,81817.88862,346785,0011014.93
Males3,0805,194168.648,27411,910143.9420,18426,018128.9046,202109,685237.40155,887108,44769.57264,33464,31724.33328,65172,39922.03401,05051,03312.72452,083405,881878.49
Females4313,033703.713,4649,231266.4812,69518,448145.3131,14349,768159.8080,91165,52180.98146,43265,23944.55211,671118,80756.13330,47879,78524.14410,263379,1201217.35
POPULATION.—SUMMARY, 1851-1881., TABLE VII.—Showing the Population of each County and Unsettled District in Victoria at the last Six Censuses.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.1851.1854.1857.1861.1871.1881.
Persons.(1)Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.
Total77,345236,798155,88780,911410,766264,334146,432540,322328,651211,671731,528401,050330,478862,346452,083410,263
Counties.
Anglesey7675933782158985883101,7491,1176325,4923,3892,1036,1563,4822,674
Bourke39,962101,08659,55641,530133,51573,27860,237166,74688,32278,424236,778120,147116,631307,582151,634155,948
Dalhousie3,0456,2124,1752,03710,1956,5803,61520,50212,7817,72126,47114,73711,73421,37511,29510,080
Dundas1,4661,3458455002,5201,6348863,5882,1031,4806,8883,7273,1617,7904,1293,661
Evelyn6441,2157015142,6061,5601,0463,6172,2011,4165,9973,5172,4807,2274,0103,217
Follett2913812141675723352376963873091,2406835572,3361,2451,091
Grant12,78432,88919,55413,33563,62838,19025,43865,51936,08429,43573,82838,29335,53566,17333,38132,792
Grenville4008,6046,3212,28318,53412,9565,57830,15418,60411,55060,91732,86528,05244,15922,77421,385
Hampden9718995573421,9381,1717673,2651,9811,2847,1724,0483,1247,2533,9973,256
Heytesbury3433512201315683392299695424273,0591,6431,4164,6762,4882,188
Mornington8851,3728974752,6561,6729844,3682,5301,8387,3974,1403,25711,4676,3695,098
Normanby2,1253,9211,9741,9476,0433,1472,8968,0264,2123,81410,7505,6005,15011,6245,9075,717
Polwarth1,1999815514301,6659666992,1711,2419303,8372,1021,7355,5302,8932,637
Ripon8141,2699003696,8425,1851,65710,0006,8813,11914,0108,2045,80612,3416,7795,562
Talbot(2)1,16316,24412,0224,22248,52835,60512,92365,52844,81320,71575,47443,78231,69261,75833,55828,200
Villiers3,9875,9963,3422,65411,1936,3244,86913,8927,5186,37421,03111,4229,60920,75110,7869,965
Unsettled Districts.(3)
Gippsland1,7891,9561,2457113,9112,4101,5016,3983,9202,47818,30411,0717,23331,01817,48513,533
The Loddon19427,12621,3835,74354,99840,56314,43564,96943,41221,55772,79642,05730,73991,99249,57042,422
Rodney1,5571,2443131,9401,5244163,2802,3219597,3904,4752,91518,15910,0238,136
The Murray2,4976,3924,8641,52824,47019,2485,22231,93122,6719,26046,14528,21017,93566,73437,98528,749
The Wimmera2,0192,6851,9627235,5844,0661,51827,67520,4247,25123,55814,3349,22452,44829,38323,065
Shipping and residue13,72412,9827427,9626,9939695,2794,5816982,9942,6043903,7972,910887
[1 The returns of the Census of 1851 do not distinguish the males and females in the counties and unsettled districts, but only give the total of both sexes.] [2 The boundaries of the county of Talbot were changed between the Censuses of 1861 and 1871. This table shows the number within the old boundaries ; for number within the present boundaries according to the Censuses of 1871 and 1881, see Table XIX. post.] [3 The unsettled districts are now all divided into counties. The old divisions are, however, shown to enable comparisons to be made between the returns of the last two Censuses and those of the various Censuses taken before the subdivision was made.]
NUMERICAL INCREASE OF POPULATION IN EACH COUNTY., TABLE VIII.—Showing the Numerical Increase or Diminution of the Population of each County and Unsettled District during the interval between each of the last Five Censuses and the one immediately preceding it ; also the Numerical Increase during the whole period from 1851 to 1881.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.Numerical Increase or Diminution.
1851 to 1854.1854 to 1857.1857 to 1861.1861 to 1871.1871 to 1881.1851 to 1881.
Persons.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.
Total159,453173,968108,44765,521129,55664,31765,239191,20672,399118,807130,81851,03379,785785,001
Counties.
Anglesey-174305210958515293223,7432,2721,471664935715,389
Bourke61,12432,42913,72218,70733,23115,04418,18770,03231,82538,20770,80431,48739,317267,620
Dalhousie3,1673,9832,4051,57810,3076,2014,1065,9691,9564,013-5,096-3,442-1,65418,330
Dundas-1211,1757893861,0684745943,3001,6191,6819024025006,324
Evelyn5711,3918595321,0116413702,3801,3161,0641,2304937476,583
Follett901911217012452725442962481,0965625342,045
Grant20,10530,73918,63612,1031,891-2,1063,9978,3092,2096,100-7,655-4,912-2,74353,389
Grenville8,2049,9306,6353,29511,6205,6485,97230,76314,26116,502-16,758-10,091-6,66743,759
Hampden-721,0396144251,3278105173,9072,0671,84081-511326,282
Heytesbury8217119984012031982,0901,1019891,6178457724,333
Mornington4871,2847755091,7128588543,0291,6101,4194,0702,2291,84110,582
Normanby1,7962,1221,1739491,9831,0659182,7241,3881,3368743075679,499
Polwarth-2186844152695062752311,6668618051,6937919024,331
Ripon4555,5734,2851,2883,1581,6961,4624,0101,3232,687-1,669-1,425-24411,527
Talbot(1)15,08132,28423,5838,70117,0009,2087,7929,946-1,03110,977-13,716-10,224-3,49260,595
Villiers2,0095,1972,9822,2152,6991,1941,5057,1393,9043,235-280-63635616,764
Unsettled Districts.(1)
Gippsland1671,9551,1657902,4871,51097711,9067,1514,75512,7146,4146,30029,229
The Loddon28,48927,87219,1808,6929,9712,8497,1227,827-1,3559,18219,1967,51311,683109,957
Rodney3832801031,3407975434,1102,1541,95610,7695,5485,221
The Murray3,89518,07814,3843,6947,4613,4234,03814,2145,5398,67520,5899,77510,81464,237
The Wimmera6662,8992,10479522,09116,3585,733-4,117-6,0901,97328,89015,04913,84150,429
Shipping and residue13,724-5,762-5,989227-2,683-2,412-271-2,285-1,977-3088033064973,797
[1 See footnotes to Table VII. respecting county of Talbot and unsettled districts.]

NOTE.—Where a decrease has taken place, the minus sign (-) is prefixed to the figures.

TABLE. IX.—Showing the Centesimal Increase or Decrease of the Population of each County and Unsettled District during the interval between each of the last Five Censuses and the one immediately preceding it ; also the Centesimal Increase during the whole period from 1851 to 1881.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.Percentage of Increase or Decrease.
1851 to 1854.1854 to 1857.1857 to 1861.1861 to 1871.1871 to 1881.1851 to 1881.
Persons.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.Persons.
Total206.1673.4669.5780.9831.5424.3344.5535.3922.0356.1317.8812.7224.141014.93
Counties.
Anglesey-22.6951.4355.5644.1994.7789.97103.87214.01203.40232.7512.092.7427.15702.61
Bourke152.9632.1023.0445.0424.8920.5330.1942.0036.0348.7229.9026.2133.71669.69
Dalhousie104.0164.1257.6077.47101.1094.24113.5829.1115.3051.98-19.25-23.36-14.10605.25
Dundas-8.2587.3693.3777.2042.3829.0167.0491.9776.80113.5813.1010.7915.82431.38
Evelyn88.66114.49122.54103.5038.8041.0935.3765.8059.7975.1420.5114.0229.721022.20
Follett30.9250.1056.5441.3221.6815.5230.3878.1676.4980.2688.3982.2895.87737.11
Grant157.2793.4695.3190.762.97-5.5115.7112.686.1220.72-10.37-12.83-7.72417.62
Grenville2051.00115.41104.97144.3362.7043.59107.06102.0276.66142.87-27.51-30.70-23.7710939.75
Hampden-7.42115.58110.23124.2768.4769.1767.41119.66104.34143.301.13-1.264.23646.96
Heytesbury2.3361.8254.0974.8170.6059.8886.46215.69203.14231.6252.8651.4354.52126.33
Mornington55.0393.5886.40107.1664.4651.3286.7969.3563.6477.2055.0253.8456.521195.71
Normanby84.5154.1259.4248.7432.8133.8431.7033.9432.9535.038.135.4811.01451.72
Polwarth-18.1869.7275.3262.5630.3928.4733.0576.7469.3886.5644.1237.6351.99361.22
Ripon55.89439.16476.11349.0546.1532.7188.2324.9419.2386.15-11.91-17.37-4.201416.09
Talbot(1)1296.72198.74196.17206.0935.0325.8660.3015.18-2.3052.99-18.17-23.35-11.025210.23
Villiers50.3986.6789.2383.4624.1118.8830.9151.3951.9350.75-1.33-5.573.70420.47
Unsettled Districts.(1)
Gippsland9.3399.9593.57111.1163.5962.6665.09186.09182.42191.8969.4657.9487.101633.83
The Loddon14685.01102.7589.70151.3518.137.0249.3412.05-3.1242.6026.3717.8638.0156678.92
Rodney24.6022.5132.9169.0752.29130.80125.3092.80203.96145.72123.80179.11
The Murray155.99282.82295.72241.7530.4917.7877.3344.5124.4393.6844.6234.6560.302572.57
The Wimmera32.99107.97107.24109.96395.61402.31377.67-14.88-29.8227.21122.63104.99150.062498.21
Shipping and residueInfinite-41.99-46.1330.62-33.70-34.49-27.97-43.28-43.16-44.1326.8211.75127.44Infinite
[1 See footnotes to Table VII. respecting county of Talbot and unsettled districts.]

NOTE.—Where a decrease has taken place, the minus sign (-) is prefixed to the figures.

TABLE X.—Showing the Number of Houses of all Descriptions in each County and Unsettled District in Victoria in the last Four Censuses.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.Number of Habitations.
1857.1861.1871.1881.
Occupied.Unoccupied.Building.Total.Occupied.Unoccupied.Building.Total.Occupied.Unoccupied.Building.Total.Occupied.Unoccupied.Building.Total.
Total96,6624,724615102,001129,1965,017119134,332150,6186,997866158,481170,0869,049681179,816
Counties.
Anglesey10210233033331,2762941,3091,3248811,413
Bourke26,4312,22535429,01034,7263,1205837,90444,7842,27949047,55357,0261,97839859,402
Dalhousie2,09395382,2264,4797984,5665,55516775,7294,18024594,434
Dundas35721338154775541,2253331,2611,4187641,498
Evelyn548551862186418651,304171,3211,5258241,611
Follett10611071261262114215422414467
Grant14,3911,4249815,91314,3801,0892215,49114,5211,2576815,84612,8568281813,702
Grenville4,7288654,8198,016116108,14212,9429702213,9348,705344279,076
Hampden36928104075585581,3971831,4181,3334771,387
Heytesbury986104186519156411575826177850
Mornington523625318404018811,4816031,5442,390209162,615
Normanby1,1904181,2391,47010561,5811,893145182,0562,14920892,366
Polwarth26322653633636803547191,0257391,107
Ripon1,629121,6412,5661512,5822,899148203,0672,49017762,673
Talbot(1)15,0481042115,17318,24595518,34517,7856634218,49013,7498201714,586
Villiers2,06183102,1542,499542,5533,633101213,7553,594176193,789
Unsettled Districts.(1)
Gippsland71770198061,28361,2894,056191214,2686,470357256,852
The Loddon17,714242917,96519,549193819,75017,3254548817,86720,2191,5572821,804
The Murray6,61615576,7788,243628,30510,0102272610,26313,9496722014,641
Rodney464186488911179281,7506281,8203,51626843,788
The Wimmera1,2145251,2719,015109,0255,327126185,47110,9207864911,755
[1 See footnotes to Table VII. respecting county of Talbot and unsettled districts.]
PROPORTIONS OF THE SEXES, 1854-1881., TABLE XI.—Showing the Number of Females to 100 Males in each County and Unsettled District in Victoria at the last Five Censuses.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.Number of Females to 100 Males.
1851.1857.1861.1871.1881.
Total51.9055.4064.4182.4090.75
Counties.
Anglesey56.8852.7256.5762.0576.79
Bourke69.7382.2188.7997.07102.84
Dalhousie48.7954.9460.4179.6289.24
Dundas59.1754.2270.2184.8188.67
Evelyn73.3267.0564.3370.5180.22
Follett78.0470.7579.8481.5587.63
Grant68.2066.6181.5792.8098.24
Grenville36.1243.0562.0885.3593.90
Hampden61.4065.5064.8277.1781.46
Heytesbury59.5567.5578.7886.1887.94
Mornington52.9558.8472.6578.6780.04
Normanby98.6392.0290.5591.9696.78
Polwarth78.0472.3674.9482.5491.15
Ripon41.0031.9645.3370.7782.05
Talbot(1)35.1236.2946.2072.3984.03
Villiers79.4176.9984.7884.1392.39
Unsettled Districts.(1)
Gippsland57.1162.2863.2165.3377.40
The Loddon26.8635.5849.6673.0985.58
The Murray31.4127.1340.8563.5875.68
Rodney25.1627.2941.3265.1481.17
The Wimmera36.8537.3335.5064.3578.50
Shipping5.995.7113.632.506.71
Migratory population5.5622.3416.1882.3165.34
[1 See footnotes to Table VII. respecting county of Talbot and unsettled districts.]
DENSITY OF POPULATION, 1854-1881., TABLE XII.—Showing the Area of each County and Unsettled District, and the Number of Persons to the Square Mile in each, at the last Five Censuses.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.Area in Square Miles.Persons to a Square Mile.
1851.1857.1861.1871.1881.
Total(1)87,8842.6384.6316.1268.2989.791
Counties.
Anglesey1,6470.3600.5451.0623.3353.737
Bourke1,72158.73777.58096.889137.581178.723
Dalhousie1,3104.7427.78215.65020.20716.317
Dundas2,0280.6631.2431.7693.3963.841
Evelyn1,1721.0362.2233.0865.1176.166
Follett1,1030.3450.5190.6311.1242.118
Grant1,83417.93334.69335.73540.25536.081
Grenville1,4655.87312.65120.58341.58230.142
Hampden1,5610.5761.2412.0914.5944.646
Heytesbury9200.3820.6171.0533.3255.083
Mornington1,6250.8441.6342.6884.5527.057
Normanby2,0131.9483.0023.9875.3405.774
Polwarth1,2250.8011.3591.7723.1324.514
Ripon1,7590.7213.8905.6857.9657.016
Talbot(2)1,40611.55434.51646.60653.68143.924
Villiers1,6373.6626.8388.48612.84712.676
Unsettled Districts.(2)
Gippsland14,5650.1340.2680.4391.2572.129
The Loddon6,0844.4599.04010.67911.96515.120
The Murray13,4760.4741.8162.3693.4244.952
Rodney1,6990.9161.1421.9314.35010.688
The Wimmera27,6340.0970.2021.0010.8531.898
[1 The persons in ships are excluded from the calculations in this line.] [2 See footnotes to Table VII. respecting county of Talbot and unsettled districts.]
DENSITY OF DWELLINGS, 1857-1881., TABLE XIII.—Showing the Area of each County and Unsettled District, and the Number of Inhabited Dwellings to the Square Mile in each, at the last Four Censuses.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.Area in Square Miles.Inhabited Dwellings to a Square Mile.
1857.1861.1871.1881.
Total87,8841.1001.4701.7141.935
Counties.
Anglesey1,6470.0620.2000.7750.804
Bourke1,72115.35820.17826.02233.135
Dalhousie1,3101.5973.4194.2403.191
Dundas2,0280.1760.2700.6040.699
Evelyn1,1720.4670.7371.1131.301
Follett1,1030.0960.1140.1910.382
Grant1,8347.8477.8417.9187.010
Grenville1,4653.2275.4728.8345.942
Hampden1,5610.2360.3570.8950.854
Heytesbury9200.1060.2020.6130.898
Mornington1,6250.3220.5170.9111.471
Normanby2,0130.5910.7300.9401.068
Polwarth1,2250.2150.2960.5570.837
Ripon1,7590.9261.4591.6481.416
Talbot(1)1,40610.70212.97612.6499.779
Villiers1,6371.2591.5272.2192.195
Unsettled Districts.(1)
Gippsland14,5650.0490.0880.2780.444
The Loddon6,0842.9113.2302.8483.323
The Murray13,4760.4910.6120.7431.035
Rodney1,6990.2730.5361.0302.069
The Wimmera27,6340.0440.3260.1930.395
[1 See footnotes to Table VII. respecting county of Talbot and unsettled districts.]
PERSONS TO A DWELLING, 1857-1881., TABLE XIV.—Showing the Number of Persons to each Inhabited Dwelling at the last Four Censuses.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.Persons to an Inhabited Dwelling.(1)
1857.1861.1871.1881.
Total4.214.164.845.06
Counties.
Anglesey8.805.304.304.65
Bourke5.054.805.295.39
Dalhousie4.874.584.765.11
Dundas7.066.565.625.49
Evelyn4.764.194.604.74
Follett5.405.525.885.54
Grant4.424.635.085.15
Grenville3.923.764.715.07
Hampden5.255.855.135.44
Heytesbury5.805.215.425.66
Mornington5.085.204.994.80
Normanby5.085.465.685.41
Polwarth6.335.985.645.40
Ripon4.203.904.834.96
Talbot(2)3.223.594.244.49
Villiers5.435.565.795.77
Unsettled Districts.(2)
Gippsland5.454.994.514.79
The Loddon3.103.324.204.55
The Murray3.703.874.614.78
Rodney4.183.604.225.16
The Wimmera4.603.074.424.80
[1 Not including ships.] [2 See footnotes to Table VII. respecting county of Talbot and unsettled districts.]
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS, 1857-1881.—NUMBERS., TABLE XV.—Showing the number of Persons (exclusive of Chinese, Aborigines, and Migratory Population) living in Houses, and the Number living in Huts, Tents, and Camping out, in each County and Unsettled District, at the period of the last Four Censuses.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.Population (exclusive of Chinese, Aborigines, and Migratory Persons).
1857.1861.1871.1881.
Living in Houses.Living in Huts, Tents, and Camping out.Total.Living in Houses.Living in Huts, Tents, and Camping out.Total.Living in Houses.Living in Huts, Tents, and Camping out.Total.Living in Houses.Living in Huts, Tents, and Camping out.Total.
Total260,144115,522375,666372,602136,038508,640663,53245,757709,289811,33134,318845,649
Counties.
Anglesey801978981,1305851,7154,2261,1905,4165,5145796,093
Bourke127,8755,311133,186158,3107,860166,170233,6422,166235,808305,434841306,275
Dalhousie7,9682,10510,07313,7166,69220,40822,7003,50226,20220,30193121,232
Dundas2,0821172,1992,9286173,5456,2385876,8257,4602777,737
Evelyn1,9046892,5932,3691,1453,5144,7269965,7226,4295787,007
Follett50195105351616961,0831441,2272,1941342,328
Grant44,77814,71259,49055,0968,40663,50270,8141,74272,55664,85961265,471
Grenville6,6299,51716,14620,4637,86228,32556,8202,51559,33542,55749243,049
Hampden1,7481161,8642,4447533,1976,6325257,1576,9532697,222
Heytesbury495555507751909652,8131662,9794,5151584,673
Mornington2,2863632,6492,9401,4234,3636,4359417,37610,85859911,457
Normanby5,6562535,9097,1687767,9449,96867710,64510,97054611,516
Polwarth1,4382031,6411,9332232,1563,5982193,8175,3701485,518
Ripon1,9853,4005,3855,1253,7678,89212,3951,07913,47411,24266711,909
Talbot(1)12,02930,32242,35131,82624,99856,82467,3594,20571,56457,6861,68459,370
Villiers9,88983810,72712,5531,30513,85819,7591,20220,96120,28934120,630
Unsettled Districts.(1)
Gippsland3,2653333,5984,2691,9456,21413,6303,63417,26426,6533,69930,352
The Loddon13,00337,09050,09325,15734,50159,65862,1737,73469,90785,1325,12090,252
The Murray11,6217,76919,39015,86011,39627,25636,0945,97142,06555,2638,93664,199
Rodney1,0297351,7641,4431,6063,0495,3591,8087,16716,3231,67617,999
The Wimmera3,1621,4884,6506,56219,82726,38917,0684,75421,82245,3296,03151,360
[1 See footnotes to Table VII. respecting county of Talbot and unsettled districts.]
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS, 1857-1881.—PROPORTIONS PER CENT., TABLE XVI.—Showing the Proportion per Cent. of Persons (exclusive of Chinese, Aborigines, and Migratory Population) living in Houses, and the Proportion living in Huts, Tents, and Camping out, in each County and Unsettled District, at the period of the last Four Censuses.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.Proportion per Cent.of the Population (exclusive of Chinese, Aborigines, and Migratory Persons).
Living in Houses.Living in Huts and Tents and Camping out.
1857.1861.1871.1881.1857.1861.1871.1881.
Total69.2573.2593.5595.9430.7526.756.454.06
Counties.
Anglesey89.2065.8978.0390.5010.8034.1121.979.50
Bourke96.0195.2799.0899.733.994.730.920.27
Dalhousie79.1067.2186.6395.6220.9032.7913.374.38
Dundas94.6882.5991.4096.425.3217.428.603.58
Evelyn73.4367.4182.5991.7526.5732.5917.418.25
Follett98.2476.8788.2694.241.7623.1311.745.76
Grant75.2786.7697.6099.0724.7313.242.400.93
Grenville41.0672.2595.7698.8658.9427.754.241.14
Hampden93.7876.4592.6696.286.2223.557.343.72
Heytesbury90.0080.3194.4396.6210.0019.695.573.38
Mornington86.2967.3887.2494.7713.7132.6212.765.23
Normanby95.7290.2393.6495.264.289.776.364.74
Polwarth87.6389.6594.2697.3212.3710.355.742.68
Ripon36.8657.6691.9994.4063.1442.408.015.60
Talbot(1)28.4055.9994.1297.1671.6044.085.882.84
Villiers92.2090.5894.2798.357.809.425.731.65
Unsettled Districts.(1)
Gippsland90.7468.7078.9587.819.2631.3021.0512.19
The Loddon25.9642.1788.9494.3374.0457.8311.065.67
The Murray59.9358.1985.8186.0840.0741.8114.1913.92
Rodney58.3447.3374.7790.6941.6652.6725.239.31
The Wimmera68.0024.8778.2188.2632.0075.1321.7911.74
[1 See footnotes to Table VII. respecting county of Talbot and unsettled districts.]
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS, 1861-1881.—NUMBERS., TABLE XVII.—Showing the Number of Persons (exclusive of Chinese, Aborigines, and Migratory Population) living in Houses, the Number living in Huts, the Number living in Tents, the Number living in Habitations of which the character was not stated, and the Number Camping out, in each County and Unsettled District, at the last Three Censuses.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.Population (exclusive of Chinese, Aborigines, and Migratory Persons).
1861.1871.1881.
Living in Houses of Brick, Wood, &c.Living in Huts.Living in Tents.Living in Habitations of which the character was not stated.Camping out.Total.Living in Houses of Brick, Wood, &c.Living in Huts.Living in Tents.Living in Habitations of which the character was not stated.Camping out.Total.Living in Houses of Brick, Wood, &c.Living in Huts.Living in Tents.Living in Habitations of which the character was not stated.Camping out.Total.
Total364,81732,614100,8497,7852,575508,640656,71636,3667,5126,8161,879709,289797,88028,7364,50713,4511,075845,649
Counties.
Anglesey1,10430719426841,7154,17797114149785,4165,31748168197306,093
Bourke156,3112,0895,5121,999259166,170231,5621,3347272,080105235,808301,2223464004,21295306,275
Dalhousie13,4271,4285,04728921720,40822,4332,4789552676926,20219,842797774595721,232
Dundas2,84424536284103,5456,15940215279336,8257,27215095188327,737
Evelyn2,31156355958233,5144,57091266156185,7226,3385382791137,007
Follett535102596961,037127164611,2272,0571032313782,328
Grant54,0312,5075,7061,06519363,50270,1401,3113336749872,55663,859500861,0002665,471
Grenville20,1512,2905,5513122128,32556,4342,0363913868859,33542,224403723331743,049
Hampden2,40627943538393,1976,484216272148377,1576,8762222377247,222
Heytesbury775949159652,785130282882,9794,451784964314,673
Mornington2,84398043097134,3636,284815112151147,37610,6223622242361311,457
Normanby6,981441266187697,9449,8185041111506210,64510,546412864244811,516
Polwarth1,898132833582,1563,5491733649103,8175,2379925133245,518
Ripon5,0017182,960124898,89212,2817522641146313,47411,0805111121624411,909
Talbot(1)30,8883,75620,96493827856,82466,4923,28871186720671,56456,5811,5231221,1053959,370
Villiers12,3104797982432813,85819,5146864292458720,96120,0691261772203820,630
Unsettled Districts.(1)
Gippsland4,1509009341191116,21413,4863,19033414411017,26426,1103,1644405439530,352
The Loddon24,2496,49327,70190830759,65861,7956,2041,36437816669,90784,0844,5105151,0489590,252
The Murray1,4325,7825,1741144027,25635,6095,31026048540142,06553,4488,2495671,81512064,199
Rodney15,2118756316491003,0495,3081,57218951477,16716,0101,4301863136017,999
The Wimmera5,9592,15417,39260328126,38916,7993,95562126917821,82244,6354,93293369416651,360
[1 See footnotes to Table VII. respecting county of Talbot and unsettled districts.]
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS, 1861-1881.—PROPORTIONS PER CENT., TABLE XVIII.—Showing the Proportion per Cent. of persons (exclusive of Chinese, Aborigines, and Migratory Population) living in Houses, the Proportion living in Huts, the Proportion living in Tents, the Proportion living in Habitations of which the character was not stated, and the Proportion Camping out, in each County and Unsettled District, at the last Three Censuses.
Counties and Unsettled Districts.Proportion per Cent. of Population (exclusive of Chinese, Aborigines, and Migratory Persons).
Living in Houses of Brick, Wood, &c.Living in Huts.Living in Tents.Living in Habitations of which the character was not stated.Camping out.
1861.1871.1881.1861.1871.1881.1861.1871.1881.1861.1871.1881.1861.1871.1881.
Total71.7392.5994.356.415.133.4019.831.060.531.530.961.590.500.260.13
Counties.
Anglesey64.3777.1287.2717.9017.937.8911.312.601.121.520.913.234.901.440.49
Bourke94.0798.2098.351.260.570.113.320.310.131.200.881.380.150.040.03
Dalhousie65.7985.6293.467.009.463.7524.733.640.361.421.022.161.060.260.27
Dundas80.2390.2493.996.915.891.9410.212.231.232.371.162.430.280.480.41
Evelyn65.7679.8790.4516.0215.947.6815.921.150.381.652.731.300.650.310.19
Follett76.8884.5288.3614.6510.354.428.471.300.993.755.890.080.34
Grant85.0996.6797.543.951.810.768.980.460.131.680.931.530.300.130.04
Grenville71.1495.1198.088.093.430.9419.600.660.171.100.650.770.070.150.04
Hampden75.2690.5995.218.733.020.3013.603.803.091.192.071.071.220.520.33
Heytesbury80.3193.4995.259.744.361.679.430.941.050.941.370.520.270.66
Mornington65.1685.1992.7122.4611.053.169.861.521.962.222.052.060.300.190.11
Normanby87.8892.2391.585.554.743.583.351.040.742.351.413.680.870.580.42
Polwarth88.0492.9894.916.124.531.793.850.940.451.621.292.410.370.260.44
Ripon56.2491.1593.048.085.584.2933.291.960.941.390.841.361.000.470.37
Talbot(1)54.3792.9195.306.614.592.5736.891.000.201.651.211.860.480.290.07
Villiers88.8493.1097.283.453.270.615.752.050.861.751.171.070.200.410.18
Unsettled Districts.(1)
Gippsland66.7978.1286.0214.4818.4810.4315.031.931.451.910.831.791.790.640.31
The Loddon40.6588.4093.1610.888.875.0046.430.950.571.520.541.160.520.240.11
The Murray55.8184.6583.2521.2112.6312.8518.980.620.882.381.152.831.620.950.19
Rodney46.9774.0688.9528.7021.937.9520.692.641.030.360.711.743.280.660.33
The Wimmera22.5876.9886.918.1618.129.6065.912.851.822.291.231.351.060.820.32
[1 See footnotes to Table VII. respecting county of Talbot and unsettled districts.]
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS, 1871-1881.—SUMMARY BY COUNTIES., TABLE XIX.—Showing the Area in Square Miles of each County at the last Two Censuses ; also the Population and Inhabited Dwellings in each, the Proportion of Females to Males, the Average Number of Persons to the Square Mile and to the Inhabited Dwelling, and the Average Number of Inhabited Dwellings to the Square Mile.
Counties.Area in Square Miles.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.Number of Females to 100 Males.Number of Persons to the Square Mile.Number of Persons to the Inhabited Dwelling.Number of Inhabited Dwellings to the Square Mile.
1871.1881.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Total (exclusive of persons in ships)87,884729,276398,853330,423860,500450,353410,147150,618170,08682.8491.078.309.794.845.061.711.94
Anglesey1,6475,4923,3892,1036,1563,4822,6741,2761,32462.0576.793.333.744.304.650.770.80
Benambra2,7491,2288623663,7112,2641,44722188942.4663.910.451.355.564.170.080.32
Bendigo1,94946,10926,05920,05056,65329,51527,13810,20311,79076.9491.9523.6629.074.524.815.236.05
Bogong3,06925,79715,32510,47222,99712,82310,1745,5704,88368.3379.348.417.494.634.711.811.59
Borung4,28211,1406,4484,69227,15714,89012,2672,4495,61372.7782.382.606.344.554.840.571.31
Bourke1,721236,778120,147116,631307,582151,634155,94844,78457,02697.07102.84137.58178.725.295.3926.0233.13
Buln Buln3,7394,1162,4681,64811,4566,5254,9318922,36466.7775.571.103.064.614.850.240.63
Croajingolong3,3963722571154953031928711144.7563.370.110.154.284.460.030.03
Dalhousie1,31026,47114,73711,73421,37511,29510,0805,5554,18079.6289.2420.2016.324.775.114.243.19
Dargo1,7442,2221,6305922,8791,8431,03661372436.3256.211.271.653.623.980.350.42
Delatite3,24011,9037,4954,40814,5118,1766,3352,5573,03458.8177.483.674.484.664.780.790.94
Dundas2,0286,8883,7273,1617,7904,1293,6611,2251,41884.8188.673.403.845.625.490.600.70
Evelyn1,1725,9973,5172,4807,2274,0103,2171,3041,52570.5180.225.126.174.604.741.111.30
Follett1,1031,2406835572,3361,2451,09121142281.5587.631.122.125.885.540.190.38
Gladstone1,80216,68810,2396,44919,99511,5078,4884,7595,10962.9873.769.2611.103.513.912.642.84
Grant1,83473,82838,29335,53566,17333,38132,79214,52112,85692.8098.2440.2536.085.085.157.927.01
Grenville1,46560,91732,86528,05244,15922,77421,38512,9428,70585.3593.9041.5830.144.715.078.835.94
Gunbower1,3486144122027,6204,2863,334921,58649.0377.790.465.656.674.800.071.18
Hampden1,5617,1724,0483,1247,2533,9973,2561,3971,33377.1781.464.594.655.135.440.890.85
Heytesbury9203,0591,6431,4164,6762,4882,18856482686.1887.943.335.085.425.660.610.90
Kara Kara2,3019,6116,0823,52916,5159,3107,2052,4713,57458.0277.394.187.183.894.621.071.55
Karkarooc5,933349261881349539453833.7241.050.060.027.763.530.080.01
Lowan4,9711,8831,1547296,7083,9332,7752601,30963.1770.560.381.357.245.120.050.26
Millewa3,572109634616710265173173.0263.720.030.056.415.390.01
Moira3,1043,3522,1041,24822,77213,1659,6075694,46859.3272.971.087.345.895.100.181.44
Mornington1,6257,3974,1403,25711,4676,3695,0981,4812,39078.6780.044.557.064.994.800.911.47
Normanby2,01310,7505,6005,15011,6245,9075,7171,8932,14991.9696.785.345.775.685.410.941.07
Polwarth1,2253,8372,1021,7355,5302,8932,6376801,02582.5491.153.124.515.645.400.560.84
Ripon1,75914,0108,2045,80612,3416,7795,5622,8992,49070.7782.057.967.024.834.961.651.42
Rodney1,6997,3904,4752,91518,15910,0238,1361,7503,51665.1481.174.3510.694.225.161.032.07
Talbot1,62184,76249,06735,69567,96336,92631,03720,04415,15472.7584.0552.2841.934.234.4812.379.35
Tambo1,9584862961908114963158115264.1963.500.250.416.005.710.040.07
Tanjil2,81811,0016,3364,66515,2798,2537,0262,3503,09273.6385.133.905.424.684.940.831.10
Tatchera3,3415633881753,2821,9431,3399768345.1068.910.170.985.804.800.030.20
Villiers1,63721,03111,4229,60920,75110,7869,9653,6333,59484.1392.3912.8512.685.795.772.222.20
Weeah4,0044410.0014.000.002
Wonnangatta2,2243,9722,5081,4642,8411,6221,2191,12670258.3776.711.791.283.534.050.510.32
Migratory population7424073351,9511,18077165.34
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS IN CITIES, TOWNS, AND BOROUGHS, 1871-1881., TABLE XX.—Showing, according to the Reutns of the Censuses of 1871 and 1881, the Population and Dwellings in such Cities, Towns, and Boroughs as were in existence at the foremr period ; also the Increase or Decrease of Population and Dwellings in each plae between those periods., (c) signifies City, and (t) Town ; all the rest are Boroughs.
Cities, Towns, and Boroughs.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.Increase or Decrease of Population.Increase or Decrease of Inhabited Dwellings.
1871.1881.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.1871.1881.Persons.Males.Females.
Total374,150190,425183,725441,559217,077224,48275,65885,34467,40926,65240,7579,686
Ararat2,3701,2721,0982,7401,4171,32344248237014522540
Ballarat(c)24,30812,22412,08422,41111,01911,3924,8884,154-1,897-1,205-692-734
Ballarat East(t)16,3978,5377,86014,8497,4527,3973,6543,039-1,548-1,085-463-615
*Beechworth2,8661,5161,3502,3991,2151,184569484-467-301-166-85
Belfast2,4851,2111,2741,757858899410315-728-353-375-95
Brighton3,0591,4411,6184,7552,1832,5725598221,696742954263
Browns and Scarsdale2,1211,1749471,085570515467242-1,036-604-432-225
† Brunswick4,3882,2662,1226,5983,3503,2488941,2722,2101,0841,126378
Buninyong1,9811,0219601,416715701411293-565-306-259-118
Carisbrook9415523891,089631458211237148796926
Castlemaine6,9353,7093,2265,7872,9612,8261,5701,300-1,148-748-400-270
Chewton2,3871,3821,0051,688911777673462-699-471-228-211
*Chiltern1,2126175951,24362162229426131427-33
Clunes6,0683,1802,8885,8112,8942,9171,2611,086-257-28629-175
Collingwood(c)18,5989,0069,59223,82911,38112,4484,0134,9185,2312,3752,856905
Creswick3,9692,4441,5253,7312,0121,719980830-238-432194-150
Daylesford4,6962,6082,0883,8922,0241,8681,082847-804-584-220-235
Dunolly1,5538666871,502825677406393-51-41-10-13
Eaglehawk6,5903,5693,0217,3623,7233,6391,4311,50177215461870
Echuca1,6498707794,7892,3082,4813479873,1401,4381,702640
†Emerald Hill(t)17,1018,4478,65424,52512,05512,4703,2174,7067,4243,6083,8161,489
Essendon and Flemington2,4561,2311,2255,0612,5232,5384499032,6051,2921,313454
†Fitzroy(c)15,5477,5577,99022,74210,91311,8293,0204,3547,1953,3563,8391,334
Footscray2,4731,3341,1395,9933,0682,9254901,1353,5201,7341,786645
†Geelong(t)15,0267,0128,01414,5666,8057,7612,8632,834-460-207-253-29
*Graytown1,422854568161956651158-1,261-759-502-453
*Guildford1,156687469765405360289177-391-282-109-112
Hamilton2,3491,1821,1672,9671,4671,500424543618285333119
Hawthorn3,3291,5871,7426,0192,7303,2896011,0452,6901,1431,547444
Heathcote1,5548407141,203624579368271-351-216-135-97
Hotham(t)13,4916,7836,70817,8398,9098,9302,5683,3204,3482,1262,222752
Inglewood1,1896185711,2006405602562901122-1134
*Jamieson3892201693281801488963-61-40-21-26
Kew2,4301,2841,1464,2882,0722,2164395771,8587881,070138
*Kilmore1,5557757801,092530562302220-463-245-218-82
Koroit1,6729137591,644883761291269-28-302-22
Majorca1,734982752994546448488255-740-436-304-233
Malmsbury1,3576766811,329683646272250-287-35-22
Maryborough2,9351,6541,2813,2971,7431,5546667513628927385
Melbourne(c)54,99328,13726,85665,85933,10232,75710,04311,38510,8664,9655,9011,342
Newtown and Chilwell4,7492,1902,5594,6422,1072,535891899-107-83-248
Portland2,3721,1101,2622,2651,0621,203439458-107-48-5919
Prahran(c)14,0966,6797,41721,1689,54211,6262,7564,1397,0722,8634,2091,383
Queenscliff9544634911,2165606561702112629716541
Raywood52830322542623219412491-102-71-31-33
Richmond (t)(1)16,8898,3838,50623,40511,37912,0263,4114,7496,5162,9963,5201,338
Rutherglen61632928748423924512498-132-90-42-26
Sale2,1051,0321,0733,0731,5591,514422589968527441167
Sandhurst(c)21,98711,86710,12028,15314,09314,0604,7345,8486,1662,2263,9401,114
Sandridge6,3883,3013,0878,7714,4724,2991,3541,7822,3831,1711,212428
Sebastopol6,4963,4033,0932,4981,2831,2151,437485-3,998-2,120-1,878-952
Smythesdale1,003568435685344341220163-318-224-94-57
*South Barwon1,68486382145421623830196-1,230-647-583-205
St. Arnaud1,1015825192,6291,4011,2282485631,528819709315
Stawell5,1662,7812,3857,3483,6103,7381,1201,4772,1828291,353357
*Steiglitz1,05857248627515312224973-783-419-364-176
†St. Kilda9,0853,9715,11413,3445,7527,5921,5642,2454,2591,7812,478681
Talbot2,8781,5771,3012,3181,2601,058675576-560-317-243-99
Tarnagulla1,359730629886476410325222-473-254-219-103
Wangaratta1,4697966731,331627704284276-138-16931-8
Warrnambool3,7991,9631,8364,8392,3832,4566578491,040420620192
Williamstown7,1263,5193,6079,0344,4144,6201,3951,7731,9088951,013378
*Woodend1,4527646881,148580568265220-304-184-120-45
Wood's Point1,059579480562290272275131-497-289-208-144
[* These places had ceased to be boroughs in 1881, but the population and dwellings enumerated within the old borough boundaries have been inserted for the purpose of comparison. The population and dwellings within the present boundaries are given in the next table.] [† In these places the boundaries have been altered since 1871, but the population and dwellings enumerated within the old limits are given for the purpose of comparison. The population and dwellings within the present boundaries are given in the next table.] [1 Richmond is now a city, but was a town when the Census was taken.]

NOTE.—Where the minus sign (-) is prefixed, a decrease has taken place between the periods. In other cases the figures denote increase.

POPULATION AND DWELLINGS IN CITIES, TOWNS, AND BOROUGHS, 1881., TABLE XXI.—Showing the Area in Acres of each City, Town, and Borough ; the Population ; the Inhabited Dwellings, and Number of Rooms in each ; the Proportion of Females to Males ; the Average Number of Persons to the Acre, to the Inhabited Dwelling, and to a Room ; and the Average Number of Inhabited Dwellings to the Acre., (c) signifies City, (t) Town ; all the rest are Boroughs.
Cities, Towns, and Boroughs.Area in Acres.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.Total Number of Rooms.Number of Females to 100 Males.Persons to the Acre.Persons to the Inhabited Dwelling.Persons to a Room.Dwellings to the Acre.
Persons.Males.Females.
Total218,816434,467213,624220,84383,954414,806103.381.995.181.050.38
Ararat3,8402,7401,4171,3234822,85793.370.715.680.960.13
Ballarat(c)4,09022,41111,01911,3924,15422,707103.395.485.390.991.02
Ballarat East(t)4,33114,8497,4527,3973,03914,31299.263.434.891.040.70
Belfast5,9021,7578588993152,002104.780.305.580.880.05
Brighton3,2884,7552,1832,5728225,159117.821.455.780.920.25
Browns and Scarsdale5,7601,0855705152421,13990.350.194.480.950.04
Brunswick2,7226,2223,1333,0891,2005,38798.602.295.191.160.45
Buninyong3,4241,4167157012931,47098.040.414.830.960.09
Carisbrook5,3951,08963145823790372.580.204.591.210.04
Castlemaine5,7605,7872,9612,8261,3005,59795.441.004.451.030.23
Chewton5,7601,6889117774621,69285.290.293.650.990.08
Clunes5,7605,8112,8942,9171,0865,670100.791.015.351.020.19
Collingwood(c)1,13923,82911,38112,4484,91819,688109.3820.924.851.214.32
Creswick4,7603,7312,0121,7198303,71785.440.784.501.000.17
Daylesford4,0623,8922,0241,8688474,15292.290.964.600.940.21
Dunolly5,7601,5028256773931,73382.060.263.820.870.07
Eaglehawk3,6407,3623,7233,6391,5016,58197.742.104.901.120.41
Echuca4,3084,7892,3082,4819875,140107.501.114.850.930.23
Emerald Hill(t)2,31125,37412,43812,9364,83921,689104.0010.985.241.172.09
Essendon and Flemington5,0885,0612,5232,5389034,612100.590.995.601.100.18
Fitzroy(c)92323,11811,13011,9884,42621,724107.7125.055.221.064.80
Footscray4,5255,9933,0682,9251,1354,89295.341.325.281.230.25
Geelong(t)3,0129,7214,5615,1601,80211,086113.133.235.390.880.60
Geelong West8594,8452,2442,6011,0325,354115.915.644.690.901.20
Hamilton5,1002,9671,4671,5005432,951102.250.545.461.010.11
Hawthorn2,3896,0192,7303,2891,0456,500120.482.525.760.930.44
Heathcote3,5941,2036245792711,22592.790.334.440.980.08
Hotham(t)56517,8398,9098,9303,32013,269100.2431.575.371.345.88
Inglewood2,5601,2006405602901,13687.500.474.141.060.11
Kew3,5334,2882,0722,2165773,775106.951.217.431.140.16
Koroit5,5991,6448837612691,22386.180.296.111.340.05
Majorca5,00599454644825598482.050.203.901.010.05
Malmsbury4,2141,3296836462501,22994.580.325.321.080.06
Maryborough5,7603,2971,7431,5547513,46989.210.574.390.950.13
Melbourne(c)5,02065,85933,10232,75711,38560,35798.9613.125.781.092.27
Newtown and Chilwell1,4224,6422,1072,5358995,144120.313.275.160.900.63
Portland2,8602,2651,0621,2034582,900113.280.794.950.780.16
Prahran(c)2,32021,1689,54211,6264,13923,688121.849.125.110.891.78
Queenscliff2,1731,2165606562111,426117.140.565.760.850.10
Raywood5,7604262321949136883.620.074.681.160.02
Richmond (t)(1)1,43023,40511,37912,0264,74921,511105.6916.374.971.093.32
Rutherglen1,28048423924598517102.510.384.940.940.08
Sale5,4423,0731,5591,5145893,06597.110.565.221.000.11
Sandhurst(c)7,90028,15314,09314,0605,84827,17099.773.564.811.040.74
Sandridge2,3668,7714,4724,2991,7827,40596.133.714.921.180.75
Sebastopol1,8802,4981,2831,2154852,27594.701.335.151.100.26
Smythesdale1,44068534434116387199.130.484.200.790.11
St. Arnaud6,3552,6291,4011,2285632,43587.650.414.671.080.09
Stawell5,9967,3483,6103,7381,4777,167103.551.234.971.030.25
St. Kilda1,88611,6545,0166,6381,98313,937132.346.185.880.841.05
Talbot5,5782,3181,2601,0585762,33783.970.424.020.990.10
Tarnagulla5,13388647641022297286.130.173.990.910.04
Walhalla5,1201,6148957193911,44480.340.324.131.120.08
Wangaratta3,9321,3316277042761,553112.280.344.820.860.07
Warrnambool3,4504,8392,3832,4568494,542103.061.415.701.070.25
Williamstown2,7759,0344,4144,6201,7738,141104.673.265.101.110.64
Wood's Point2,56056229027213155793.790.224.291.010.05
[1 Richmond is now a city. It was proclaimed as such on the 14th February 1881.]
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS IN SHIRES, 1881., TABLE XXII.—Showing the Area in Square Miles of each Shire ; the Population ; Inhabited Dwellings, and Number of Rooms in each ; the Proportion of Females to Males ; the Average Number of Persons to the Square Mile, to the Inhabited Dwelling, and to a Room ; and the Average Number of Inhabited Dwellings to the Square Mile.
Shires.Area in Square Miles.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.Total Number of Rooms.Number of Females to 100 Males.Persons to the Square Miles.Persons to the Inhabited Dwelling.Persons to a Room.Dwellings to the Square Miles.
Persons.Males.Females.
Total81,839420,061233,047187,01485,079347,13680.255.134.941.211.04
Alberton1,7372,9071,6371,2705992,69577.581.674.851.080.34
Alexandra7242,5301,3881,1425202,12282.283.494.871.190.72
Ararat1,4615,2142,9282,2861,1584,40978.073.574.501.180.79
Avoca4375,4503,1752,2751,4814,83771.6512.473.681.133.39
Avon3181,7389148242981,56390.155.475.831.110.94
Bacchus Marsh1822,2431,2161,0273991,74484.4612.325.621.292.19
Bairnsdale3,3215,5443,2082,3361,1634,38872.821.674.771.260.35
Ballan3657,3904,0723,3181,5886,60581.4820.254.651.124.35
Ballarat1824,5312,4802,0517563,94282.7024.905.991.154.15
Bannockburn1392,1081,0791,0293591,90795.3715.175.871.112.58
Barrabool1912,3271,2291,0984162,06689.3412.185.591.132.18
Beechworth3037,9564,4193,5371,7627,32380.0426.264.521.095.82
Belfast2003,0551,6181,4374861,99288.8115.286.291.532.43
Bellarine1244,0982,1361,9627893,83091.8533.055.191.076.36
Benalla1,1816,2493,4332,8161,1904,62682.035.295.251.351.01
Berwick3973,4772,0541,4237752,95369.288.764.491.181.95
Bet Bet3454,7252,7881,9371,2713,75769.4813.703.721.263.68
Boroondara121,5257577682701,474101.45127.085.651.0322.50
Braybrook891,1075935142251,07186.6812.444.921.032.53
Bright8334,8472,8861,9611,1724,39067.955.824.141.101.41
Broadford2231,5379695683541,24358.626.894.341.241.59
Broadmeadows691,7519208312951,73690.3325.385.941.014.28
Bulla1051,9789889902431,357100.2018.848.141.462.31
Bulleen331,5628437193241,30085.2947.334.821.209.82
Buln Buln6823,8292,2651,5648072,94469.055.614.751.301.18
Bungaree894,9812,7452,2369073,92081.4655.975.491.2710.19
Buninyong3049,5355,1634,3721,9258,08384.6831.374.951.186.33
Caulfield92,4881,1281,3603972,830120.57276.446.270.8844.11
Chiltern891,9761,0129644211,77295.2622.204.691.124.73
Coburg72,6591,6341,0253691,86762.73379.867.211.4252.71
Colac1,0905,1752,7142,4619694,88090.684.755.351.060.89
Corio2372,3001,1751,1254072,17295.749.705.651.061.72
Cranbourne2281,4207596612671,25487.096.235.321.131.17
Creswick2026,6473,7632,8841,2885,38876.6432.905.161.236.38
Dandenong581,4147326822661,37593.1724.385.321.034.59
Darebin791,3046896152131,11989.2616.506.121.172.70
Dundas1,3643,2501,7701,4806012,71283.622.385.411.200.44
Dunmunkle5394,3492,4631,8868213,41976.578.075.301.271.52
East Loddon4551,7019817203181,27573.393.745.351.330.70
Echuca1,4588,9175,0333,8841,6797,04777.176.125.311.271.15
Eltham2082,3441,2751,0695142,08583.8411.274.561.122.47
Euroa8874,8902,7192,1719493,49179.855.515.151.401.07
Flinders and Kangerong1761,7279537743451,93181.229.815.010.891.96
Gisborne1002,6171,4221,1955212,47184.0326.175.021.065.21
Glenelg1,2644,2192,2351,9847563,09788.773.345.581.360.60
Glenlyon1272,6311,4361,1955512,23883.2220.724.771.184.34
Goulburn3482,4951,4121,0834391,78576.707.175.681.401.26
Grenville3106,0263,4942,5321,4315,34572.4719.444.211.134.62
Hampden1,7386,4873,5802,9071,2315,42881.203.735.271.200.71
Heidelberg412,7751,5241,2513701,88482.0967.687.501.479.02
Howqua8421,2707295413131,23174.211.514.061.030.37
Huntly3213,7642,0261,7387282,90685.7911.735.171.302.27
Jika152,9941,5381,4565272,92194.67199.605.681.0235.13
Keilor5368938030912372881.3213.005.600.952.32
Kilmore862,4421,2291,2134792,28298.7028.405.101.075.57
Korong1,1137,7514,4793,2721,9465,97273.056.963.981.301.75
Kowree1,4482,2771,3069714321,67474.351.585.271.360.30
Kyneton2738,7254,4954,2301,6037,77594.1131.965.441.125.87
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS IN SHIRES, 1881., TABLE XXII.—Showing the Area in Square Miles of each Shire ; the Population ; Inhabited Dwellings, and Number of Rooms in each ; the Proportion of Females to Males ; the Average Number of Persons to the Square Mile, to the Inhabited Dwelling, and to a Room ; and the Average Number of Inhabited Dwellings to the Square Mile—continued.
Shires.Area in Square Miles.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.Total Number of Rooms.Number of Females to 100 Males.Persons to the Square Mile.Persons to the Inhabited Dwelling.Persons to a Rooms.Dwellings to the Square Mile.
Persons.Males.Females.
Leigh3791,9051,0318743791,81284.775.035.031.051.00
Lexton2972,1311,2019304711,82277.447.184.521.171.59
Lilydale2232,5431,4211,1224812,15078.9611.405.291.182.16
Lowan9,4003,9272,3531,5748132,51366.890.424.831.560.09
Maffra1,0643,2421,7371,5056132,73386.643.055.291.190.58
Maldon2155,1162,7832,3331,1164,84383.8323.804.581.065.19
Malvern61,7979218762991,87295.11299.506.010.9649.83
Mansfield8642,6581,5131,1455602,23775.683.084.751.190.65
Marong5668,7464,8463,9001,9287,25680.4815.454.541.213.41
Melton1041,0385544842041,03287.369.985.091.001.96
Meredith1691,5308247063131,44085.689.054.891.061.85
Merriang1231,2536805732311,17884.2610.195.421.061.88
Metcalfe2043,7251,9871,7387753,29287.4718.264.811.133.80
Minhamite5421,8029878153211,43582.583.325.611.250.59
Moorabbin313,7331,9941,7396993,31987.21120.425.341.1222.55
Mornington1072,0531,0211,0374092,034101.5719.235.031.013.82
Mortlake9152,8631,5821,2814992,52780.973.135.741.130.55
Mount Alexander524,5212,5271,9941,2424,34678.9186.943.641.0423.88
Mount Franklin1183,4002,0391,3618642,92466.7428.813.951.167.32
Mount Rouse5372,1461,1391,0074221,95888.414.005.091.100.79
Melvor5703,4241,9091,5157992,72379.366.004.291.261.40
Narracan8902,1841,3058795221,78567.362.454.181.220.59
Newham1052,8591,5151,3445312,47388.7127.235.381.165.06
Newstead1052,6741,4711,2035822,39981.7825.474.591.115.54
North Ovens2342,1261,1909364121,74478.669.095.161.221.76
Nunawading231,5738627113041,32482.4868.395.171.1913.22
Oakleigh291,6979057923271,52687.5158.525.191.1111.28
Omeo1,6741,6301,0595713971,36153.920.974.111.200.24
Oxley9672,9831,6801,3035782,36277.563.085.161.260.60
Phillip Island & Woolamai3661,4448086362941,31878.713.944.911.090.88
Portland1,6075,4982,8252,6739904,36094.623.425.551.260.62
Pyalong2161,12260252020788786.385.195.421.260.95
Ripon5875,2922,8982,3941,1694,65282.6190.154.521.141.99
Romsey911,9131,1267873811,58769.8921.025.021.204.19
Rosedale8103,1131,6361,4775722,70990.283.845.441.150.71
Rutherglen2122,3891,3671,0224431,67674.7611.275.391.422.09
St. Arnaud3,60212,8167,3055,5112,5838,92275.443.564.961.440.72
Seymour3352,8041,5761,2285782,26077.928.374.851.241.73
Shepparton7646,5743,9442,6301,3464,05266.688.604.881.621.76
South Barwon531,9519849673661,77798.2736.815.331.096.90
Springfield11388144343815067798.877.795.871.301.33
Stawell1,0014,0602,3881,6729953,50470.014.064.081.160.99
Strathfieldsaye2294,0352,2461,7899043,00179.6517.624.461.343.95
Swan Hill11,0789,1165,3183,7981,9386,96171.420.824.701.310.18
Talbot1832,7501,4971,2536312,20483.7015.034.361.253.45
Towong2,5453,3102,0301,2808082,70363.051.304.101.220.32
Traralgon4411,742968774611,40179.973.954.821.240.82
Tullaroop2195,0422,8962,1461,2344,37074.1023.024.081.155.63
Wannon7532,6701,4461,2244852,21384.653.555.501.200.64
Waranga1,0769,9935,7194,2741,8846,81674.739.295.301.471.75
Warrnambool6109,0644,7634,3011,5366,74690.3014.865.901.342.52
Whittlesea1381,8599678923601,95492.2513.475.160.962.60
Wimmera1,8198,2314,5863,6451,5595,93279.484.535.281.390.86
Winchelsea6092,7081,4181,2904712,40990.974.455.751.120.77
Wodonga971,5688327362991,26688.4616.165.241.243.08
Wyndham3021,4567806762641,27286.674.825.511.130.87
Yackandandah8364,2052,4041,8018943,49174.925.024.701.201.07
Yarrawonga8306,1693,6262,5431,2413,92470.137.434.971.571.50
Yea5931,0856254602391,04173.601.834.541.040.40
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS ON THE GOLD-FIELDS, 1871 AND 1881., TABLE XXIII.—Showing the Population and Dwellings on the Gold-fields in each Mining District at the Censuses of 1871 and 1881 ; also the Increase or Decrease of Population and Dwellings between the Periods ; the Proportion of Females to Males ; and the Average Number of Persons to the Inhabited Dwelling.
Mining Districts.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.Decrease of Population.*Decrease of Dwellings.Number of Females to 100 Males.Number of Persons to a Dwelling.
1871.1881.
Persons.Males.Females.Persons.Males.Females.1871.1881.Persons.Males.Females.1871.1881.1871.1881.
Total270,428155,269115,159230,944123,344107,60064,86750,58039,48431,9257,55914,28774.1787.244.174.57
Ararat19,54611,5468,00015,5388,1607,3784,7543,3204,0083,3866221,43469.2990.424.114.68
Ballarat94,61851,32943,28976,09239,19136,90120,65814,89518,52612,1386,3885,76384.3494.164.585.11
Beechworth27,06116,77310,28827,27015,41811,8526,5656,0692091,3551,56449661.3476.874.124.49
Castlemaine38,38522,09316,29230,00616,23013,7769,7097,1408,3795,8632,5162,56973.7484.883.954.20
Gippsland5,5574,0331,5244,4102,7431,6671,6571,1491,1471,29014350837.7960.773.353.84
Maryborough35,89221,51914,37332,03818,13213,9069,7868,2363,8543,3874671,55066.7976.793.673.89
Sandhurst49,36927,97621,39345,59023,47022,12011,7389,7713,7794,5067271,96776.4794.254.214.67
[* The plus sign (+) indicates increase. In all other cases a decrease occurred.]
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS IN MELBOURNE AND SUBURBS (GREATER MELBOURNE)., TABLE XXIV.—Showing for Greater Melbourne, and each of its subdivisions, the Area ; the Population, distinguishing Chinese and Aborigines ; the Number of Houses and of Rooms ; the Proportions of the Sexes ; the Persons to the Acre, to a Dwelling, and to a Room ; the Rooms to a Dwelling ; and the Dwellings to the Acre.
Subdivisions.Area in Acres.Total Population (including Chinese and Aborigines).Chinese.Aborigines.Number of Dwellings.Number of Rooms.Females to 100 Males.Persons to the Acre.Persons to an Inhabited Dwelling.Persons to a Room.Rooms to a Dwelling.Inhabited Dwellings to the Acre.
Persons.Males.Females.Males.Females.Males.Females.Inhabited.Uninhabited.Building.
Total163,942282,947139,006143,9411,044585452,1311,669392260,354103.551.725.401.084.800.32
Melbourne City5,02065,85933,10232,7575893211,3853585260,35798.9613.125.781.095.122.27
Hotham Town56517,8398,9098,9301123,320621513,269100.2431.575.371.343.915.88
Fitzroy City92323,11811,13011,9885764,4261305621,724107.7125.055.221.064.714.80
Collingwood City1,13923,82911,38112,4482914,9181402719,688109.3820.924.851.213.874.32
Richmond City1,43023,40511,37912,02614534,7491612321,511105.6916.374.931.094.363.32
Brunswick Borough2,7226,2223,1333,0892671,20042175,38798.602.295.191.164.280.45
Prahran City2,32021,1689,54211,6261124,1391626923,688121.849.125.110.895.421.78
Emerald Hill Town2,31125,37412,43812,936174,8391206021,689104.0010.985.241.174.322.09
Sandridge Borough2,3668,7714,4724,2991,78245177,40596.133.704.921.184.020.75
St. Kilda Borough1,88611,6545,0166,638111,9831101713,937132.346.185.880.846.611.05
Brighton Borough3,2884,7552,1832,5721282239125,159117.821.455.780.925.910.25
Essendon and Flemington Borough5,0885,0612,5232,53871903854,612100.590.995.601.205.030.18
Hawthorn Borough2,3896,0192,7303,28981,0452286,500120.482.525.750.936.050.44
Kew Borough3,5334,2882,0722,2164035771833,775106.951.217.431.146.310.16
Footscray Borough4,5255,9933,0682,92551,135364,89295.341.325.281.234.180.25
Williamstown Borough2,7759,0344,4144,62071,7733938,141104.673.265.101.114.490.64
Remainder of District121,66219,08010,1118,96971813,135177818,62088.750.166.091.025.610.03
Shipping, &c.1,4781,4037585.35
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS IN CITIES, TOWNS, BOROUGHS, TOWNSHIPS, ETC., TABLE XXV.—Showing respecting each City, Town, Borough, and Township in the Colony, the Pursuits with which connected, the County and Shire in which situated, the Stream or River on which built, the Number of Dwellings, and the Number of Inhabitants., (c) signifies City, (t) Town, and (b) Borough.
City, Town, Borough, or Township.Where Situated.Pursuits connected with—Inhabited Dwellings.Population.
County.Shire.On what Stream or River, &c.Persons.Males.Females.
Aberfeldy and goldworkingsTanjilNarracanAberfeldyMining5118711770
Adelaide Lead and adjacent gold workingsTalbotTullaroopTimor creekMining159583356227
AlbertonBuln BulnAlbertonAlbertCommerce371739380
AlexandraAngleseyAlexandraGoulburnMining95501260241
Allan and Staghorn Flats goldworkingsBogongYackandandahMining54283134149
AllandaleTalbotCreswickMining181399247
AllansfordHeytesbury and VilliersWarrnamboolHopkinsAgriculture60296137159
Alma and adjacent goldworkingsTalbotTullaroopTimor creekMining162673384289
AlphingtonBourkeHeidelbergYarra YarraSuburb of Melbourne3819110388
Amherst (seeTalbot)
Amphitheatre and goldworkingsKara KaraLextonAvocaMining79244141103
ApsleyLowanKowreeGrazing12814140
Ararat(b)RiponHopkinsMining4722,7401,4171,323
ArmstrongsBorungStarollMining126354211143
AscotBendigoHuntlyMining261155560
AvenelMoira, Anglesey, and DelatiteSeymour and GoulburnHughes's creekAgriculture68346173173
AvocaGladstone, Kara KaraAvocaAvocaMining192904454450
AxedaleBendigoStrathfieldsayeCampaspeAgriculture4120811593
Bacchus MarshBourkeBacchus MarshWerribeeAgriculture125674374300
BailliestonRodneyWarangaWaranga creekMining4716510659
BairnsdaleTanjilBairnsdaleMitchellAgriculture and commerce162854430424
BallanGrant & BourkeBallanWerribeeAgriculture112586297289
Ballarat (c)(1)GrenvilleYarroweeMining and manufacturing4,15122,41111,01911,392
Ballarat East (t)(1)Grant & GrenvilleYarroweeMining and manufacturing3,03314,8497,4527,397
BalmoralDundasWannonGlenelgGrazing271618081
BanyenaBorungDunmunkleAgriculture13713734
BaringhupTalbotMaldonLoddonAgriculture5442519
BarklyKara KaraAvocaHeifer Station creekMining6319912475
BarksteadGrantBungareeAgriculture191115853
BarnawarthaBogongChiltern and YackandandahIndigo creekAgriculture291466977
Barry's Reef goldworkingsBourkeBallanMining148714352362
BatesfordGrantCorio and Bannock burnMooraboolSuburb of Geelong301809684
BeaconsfieldMorningtonBerwickCardinia creekTimber cutting9624022
BealibaGladstoneBet BetCochrane's creekMining94482254228
BeaufortRiponRiponYam-holes creekMining2051,006529477
BeaumarisBourkeMoorabbinMarket gardening45244121123
BeeacGrenvilleColacLake BeeacAgriculture301517576
BeechworthBogongBeechworthSpring creekMining4822,3991,2151,184
Belfast(b)VilliersMoyneCommerce3141,757858899
BelmontGrantSouth BarwonBarwonSuburb of Geelong75428211217
Belvoir (seeWodonga)
BenallaDelatite, MoiraBenallaBrokenAgriculture3181,654856798
BendocCroajingolongBendocMining14553124
BerwickMorningtonBerwickCardinia creekAgriculture74392204188
Bet BetTalbot and GladstoneBet Bet and TullaroopBet Bet creekAgriculture48243131112
BethangaBenambraTowongMurrayGrazing125558277281
BeveridgeBourkeMerriangAgriculture15603525
BirregurraPolwarthWinchelseaBarwonAgriculture56297151146
BismarckBorungStawellRichardsonMining6311318
BlackwoodBourkeBallanLerderdergMining59242138104
BlackevilleBourkeBallanKorweinguboora creekTimber cutting391979998
BoortTatchera and GladstoneSwan HillLake BoortAgriculture5224414599
BowenvaleTalbotTullaroopMining132626329297
BranxholmeNormanbyPortlandGrazing56323172151
BraybrookBourkeBraybrookSaltwaterSuburb of Melbourne341538172
BriagolongTanjilMaffraAgriculture & grazing16874641
BridgewaterGladstone and BendigoKorong and MarongLoddonAgriculture96514272242
BrightDelatite and BogongBrightOvensMining76423201222
Brighton(b)BourkePort Phillip BaySuburb of Melbourne8214,7552,1832,572
[1 The population of Ballarat, Ballarat East, Sebastopol, and their immediate suburbs (Greater Ballarat) was 41,087, viz., 20,491 males and 20,596 females.]
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS IN CITIES, TOWNS, BOROUGHS, TOWNSHIPS, ETC., TABLE XXV.—Showing respecting each City, Town, Borough, and Township in the Colony, &c.—continued.
City, Town, Borough, or Township.Where Situated.Pursuits connected with—Inhabited Dwellings.Population.
County.Shire.On what Stream or River, &c.Persons.Males.Females.
BroadfordDalhousieBroadfordSunday creekAgriculture & mining301578374
BroadmeadowsBourkeBroadmeadowsMoonee Pondsek.Agriculture55309153156
Browns & Scarsdale(b)GrenvilleSmythe's creekMining2421,085570515
Brunswick(b)BourkePottery and brickmaking1,2006,2223,1333,089
Bruthen (seeTambo)
BuangorRiponAraratFiery creekAgriculture16834538
BuchanTamboBairnsdaleBuchanGrazing and mining11845133
BullaBourkeBullaSaltwaterAgriculture51297151146
Buln BulnBuln BulnBuln BulnBrandy creekAgriculture3320414064
BuneepMorningtonBerwickBunyipAgriculture & grazing12613823
Bung BongTalbot and GladstoneLexton & TalbotBet Bet creekMining19834043
BungulukeTatcheraSt. ArnaudAgriculture271408159
Buninyong(b)GrantMining2931,416715701
Buninyong East (seeYendon)
Burnt CreekGladstoneBet BetBet Bet & Burnt creeksMining5721012189
BurrereoBerungDunmunkleAgriculture517107
BushfieldVilliersWarrnamboolAgriculture231054362
Bushy CreekEvelynLilydaleBushy creekMining13422022
CamberwellBourkeBoroondaraSuburb of Melbourne39210102108
Cambrian HillGrenvilleBuninyongMining53275140135
CampbelltownTalbotCreswickJoyce's creekAgriculture10492425
CamperdownHampdenHampdenAgriculture & grazing2181,243641602
Cape ClearGrenvillGrenvilleMining331517180
CaramutVilliersWarrnamboolBurchett'screekGrazing321718388
CarapooceKara KaraSt. ArnaudCarapooee creekAgriculture13472819
Carisbrook(b)TalbotDeep creekMining and agriculture2321,089631458
CarlsruheDalhousieKynetonCampaspeAgriculture251306862
CarnghamGrenvilleRiponBaillie's creekMining133611313298
CashelMoiraBenallaAgriculture171075849
CastertonFollett & DundasGlenelgGlenelgGrazing151812393419
Castle Donnington (seeSwan Hill)
Castlemaine (b)(1)TalbotBarker's creekMining1,2795,7872,9612,826
CavendishDundasDundasWannonGrazing35223119104
CeresGrantBarraboolAgriculture58289161128
CharltonGladstoneKorongAvocaAgriculture111605331274
ChatsworthVilliersMount RouseHopkinsGrazing9401822
CheltenhamBourkeMoorabbinMarket gardening62314167147
ChetwyndDundasGlenelgChetwyndGrazing291597683
Chewton (b)(1)TalbotForest creekMining4611,688911777
ChilternBogongChilternBlack Dog creekMining2611,243621622
Chilwell (seeNewtown)
ChuteRiponRiponTrewalla creekMining251165957
ClarendonGrantBuninyongAgriculture371638479
Clunes(b)TalbotTullaroop creekMining1,0835,8112,8942,917
ClydebankTanjilAvonAvonCommerce231448460
CobdenHeytesburyHampdenCurdie'sAgriculture80447232215
Coburg (outside Penal Establishment)BourkeCoburgMerri Merri ck.Suburb of Melbourne2971,630787843
Coburg (Penal Establishment)BourkeCoburgMerri Merri ck.174068654
ColacPolwarthColacLake ColacAgriculture3231,687819868
ColeraineDundasWannonKoonong Wootong creekGrazing115667319348
Collingwood(c)BourkeYarra YarraSuburb of Melbourne4,91523,82911,38112,448
CorindhapGrenvilleLeighKurucaruc creekMining74345190155
CoropRodneyWarangaLake CooperAgriculture53338190148
CosterfieldDalhousieMelvorDeegay creekMining107542298244
CowesMorningtonPhillip Island & WoolamaiWestern PortAgriculture & marine19873948
CowwarrTanjilRosedaleCowwarr creekMining211156253
Craigie (seeMajorca)
CranbourneMorningtonCranbourneAgriculture291306268
CressyGrenvilleLeigh and ColacWoady YallockGrazing16813744
Creswick(b)TalbotCreswick's creekMining and agriculture8193,7312,0121,719
CrowlandsKara KaraAvocaWimmeraAgriculture8452817
Crusoe Gully and adjacent goldworkingsBendigoMarongMining381367264
CunninghameTamboReeve's creekFishing village5241212
DandenongBourkeDandenongDandenong creekAgriculture92494244250
Dargo FlatDargoBairnsdaleDargoAgriculture3823113299
Darley (seeBacchus Marsh)
DarlingfordWonnangattaMansfieldGoulburnAgriculture and mining10442024
DarlingtonHampdenHampdenMount Emu ck.Grazing13834637
DartmoorFollettPortlandGlenelgGrazing261266561
Daylesford(b)TalbotWombat creekAgriculture and mining8433,8922,0241,868
DenningtonVilliersWarrnamboolMerriAgriculture34222113109
DerbyBendigoMarongLoddonAgriculture281468165
[1 The population of Castlemaine, Chewton, and their immediate suburbs (Greater Castlemaine) was 8,600, viz., 4,489 males and 4,111 females.]
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS IN CITIES, TOWNS, BOROUGHS, TOWNSHIPS, ETC., TABLE XXV.—Showing respecting each City, Town, Borough, and Township in the Colony, &c.—continued.
City, Town, Borough, or Township.Where Situated.Pursuits connected with—Inhabited Dwellings.Population.
County.Shire.On what Stream or River, &c.Persons.Males.Females.
DereelGrenvilleLeighMining211065749
DerrinallumHampdenHampdenGrazing11693039
DevenishMoiraBenallaBroken creekAgriculture9562729
Diamond CreekEvelynElthamDiamond creekAgriculture291346371
DigbyNormanbyPortlandStokesAgriculture4021192119
DimboolaBorungLowanWimmeraGrazing221034954
DonaldKara Kara and BorungSt. ArnaudAvonGrazing105601324277
DookieMoiraBenallaAgriculture5301812
DoonAngleseyMansfieldMerton creekAgriculture and mining251196851
DromanaMorningtonFlinders and KangerongPort Phillip BayTimber cutting231246064
DrouinBuln BulnBuln BulnAgriculture77418241177
DrysdaleGrantBellarineAgriculture63328170158
DunachTalbotTalbotMining471709773
DunkeldVilliersMount RouseWannonGrazing48279142137
Dunolly(b)GladstoneBurnt creekMining3791,502825677
DurhamGrantBuninyongYarroweeMining63336168168
Eaglehawk(b)BendigoMining1,4977,3623,7233,639
Echuca(b)Rodney and GunbowerMurrayAgriculture9844,7892,3082,481
EddingtonTalbotTullaroopLoddonAgriculture3618610284
EdenhopeLowanKowreeLake WallaceGrazing191115754
Egerton and goldworkingsGrantBallanMining3681,651911740
El DoradoBegongBeechworth and North OvensReedy creekMining and agriculture108517242275
ElaineGrantBuninyongMining94427217210
EllerslieHampdenMortlakeHopkinsGrazing201388850
ElmhurstKara KaraAraratWimmeraAgriculture and mining241187246
ElmoreBendigoHuntlyCampaspeAgriculture111612312300
ElphinstoneTalbotMetcalfeColibanAgriculture18974750
ElthamEvelynElthamYarra YarraGrazing80388205183
EmeraldEvelynMenzies creekMining23985939
Emerald Hill(t)BourkeSuburb of Melbourne4,82725,37412,43812,936
EppingBourkeDarebinDarebin creekAgriculture72418219199
EpsomBendigoHuntlyBendigo creekAgriculture, mining, & pottery manufacture351679176
Essendon and Flemington(b)BourkeMoonee Ponds creekSuburb of Melbourne8955,0612,5232,538
EuroaDelatite and MoiraEuroaSeven creeksAgriculture64321173148
EvansfordTalbotLextonStony creekMining16723636
FernshawEvelynWattsTimber cutting18915833
Fitzroy(c)BourkeSuburb of Melbourne4,42123,11811,13011,988
Flemington (seeEssendon)
FlindersMorningtonFlinders and KangerongWestern PortAgriculture & grazing9452322
Footscray(b)BourkeSaltwaterSuburb of Melbourne1,1325,9933,0682,925
FosterBuln BulnAlbertonStockyard creekMining67277142135
FramlinghamVilliersWarrnanfooolHopkinsGrazing17703139
FranklinfordTalbotMount FranklinJim Crow creekAgriculture and mining9441925
FrankstonMorningtonMorningtonPort Phillip BayWatering place291738093
Freeburgh and adjacent goldworkingsDelatiteBrightOvensMining6926921455
FryerstownTalbotMount AlexanderFryer's creekMining124542285257
FyansfordGrantCorio and BannockburnMooraboolSuburb of Geelong151065155
GapBourkeMeltonKororoit creekAgriculture191004852
GarvocHampdenWarrnamboolMount Emu creekAgriculture231528369
Geelong (t)(1)GrantBarwon river and Corio BayCommerce1,7839,7214,5615,160
Geelong West (b)(1)GrantCorio BaySubrub of Geelong1,0324,8452,2442,601
GermantownGrantSouth BarwonAgriculture71375200175
Gipsy VillageBourkeMoorabbinSuburb of Melbourne341838697
GisborneBourkeGisborneJackson's creekAgriculture39220113107
Gisborne, NewBourkeGisborneAgriculture62306164142
GlenlogieKara Kara and GladstoneLextonAvocaMining391138528
GlenluceTalbotMount AlexanderLoddonMining and agriculture19764432
GlenlyonTalbotGlenlyonLoddonAgriculture55304146158
GlenorchyBorungStawellWimmeraGrazing221286761
GlenrowanMoiraBenallaGrazing & agriculture311377760
GoburAngleseyAlexandraGodfrey's creekMining13643034
GoldsboroughGladstoneBet BetBurnt creekMining174835466369
GoornongBendigoHuntlyAgriculture16724032
GordonsGrantBuninyong and BallanMooraboolMining182984528456
GowerTalbotMaldonAgriculture and mining431598178
GowervilleBourkeJikaGrazing51276147129
GrantDargoMining20895336
GraytownDalhousieMcIvorSpring creekMining551619566
[1 The population of Geelong, Geelong West, Newtown and Chilwell, and their immediate suburbs (Greater Geelong) was 20681, viz., 9,651 males and 11,031 females.]
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS IN CITIES, TOWNS, BOROUGHS, TOWNSHIPS, ETC., TABLE XXV.—Showing respecting each City, Town, Borough, and Township in the Colony, &c.—continued.
City, Town, Borough, or Township.Where Situated.Pursuits connected with—Inhabited Dwellings.Population.
County.Shire.On what Stream or River, &c.Persons.Males.Females.
Great WesternBorungStawellConcongella ck.Mining and agriculture87436244192
GreendaleBourkeBallanDale's creekAgriculture & grazing22874443
GreensboroughBourkeHeidelbergPlentyAgriculture421889197
GuildfordTalbotMount AlexanderLoddonAgriculture and mining177765405360
HaddonGrenvilleGrenvilleSmythe's creekAgriculture and mining82428231197
Hamilton(b)Dundas and NormanbyGrangeburn ck.Agriculture and commerce5392,9671,4671,500
Happy Valley & adjacent goldworkingsGrenvilleGrenvilleMining138563296267
HarcourtTalbotMetcalfeBarker's creekAgriculture & grazing341839093
HarrietvilleBogongBrightOvensMining16804139
HarrowLowanKowreeGlenelgGrazing47237135102
HastingsMorningtonMorningtonWestern PortFishing51279149130
HavelockTalbotTullaroopAgriculture7626516897
HawkesdaleVilliersMinhamiteTea Tree creekGrazing3121912198
Hawthorn(b)BourkeYarra YarraSuburb of Melbourne1,0456,0192,7303,289
HealesvilleEvelynWattsAgriculture49207101106
Heathcote(b)DalhousieMelvor creekAgriculture and mining2661,203624579
HeidelbergBourkeHeidelbergYarra YarraSuburb of Melbourne102457209248
HepburnTalbotMount FranklinAgriculture and mining341216655
HexhamVilliersMortlakeHopkinsGrazing241417269
HeyfieldTanjilMaffraThomsonAgriculture & grazing49231121110
HeywoodNormanbyPortlandFitzroyAgriculture & grazing281536588
HightonGrantSouth BarwonBarwonAgriculture57244110134
HillsboroughBogongYackandandahMining251317556
HochkirchNormanbyDundasAgriculture40215111104
HomebushGladstoneAvocaMining120457271186
HorshamBorungWimmeraWimmeraAgriculture & grazing2981,644900744
Hotham(t)BourkeSuburb of Melbourne3,31617,8398,9098,930
HuntlyBendigoHuntlyBendigo creekMining127670350320
Inglewood(b)GladstoneMining2661,200640560
Inglewood, OldGladstoneKorongMining55270146124
InverleighGrenville and GrantBannockburnBarwonAgriculture & grazing75364175189
IrrewillipePolwarthColacGrazing9613229
JamiesonWonnangattaHowquaGoulburnMining63328180148
Jericho and adjacent goldworkingsTanjilJordanMining130381267114
Kangaroo FlatBendigoMarong and StrathfieldsayeBendigocreekMining2471,109565544
KeilorBourkeKeilorSaltwaterAgriculture & grazing41237119118
KensingtonGrantBellarineAgriculture73362180182
KerangGunbowerSwan HillLoddonAgriculture & grazing76387219168
Kew(b)BourkeYarra YarraSuburb of Melbourne5654,2882,0722,216
KewellBorungSt. ArnaudYarriamblackck.Grazing & agriculture94488262226
KiewaBogongYackandandahKiewaAgriculture & grazing321608872
KilmoreDalhousieKilmoreAgriculture2161,092530562
KingowerGladstoneKorongKingower creekMining73285157128
KingstonTalbotCreswickAgriculture and mining64335182153
KioraRiponAraratAgriculture6412120
Koroit(b)VilliersAgriculture2681,644883761
KynetonDalhousieKynetonCampaspeAgriculture5783,0621,4841,578
Lake RowanMoiraYarrawongaBack creekAgriculture16995346
Lal LalGrantBuninyongMining and grazing53281165116
LamploughGladstoneAvocaRutherford's ck.Mining and grazing34955738
LancefieldBourkeRomseySaltwaterAgriculture70393212181
Landsborough and goldworkingsKara KaraAvocaHeifer creekMining94391206185
Lara(seeLittle River)
LauravilleWonnangattaHowquaGaffney's creekMining4517810375
LauristonDalhousieKynetonCampaspeAgriculture and mining37215110105
LawloitLowanLowanGrazing4322210
LayardGrantBarraboolThompson's ck.Agriculture161024458
LethbridgeGrantBannockburnMooraboolAgriculture & grazing221205763
LextonTalbotLextonBurnbank creekAgriculture & grazing201416972
LilydaleEvelynLilydaleOlinda creekAgriculture61363194169
LindenowTanjilBairnsdaleMitchellGrazing181438360
LindsayFollettPortlandGrazing11653926
LintonsGrenvilleGrenvilleSpringdallah ck.Mining206923505418
LismoreHampdenHampdenCarringweet ck.Grazing15944747
Little RiverGrantWyndhamGrazing & agriculture251457372
Livingstone Creek goldworkingsBogongOmeoLivingstone ck.Mining961279334
Llanelly (seeMaidentown)
LockwoodBendigoMarongBullock creekAgriculture and mining83402208194
LongfordBuln BulnRosedaleLatrobeGrazing8552530
LongwoodDelatite, MoiraEuroaNine-mile creekAgriculture & grazing4220811098
LornePolwarthWinchelseaLoutit BayWatering place191498465
Lower BucklandDelatiteBrightBucklandMining213775515260
LubeckBorungDunmunkleAgriculture13663828
POPULATION AND DWELLINGS IN CITIES, TOWNS, BOROUGHS, TOWNSHIPS, ETC., TABLE XXV.—Showing respecting each City, Town, Borough, and Township in the Colony, &c.—continued.
City, Town, Borough, or Township.Where Situated.Pursuits connected with—Inhabited Dwellings.Population.
County.Shire.On what Stream or River, &c.Persons.Males.Females.
LucknowDargoBairnsdaleMitchellAgriculture57296162134
MacarthurNormanbyMinhamiteEumarellaGrazing65307156151
MacedonBourkeGisborneAgriculture123596331265
MaddingleyGrantBacchus MarshWerribeeAgriculture18864244
MaffraTanjilMaffraMacallisterAgriculture & grazing92489233256
MaidentownGladstoneBet BetAgriculture and mining401789583
MaidstoneBourkeBraybrookSuburb of Melbourne381698881
Majorca(b)TalbotMount Greenock creekAgriculture and mining253994546448
MaldonTalbotMaldonMuckleford ck.Agriculture and mining6502,8091,4911,318
Malmsbury(b)Dalhousie and TalbotColibanAgriculture and mining2501,329683646